Aberrant Astrocytes as a Cause of Neurodegenerative Disease

Astrocytes are an important class of support cell in the brain, and one of the most common cell types in brain tissue. They carry out a wide range of tasks, most of which are absolutely essential to the functions performed by neurons. A few years ago, researchers suggested that senescent astrocytes may be responsible for a sizable portion of the progression of neurodegenerative conditions, a proposal expanded and further investigated since then, with a great deal more evidence gathered. Astrocyte behavior in the brain appears to change for the worse with age in a number of ways, not all of which may be connected to cellular senescence, and some of which might be preventable in the near term. The publicity materials here outline some of the most recent findings on this topic, in which the researchers propose that transformed astrocytes are producing some form of signal that results in the death of nearby neurons, and show that these astrocytes are present in neurodegenerative conditions where such cell death occurs: While most of us haven't heard of astrocytes, these cells are four times as plentiful in the human brain as nerve cells. Now, a team has found that astrocytes, which perform many indispensable functions in the brain, can take on a villainous character, destroying nerve cells and likely driving many neurodegenerative diseases. "We've learned astrocytes aren't always the good guys. An aberrant version of them turns up in suspicious abundance in all the ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

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Publication date: Available online 28 March 2020Source: Materials Today: ProceedingsAuthor(s): S. Godwin Barnabas, S. Valai Ganesh, V. Sivakumar, P. Muthukumar, A. Dhinesh Raja, K. Hariharan
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2020Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Akemi Hioka, Yoshiteru Tada, Keiko Kitazato, Naoki Akazawa, Yasushi Takagi, Shinji Nagahiro
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions. This study highlights the importance of conducting a detailed feasibility assessment before undertaking ITCs to illuminate when excessive between-trial heterogeneity would cause biased results. MAIC was performed for siponimod and IFN ß-1b in the absence of a head-to-head trial and was considered a more valid approach than a traditional ITC to examine comparative effectiveness. PMID: 32216597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
In this study, we review various types of AF, proposed mechanisms, and treatment strategies for athletes with AF.
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research
This study examines knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about brain donation for research among Latinos. Latino men (N=4) and Latina women (N=11) 18 years of age or older with a parental figure age 65 years and over were invited to participate in a focus group. RESULTS: Data analyses revealed 3 themes. Two themes focused on factors influencing a family's willingness to support brain donation: (a) social and cultural contexts, and (b) lack of knowledge and information about the brain donation process. The last theme provided recommendations for engaging older Latino adults in ADRD research and brain donation. DISCUSSI...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
Authors: Culhane JE, Chan KCG, Teylan MA, Chen YC, Mock C, Gauthreaux K, Kukull WA Abstract The proprietary neuropsychological tests (Form C1) of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Uniform Data Set were replaced with nonproprietary versions (Form C2) chosen to closely model their proprietary counterparts. Correlations between analogous test pairs as measured in previous work were good (0.68-0.78), but it is unclear whether the paired tests represent the same set of common factors of cognition or if important factors specific to C1 or C2 only exist. The authors performed multiple factor analysis to ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
DISCUSSION: Developing strategies to circumvent the development of maladaptive behaviors could significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in MCI patients. PMID: 32218064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
Action of low doses of Aspirin in Inflammation and Oxidative Stress induced by aβ1-42 on Astrocytes in primary culture. Int J Med Sci. 2020;17(6):834-843 Authors: Jorda A, Aldasoro M, Aldasoro C, Guerra-Ojeda S, Iradi A, Vila JM, Campos-Campos J, Valles SL Abstract Aspirin has been used as anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregate for decades but the precise mechanism(s) of action after the presence of the toxic peptide Aβ1-42 in cultured astrocytes remains poorly resolved. Here we use low-doses of aspirin (10-7 M) in astrocytes in primary culture in presence or absence of Aβ1-42 toxic peptid...
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Aspects This review summarizes available NTF expression data, compiles existing evidence on the effects of glial NTF signaling in healthy conditions and in disease models (Figure 1), and highlights the importance of this topic for future studies. The relationship between NTFs and glia is crucial for both the developing and adult brain. While some of these factors, such as NT-3 and CNTF, have highly potent effects on gliogenesis, others like BDNF and GDNF, are important for glia-mediated synapse formation. Neurotrophic factors play significant roles during neurodegenerative disorders. In many cases, ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents neurotoxic plasma components, blood cells, and pathogens from entering the brain. At the same time, the BBB regulates transport of molecules into and out of the central nervous system (CNS), which maintains tightly controlled chemical composition of the neuronal milieu that is required for proper neuronal functioning. In this review, we first examine molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the establishment of the BBB. Then, we focus on BBB transport physiology, endothelial and pericyte transporters, and perivascular and paravascular transport. Next, we discuss ...
Source: Physiological Reviews - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Physiol Rev Source Type: research
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