Study provides roadmap to more personalized cancer treatment

Milo Mitchell/UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer CenterUCLA ’s Dr. Joanne Weidhaas explains her latest research, which could lead to more personalized treatments for head and neck cancer. FINDINGSResearchers have found that people with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and the KRAS-variant inherited genetic mutation have significantly improved survival when given a short course of the drug cetuximab in combination with standard chemotherapy and radiation.The study was led by UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center member Dr. Joanne Weidhaas in collaboration with colleagues at the NRG Oncology RTOG. They discovered that people with both head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and the KRAS-variant who were treated with standard treatment, but not with cetuximab, had a higher risk of failing treatment and developing metastatic disease, meaning the cancer spreads to distant organs and is incurable.BACKGROUNDIn 2006, researchers discovered the KRAS-variant, an inherited genetic mutation found in up to 25 percent of people with cancer. The KRAS-variant is a biomarker that disrupts a class of important regulators, called microRNAs, which were discovered in 2000. The  mutation has been shown to predict response to cancer therapy for many cancers, including head and neck cancer. It was not previously understood exactly how this biomarker worked.The current standard of care for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma involves chemotherapy and radiation...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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ConclusionSPECT/CT-guided LDM is feasible and can be used to guide unilateral ENI in HNSCC patients in prospective studies. In addition, the anatomical confidence in visualization of contralateral drainage indicates a potential for ENI limited to draining levels alone.
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
ConclusionsCollectively, our results identify β-catenin/CBP interaction as a novel target for anti-HNSCC therapy and provide evidence that derivatives of ICG-001 with enhanced inhibitory activity may serve as an effective strategy to interfere with aggressive features of HNSCC.
Source: Genome Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study we show how genes are differentially expressed after liprin-α1 knockdown in different cell lines, grown in three dimensional matrix. The overall goal w as to gain insight into the mechanism by which liprin-α1 has an effect on the progression of head and neck carcinomas and breast carcinomas in three dimensional environment.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
In conclusion, these data provide evidence to suggest that DSPP may be involved in ER stress mechanisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma, since its downregulation in OSC2 cells led to significant alterations in the levels of major ER stress-associated proteins, and subsequent collapse of the UPR system. PMID: 30015841 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Int J Oncol Source Type: research
Early diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCs) is an appealing way to increase survival rates in these patients as well as to improve quality of life post-surgery. Angiogenesis is a hallmark...
Source: BMC Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
ConclusionsAberrant expression of E-cad may be a promising prognostic signature for HNSCC, especially when it is used with other prognostic markers.
Source: Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Cell lines are not representative of the clinical situation in HNSCC. Larger studies should investigate whether patient subgroups with activating EGFR mutations or overexpression can be identified. PMID: 29989001 [PubMed]
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
ConclusionIncreased travel distance to academic medical centers is associated with increased likelihood of proper therapy for surgically treated tumors of the head and neck. Impact on these findings on improvements in access to care is discussed.
Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Benjamin Solomon, Richard J. Young, Danny RischinAbstractHead and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the squamous epithelium of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx. While many HNSCCs are related to classical etiologic factors of smoking and alcohol, a clinically, genomically, and immunologically distinct subgroup of tumors arise from the epithelium of the tonsil and the base of tongue as a result of infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). In this revi...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Xu Qian, Xiaobo Nie, Wenhao Yao, Konrad Klinghammer, Holger Sudhoff, Andreas M. Kaufmann, Andreas E. AlbersAbstractOne of the greatest challenges in systemic treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a small tumor cell population, namely, cancer stem-like cells (CSC). CSC can regenerate and maintain a heterogenic tumor by their self-renewal capacity. Their potential ability to be more resistant to and survival after chemo- and radiation therapy was also identified. Further studies have shown that reactive oxygen ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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