Pupillometric evaluation of the melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells in mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial optic neuropathies

Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017 Source:Mitochondrion Author(s): Shakoor Ba-Ali, Henrik Lund-Andersen In recent years, chromatic pupillometry is used in humans to evaluate the activity of melanopsin expressing intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Blue light is used to stimulate the ipRGCs and red light activates the rod/cone photoreceptors. The late re-dilation phase of pupillary light reflex is primarily driven by the ipRGCs. Optic neuropathies i.e. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), glaucoma, optic neuritis and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are among the diseases, which have been subject to pupillometric studies. The ipRGCs are differentially affected in these various optic neuropathies. In mitochondrial optic neuropathies, the ipRGCs are protected against degeneration, whereas in glaucoma, NAION, optic neuritis and IIH the ipRGCs are damaged. Here, we will review the results of pupillometric, histopathological and animal studies evaluating the ipRGCs in mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial optic neuropathies.
Source: Mitochondrion - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Related Links:

AbstractChronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is an underdiagnosed condition. Patients typically present with the symptoms of right heart failure. Diagnosis is usually done by radionuclide ventilation/perfusion (VQ) scan, high-quality multidetector computed tomography (CT) or pulmonary angiography at expert centers. Pulmonary endarterectomy remains the corner stone in management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is commonly used for the operation at most centers. In-hospital mortality ranges from 1.7 to 14.2%. Pulmonary hemorrhage, reperfusion lung injury, and rig...
Source: Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Philippe Gabriel Steg, MD, discusses a recent review of central retinal artery occlusion for cardiologists who may not be familiar with the condition.theheart.org on Medscape
Source: Medscape Ophthalmology Headlines - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Cardiology Viewpoint Source Type: news
SPRING HOUSE, PENNSYLVANIA, October 25, 2021 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson today announced data from two new analyses of STELARA® (ustekinumab) for the treatment of adults with moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).1,2 In a modelled analysisa focused on treatment sequencing using data from randomized controlled trials, network meta-analysis and literature, results showed patient time spent in clinical remission or response was highest when STELARA was used as a first-line advanced therapy for bio-naïve patients with moderately to...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
AIM: To elucidate the question of whether the ocular trauma score (OTS) and the zones of injury could be used as a predictive model of traumatic and post traumatic retinal detachment (RD) in patients with open globe injury (OGI). METHODS: A retrosp...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Condition:   Essential Hypertension Intervention:   Behavioral: Exercise Sponsor:   University of British Columbia Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
AbstractGeneral anesthesia is a reversible drug-induced state of altered arousal characterized by loss of responsiveness due to brainstem inactivation. Precise identification of the moment in which responsiveness is lost during the induction of general anesthesia is extremely important to provide information regarding an individual ’s anesthetic requirements and help intraoperative drug titration. To characterize the transition from responsiveness to unresponsiveness more objectively, we studied neurophysiologic-derived parameters of electromyographic records of electrically evoked blink reflex as a means of identify...
Source: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
AbstractMeasurement of pupillary characteristics, such as pupillary unrest in ambient light, and reflex dilation have been shown to be useful in a variety of clinical situations. Dedicated pupillometers typically capture images in the near-infrared to allow imaging in both light and darkness. However, because a subset of pupillary measurements can be acquired with levels of visible light suitable for conventional cameras, it is theoretically possible to capture data using general purpose cameras and computing devices such as those found on smartphones. Here we describe the development of a smartphone-based pupillometer and...
Source: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
We report here that BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) provokes mitochondrial fission and clearance in skeletal muscle via the PRKAA/AMPK-PINK1-PRKN/Parkin and PRKAA-DNM1L/DRP1-MFF pathways. Depleting Bdnf expression in myotubes reduced fatty acid-induced mitofission and mitophagy, which was associated with mitochondrial elongation and impaired lipid handling. Muscle-specific bdnf knockout (MBKO) mice displayed defective mitofission and mitophagy, and accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria in the muscle when they were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). These animals also have exacerbated body weight gain, increased ...
Source: Autophagy - Category: Cytology Authors: Source Type: research
Histol Histopathol. 2021 Oct 25:18384. doi: 10.14670/HH-18-384. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRetina remodeling is a consequence of many retinal degenerative diseases that are characterized by progressive photoreceptor death. Retina remodeling involves a series of complex pathological processes, consisting of photoreceptor degeneration and death, as well as retinal cell reprogramming and "rewiring". This rewiring alters retinal neural circuits that are centered on synaptic connections and lead to widespread death of retinal cells. Retinal remodeling, especially inner retinal remodeling, is the major factor that l...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - Category: Cytology Authors: Source Type: research
J Obstet Gynaecol. 2021 Oct 23:1-5. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2021.1969346. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent occurrence in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We studied the frequencies and characteristics of NAFLD in PCOS women. We compared various methods of detection of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. One hundred and forty women with PCOS and seventy controls, matched for age, were evaluated for the presence of NAFLD. Anthropometric variables, serum levels of aminotransferases, glucose, lipids and transient elastography were done. Thirty-six percent of the NAFLD patients had...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Biochemistry | Brain | Ganglions | Glaucoma | Hypertension | Mitochondrial Disease | Neurology | Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy | Study | Vitamin A