Systemic therapy for brain metastases.

Systemic therapy for brain metastases. Handb Clin Neurol. 2018;149:137-153 Authors: Venur VA, Karivedu V, Ahluwalia MS Abstract Central nervous system metastases cause grave morbidity in patients with advanced malignancies. Lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma are the three most common causes of brain metastases. Although the exact incidence of brain metastases is unclear, there appears to be an increasing incidence which has been attributed to longer survival, better control of systemic disease, and better imaging modalities. Until recently surgical resection of solitary or symptomatic brain metastases, and radiation therapy (either whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiation) were the mainstay of treatment for patients with brain metastases. The majority of traditional chemotherapies have shown limited activity in the central nervous system, which has been attributed to the blood-brain barrier and the molecular structure of the used agents. The discovery of driver mutations and drugs targeting these mutations has changed the treatment landscape. Several of these targeted small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors do cross the blood-brain barrier and/or have shown activity in the central nervous system. Another major advance in the care of brain metastases has been the advent of new immunotherapeutic agents, for which initial studies have shown intracranial activity. In this chapter, we will review the unique challenges in the treatment o...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Handb Clin Neurol Source Type: research

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AbstractPurposeEvaluation of postoperative fractionated local 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DRT) of the resection cavity in brain metastases.Patients and methodsBetween 2011 and 2016, 57  patients underwent resection of a single, previously untreated (37/57, 65%) or recurrent (20/57, 35%) brain metastasis (median maximal diameter 3.5 cm [1.1–6.5 cm]) followed by 3DRT. For definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV), the resection cavity was used and for the clinical target vo lume (CTV), margins of 1.0–1.5 cm were added. Median dose was 48.0 Gy (30.0–50.4 Gy) in 25 (10–28) fracti...
Source: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Contributors : Matthew P Salomon ; Diego M Marzese ; Dave S Hoon ; Javier I OrozcoSeries Type : Methylation profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensGenome-wide DNA methylation profiling of brain metastases from lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma samples. The Illumina Infinium 450K Human DNA methylation Beadchip was used to obtain DNA methylation profiles across approximately 450,000 methylation sites in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from brain metastases. Samples included 30 breast cancer brain metastases, 18 lung cancer brain metastases, 37 melanoma brain metastases, and 4 samples with brain metas...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Methylation profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewBrain metastasis is a common complication of advanced malignancies, especially, lung cancer, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Traditionally surgery, when indicated, and radiation therapy, either as whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery, constituted the major treatment options for brain metastases. Until recently, most of the systemic chemotherapy agents had limited activity for brain metastases. However, with the advent of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunotherapy agents, there has been renewed interest in using these agents in the manage...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
It ’s difficult to open a newspaper nowadays without seeing an article about artificial intelligence. These column-inches spark our imaginations with heady visions of possible futures and crease our brows with concern in equal measure. But one thing you cannot escape is that AI is here now and it’s only going to become more pervasive.While fear of an unknown technology is understandable, in many ways it does a disservice to the incredible impact that AI is already having on the world around us. In the healthcare space alone, it is offering ways to fundamentally rethink clinical practice, speeding up diagnosis, ...
Source: EyeForPharma - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
Conclusions: PET imaging with radiolabeled amino acids has been shown be effective for brain tumor imaging, providing high contrast between tumor and normal brain parenchyma. The synthetic leucine amino acid analogue, fluciclovine has been recently FDA approved for evaluation of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer. Recent studies have been published demonstrating the utility of fluciclovine for glioma evaluation. Our findings suggest that fluciclovine can similarly be used for evaluation of new or recurrent brain metastasis in patients who previously have undergone brain radiotherapy where MRI is often limited due to bac...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Preclinical Probes for Oncology Posters Source Type: research
Conclusion: The incidence of BM from lung and breast cancer was similar to that seen in the Western studies. However, BM from colorectal cancer and melanoma show a higher and lower incidence, respectively, in comparison with the Western literature.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial neoplastic disease in adults, with an incidence of 9 –17% among all brain tumors (Nayak et al., 2012). They are usually caused by lung cancer (either non-small cell (NSCLC) and small cell (SCLC) histologies), breast cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, with a raising incidence related to the improvements in diagnostic and treatment approaches (Berghoff et al., 2014). However, prognosis remains poor, with a median overall survival (OS) ranging from 3 to 27 months (Brastianos et al., 2013), rendering BM still an unmet medical need.
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial neoplastic disease in adults, with an incidence of 9-17% among all brain tumors (Nayak et al., 2012). They are usually caused by lung cancer (either non-small cell (NSCLC) and small cell (SCLC) histologies), breast cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, with a raising incidence related to the improvements in diagnostic and treatment approaches (Berghoff et al., 2014). However, prognosis remains poor, with a median overall survival (OS) ranging from 3 to 27 months (Brastianos et al., 2013), rendering BM still an unmet medical need.
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The results can be useful for economists to define the health priorities in each country, make the financial decisions in economics, and thus contribute to better health, economic growth, as well as effective spending of health expenditures. PMID: 29524371 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Central European Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Cent Eur J Public Health Source Type: research
Researchers from Arizona State University and National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have developed a remarkable new way of killing tumors. They’ve developed robot-like nanoscale devices that cling to ...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Nanomedicine Oncology Source Type: blogs
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