Coping and Its Relation to PTSD in Greek Firefighters
Firefighters are exposed continuously to intense stress situations and traumatic incidents, and are at high risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Coping mechanisms and behaviors have been examined as factors contributing to PTSD. The strategies that may be used to cope with stress and/or trauma differ between individuals and also between different professions and traumatic events (Nydegger et al., 2011). Although there is a vast literature on stress and coping processes that exists, very few studies investigated the way individual firefighters cope with trauma. Among several questionnaires that have been...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Efficacy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: Randomized Trial and Substudy of Emphasizing Feeling Versus Defense Work
This research examined the efficacy of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) in the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and compared the therapeutic outcomes of ISTDP when feeling focus or defense work is emphasized. A three-group randomized design with 6-month follow-up was used. Forty-one subjects were selected among volunteer college students diagnosed with SAD. They were assigned randomly into three groups; 14 cases to feeling-focused ISTDP (FF-ISTDP) group, 14 cases to defense-focused ISTDP (DF-ISTDP) group, and 13 cases to a control group. All subjects were evaluated at pretest, posttest, and six-...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Primary Care Providers' Perspectives on Prescribing Antidepressant Medication to Latino Immigrant Patients: A Preliminary Study
Latinos in the United States are less likely to take antidepressants than non-Latino whites, and more likely to prefer depression treatment in primary care. This preliminary study comprised focus groups (2) with primary care providers (12) serving uninsured immigrant Latinos regarding their experiences prescribing and counseling patients about antidepressants. Barriers and challenges included health literacy, language barriers, and illiteracy; perceived stigma; patients' concerns about addiction, polypharmacy, and adverse effects; time constraints of office visits; and difficulty discussing comorbid posttraumatic stress di...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

An Exploratory Examination of Client Perspectives on a Positive Memory Technique for PTSD
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments primarily address traumatic memories, despite PTSD's association with both traumatic and positive memory difficulties. Addressing this gap, we explored the perspectives of trauma-exposed individuals with mental health treatment experience on therapeutically addressing positive memories. A treatment-seeking sample from a community mental health center (n1 = 60) and a community sample from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (n2 = 123) were queried on the acceptability, feasibility, and delivery/components of a pilot positive memory technique. Results indicated interest or willingness in ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Efficacy of a Short Psychoeducational Group Intervention for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Severe Mental Disorder: A Randomized Trial
Psychoeducational interventions to improve healthy habits regarding cardiovascular risk (CVR) in people with a severe mental disorder showed scarce results in the literature. In this article, we showed the results of a randomized clinical trial including 80 adult outpatients (mainly psychosis spectrum) with moderate to very high CVR. A short-term psychoeducational group intervention to improve healthy habits regarding CVR was added to their as-usual individual psychoeducational schedule. With an intention-to-treat analysis, we expected improvements in the different parameters. Baseline and 1-year follow-up included CVR fac...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

How Much Is Enough? Trauma Recall and the Exposure Therapy Process
This study examined whether the extent of difficulty recalling aspects of a traumatic event affected fear activation, habituation, number of sessions, session length, and diagnostic outcomes in 166 Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn veterans. Extent of trauma recall difficulty neither attenuated veterans' ability to achieve fear activation and habituation nor affected treatment outcomes. Findings suggest that even veterans who reported greater difficulty recalling their trauma event can engage successfully and benefit from EXP. This research is the first to examine trauma event reca...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Urinalysis-Assessed and Self-Reported Substance Use as Correlates of Multiple Indicators of Suicide Risk Among Acute Care Psychiatric Inpatients
This study examined the associations of a multimodal assessment of nonalcohol substance use and multiple indicators of suicide risk. Overall, 168 acute care psychiatric inpatients participated and provided data spanning urinalysis toxicology screen and self-report instruments. Substance use per urinalysis toxicology screen and self-report was not related to current suicidal ideation severity. However, substance use per urinalysis toxicology screen was significantly associated with a suicide attempt history and suicidality as a primary reason for admission. Substance use is an important variable to consider in suicide risk ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Exposure to Suicide in the Family: Suicidal Ideation and Unmet Interpersonal Needs in Young Adults Who Have Lost a Family Member by Suicide
The aims of the present study were to compare a sample of individuals exposed to suicide in their families with a control group, on suicidal ideation, and to test possible potentiating effects for unmet interpersonal needs. Three hundred eighty-six young Portuguese adults participated. Two groups were defined: a group exposed to suicide in the family (n = 38) and a control group (n = 335). Groups differed significantly on suicidal ideation, on depressive symptoms, and on perceived burdensomeness and tended to differ on thwarted belongingness. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that having...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Predictors of Outcome of Acute Partial Hospitalization: An Exploratory Study
To identify predictors of outcome of acute partial hospital (PH) treatment, patients admitted during a 15-month period were studied. Outcomes were change in the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale and readmission within 30 days. Predictors were clinical and demographic variables obtained on all patients. Most patients (92%) improved during acute PH treatment, only 5% were readmitted, and average changes were moderate to large. However, many patients still had significant symptoms and behavioral problems at discharge, 56.5% missed at least 1 day, and 16.5% dropped out. Less acute improvement was associated with greate...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Psychiatric Inpatients
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of heightened risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its clinical predictors in a heterogeneous diagnostic group of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Ninety-one consecutive psychiatric inpatients were administered the STOP-BANG and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) inventories. Medical and demographic information was gathered from inpatient clinical charts. Predictors of high OSA risk score were analyzed by a multivariate regression model. A total of 58.2% (53 patients) were determined to have a high risk for OSA. The predictors of high OSA risk were use of mood stabil...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dual Diagnosis and Application Problems in the Use of the Construct: A Review of Literature
Dual diagnosis (DD) commonly identifies a condition of co-occurrence of substance use disorders and psychological or psychiatric disorders. Many scholars have tried to explain this phenomenon, yet no agreement has been found: methodologies of intervention and treatment are numerous, but there is no uniformity of methodology. Our work aims to search critical aspects linked to this fragmented framework, to facilitate those who use the construct of DD. We have elaborated a literary review focused on specific critical contributions to the theoretical and methodological complexity of the construct. Scopus, PubMed, and Scholar w...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Confederates in the Attic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Cardiovascular Disease, and the Return of Soldier's Heart
Da Costa originally described Soldier's Heart in the 19th Century as a syndrome that occurred on the battlefield in soldiers of the American Civil War. Soldier's Heart involved symptoms similar to modern day posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity felt to be related to an abnormality of the heart. Interventions were appropriately focused on the cardiovascular system. With the advent of modern psychoanalysis, psychiatric symptoms became divorced from the body and were relegated to the unconscious. Later, the physiology of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was conceived as sol...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

2019 Reviewer Acknowledgment
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Annual Acknowledgment Source Type: research

Self-Rated Religiosity/Spirituality and Four Health Outcomes Among US South Asians: Findings From the Study on Stress, Spirituality, and Health
Almost no research exists on the relationship between religiosity/spirituality (R/S) and health in the US South Asian population. Using data from the joint Study on Stress, Spirituality, and Health and Mediators of Atherosclerosis Among South Asians Living in America Study (MASALA), this article examined associations between self-rated R/S and self-rated health, emotional functioning, trait anxiety, and trait anger in a community-based sample (n = 933) from the Chicago and San Francisco Bay areas. Ordinary least squares regression was used to analyze categorical differences in levels of R/S and ordinal trends for R/S, adju...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Pathological Narcissism and Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Among Psychiatric Outpatients: The Mediating Role of Impaired Emotional Processing
Research is scarce regarding the mechanisms by which pathological narcissism––consisting of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability––is linked with depression. The present study examined whether impaired emotional processing would mediate relations between pathological narcissism domains and depressive symptoms in a sample of 99 psychiatric outpatients. A significant indirect effect was found for narcissistic vulnerability on depressive symptoms, through unprocessed emotion as a mediator. Findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability contributes to persistent and intrusive negative feelings, w...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Efficacy of Binaural Beat Meditation Technology for Treating Anxiety Symptoms: A Pilot Study
The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of a novel binaural beat meditation technology for the treatment of anxiety symptoms in both psychiatric outpatients and nonpatients. Twenty psychiatric outpatients with anxiety disorder and eight individuals (nonpatients) in the healing professions were given the opportunity to use this meditation technology over the course of 2 weeks to 2 months. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores were measured in all participants over the course of the study. Of the 20 outpatients who took part in the study, nine used the meditations as planned, whereas 11 did not for various...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

The (Slow) Depathologizing of Gender Incongruence
This article will compare the history of the psychiatric depathologizing of homosexuality to the current process of depathologizing gender incongruence. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Increased Psychiatric Risk in Children After Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Admission
We examined 130 children aged 6 to 13 years in a cross-sectional study divided into two groups: 65 children discharged from PICU and another 65 from general wards. The PICU group scored worse on all measured scales of psychiatric morbidities. The child-specific assessment methods included the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scale as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and Impact of Event Scale Revised for PTSD; Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale for anxiety; and Birleson Depression Scale for depression. The PICU group had significantly higher frequencies of PTSD compare...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Sociodemographic Characteristics Associated With Speech and Language Delay and Disorders
The aim of this study was to identify major risk factors and sociodemographic characteristics responsible for speech and language delay/disorders. Two hundred twenty-eight children (aged 24–72 months) with speech and language delay/disorders participated in this study. The Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory and The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test were used to assess language profiles and developmental stages of children. Low income, nonattendance in preschool education, low maternal education, having two or more siblings, later birth order (order of siblings), family history of speech and language delay/disorde...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Metacognitive Capacity Is Related to Self-Reported Social Functioning and May Moderate the Effects of Symptoms on Interpersonal Behavior
This study examined whether self-reported social functioning was related to metacognition in 88 adults in a nonacute phase of schizophrenia. Concurrent assessments were made of metacognition with the Metacognition Assessment Scale–Abbreviated, social functioning with the Social Functioning Scale, symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and neurocognition with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Univariate correlations revealed that self-reported social functioning was related to metacognition. Symptom severity was linked to interpersonal relationships, and overall metacognition was found to significantly...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Family Functioning and Suicide Among the Elderly in Rural China: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study
This study aimed to examine the association between family functioning and suicide among the elderly in rural China. This 1:1 paired case-control psychological autopsy study included 242 suicides at age 60 or more and an equal number of controls matched on age (±3 years), gender, and residency. Family functioning was assessed by the Family Adaptation Partnership Growth Affection Resolve Index. Family dysfunction was reported more frequently in suicides than in paired controls. Severe family dysfunction denoted a significant risk factor for suicide only in women after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Suic...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pharmacogenomic Testing in Psychiatry: Ready for Primetime?
Pharmacogenomic testing in clinical psychiatry has grown at an accelerated pace in the last few years and is poised to grow even further. Despite robust evidence lacking regarding efficacy in clinical use, there continues to be growing interest to use it to make treatment decisions. We intend this article to be a primer for a clinician wishing to understand the biological bases, evidence for benefits, and pitfalls in clinical decision-making. Using clinical vignettes, we elucidate these headings in addition to providing a perspective on current relevance, what can be communicated to patients, and future research directions...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Toxoplasmosis in a Cohort of Italian Patients With Bipolar and Psychotic Disorders: How Infection May Affect Clinical Features?
This study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in a cohort of 101 Italian inpatients affected by mood or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and compared clinical features between seronegative and seropositive subjects. Patients diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria underwent clinical assessments and blood collection to test parasite-specific IgG/IgM serum levels. Twenty-eight patients (27.7%) had IgG anti–T. gondii, and none had IgM antibodies. We found higher prevalence rate in patients aged 40 years or older, as compared with younger. No significant association was detected between T. gondii and a sp...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

DSM-5 Personality Disorders and Traits in Patients With Severe Health Anxiety
Severe health anxiety (SHA)/hypochondriasis (HY) is often associated with personality pathology; however, studies report inconsistent results. In general populations, 12% have a personality disorder (PD). We assessed physician-referred psychiatric outpatients with SHA enrolled for a treatment study (n = 84) with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) axis II (SCID-II), Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), Whiteley Index 7, and Short Health Anxiety Inventory, and the healthy controls (n = 84) with PID-5 only. There were 71.4% of the patients who ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Preventing Postpartum Depression With Mindful Self-Compassion Intervention: A Randomized Control Study
Mindfulness and self-compassion are reported to have a preventive effects on depression and anxiety disorders. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effect of mindful self-compassion intervention on preventing postpartum depression in a group of symptomatic pregnant women. Participants were screened and assigned to the intervention and control groups randomly. A 6-week Internet-based Mindful Self-Compassion Program was used to train the participants. Multiple scales were used to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms, mindfulness, self-compassion, and mother and infant well-being. All assessments were performed at t...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

On the Continuity Between Autistic and Schizoid Personality Disorder Trait Burden: A Prospective Study in Adolescence
This study explored the relationship between the two disorders by collecting extensively validated measures of autistic trait burden (Social Responsive Scale, Second Edition) and schizoid PD affectation (Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies) from clinically ascertained verbal males with and without autism ages 12 to 25 years (N = 72) via parent, teacher, and self-report. Although only a small minority of adolescents with ASD met full diagnostic criteria for schizoid PD, participants with ASD endorsed a continuous distribution of schizoid PD traits that reflected a pronounced pathological shift in comparison with those ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Medication Attitudes and Medication Adherence Behavior in Adults With Bipolar Disorder
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Mood Stabilizers Questionnaire (AMSQ) in bipolar participants and the relationship between medication attitudes and adherence, measured by the self-reported Tablets Routine Questionnaire (TRQ). Inclusion criteria included mood stabilizer treatment and 20% or more medication nonadherence. Measures were given pretreatment and posttreatment. Average age was 47 years; majority were female (69%), African American (67%), and unmarried (53%). AMSQ's test-retest reliability was ρ = 0.73 (p (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Central Vein Sign in Multiple Sclerosis
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor re: The Gray Degeneration of the Brain and Spinal Cord—A Story of the Once-Favored Diagnosis With Subsequent Vessel-Based Etiopathological Studies in Multiple Sclerosis
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Psychosis: Abnormal Perceptions or Symptoms of Disordered Thought?
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are considered as hallmark symptoms of psychosis, more specifically of schizophrenia. A substantial body of evidence indicates that AVHs can be attributed to a disorganization of overall speech capacity in psychotic subjects. AVHs are associated with activation of cortical areas of the brain that are related to speech production and perception; “voices” in deaf patients seem to be about the message rather than the sound of it; the content of AVHs is often related to that of delusional ideas; the internal or external location of AVHs makes little diagnostic difference; AVHs ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Self-Reported Medication and Recreational Drug Effectiveness in Maladaptive Daydreaming
Maladaptive daydreaming is a proposed disorder characterized by excessive daydreaming that causes subjective distress and/or interferes with function. The daydreaming involves complex inner worlds, characters, and plots that are understood by the person as fantasy, and the daydreaming may occupy many hours per day. The disorder has good reliability and validity in studies using a structured interview and a self-report measure developed for it. To date, no information on the responses of maladaptive daydreamers to either recreational or prescription drugs has been available. The authors obtained survey data from 202 partici...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Trauma in Youth At-Risk for Serious Mental Illness
This study included 243 youths, ages 12 to 25 years (42 healthy controls, 43 non–help-seeking individuals [stage 0], 52 help-seeking youth experiencing distress and possibly mild symptoms of anxiety or depression [stage1a], and 108 youth demonstrating attenuated symptoms of an SMI such as bipolar disorder or psychosis [stage 1b]). Participants completed an adapted version of the Childhood Trauma and Abuse scale. There were high frequencies of reported trauma across all stages. Symptomatic individuals experienced more trauma and bullying. Stage 1b individuals reported more physical abuse. Stage 1b also indicated psych...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Factors Associated With High Use of Hospital Psychiatric Services in Málaga, Spain: Analysis of First Admissions
The early prediction of patients at risk may facilitate the efficient use of interventions that have been demonstrated to reduce readmissions. The aim of the study was to analyze variables during first admissions associated with further high use of an inpatient hospitalization psychiatric unit in Málaga, Spain. The risk of having three or more psychiatric admissions was analyzed in a sample of 1535 first-time admissions with multivariate Cox regression. In the multivariate model, the variables associated with the risk of high use were age at admission (p (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

The Impact of Patients' and Therapists' Views of the Therapeutic Alliance on Treatment Outcome in Psychotherapy
This article reports about the role of psychotherapists in creating a good enough therapeutic alliance as the basic task for other therapeutic factors come into play. Data from a naturalistic study involving 237 patients treated by 68 psychotherapists using 10 different psychotherapy approaches were analyzed in a process-outcome research design. The results show that therapists had to adapt their alliance perspectives to patients' level of alliance ratings as treatments progressed. Treatment concepts did not play a role in outcome. The view of a similar quality of the therapeutic alliance seems to be an indispensable preco...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Complex Relationship Among Formal Thought Disorders, Neurocognition, and Functioning in Nonacutely Ill Schizophrenia Patients
The aims of the present study were to 1) evaluate clinical differences between patients suffering from schizophrenia (SZ) with mild versus moderate/severe formal thought disorder (FTD); 2) explore relationships between dimensions of FTD, neuropsychological domains, and global functioning; and 3) compare clinical dimensions of FTD in early and late SZ. One hundred thirty-six individuals with schizophrenia were recruited and evaluated during a nonacute phase of illness. FTD was assessed with the Thought, Language, and Communication Scale. Partial correlations, t-tests, and stepwise regression were undertaken to address the s...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Filling the Gap for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Services in Canada: Implementing an Intensive Care Program
This article provides an overview of the steps that were taken to develop this program. Methods involved incorporation of information gathered from both service users and service providers of these models of treatment within North America and beyond. This article provides a potential treatment model for residential psychiatric treatment that can be applied to OCD and possibly other severe treatment refractory psychiatric illnesses in terms of methods used and generalizable key ingredients. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Maternal Bonding Predicts Actigraphy-Measured Sleep Parameters in Depressed and Nondepressed Adults
Associations between subjective maternal bonding recalled from the first 16 years of life and current sleep indices were investigated in a clinical sample of 34 adults with major depressive disorder and 36 normal controls (n = 70) using the self-report parental bonding instrument and wrist actigraphy. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicated that reports of maternal bonding indices were associated with several sleep indices in adulthood independent of depression status. Higher levels of maternal care were associated with greater time in bed and total sleep time. Higher levels of maternal overprotection were...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Zolpidem-Associated Consequences: An Updated Literature Review With Case Reports
A post-2000 literature search reviewed prevalence of health consequences associated with zolpidem, plus two salient case reports. Common zolpidem-related harms encompassed accidents, falls, overdoses, delirium, and infections. Risks to others included assaults, vehicular accidents, various crimes, and civil actions that occurred during zolpidem-induced delirium, withdrawal, and other impediments. Remarkably, much harm occurred while patients were taking therapeutic doses of licitly prescribed zolpidem (10–30 mg). Zolpidem-associated health, behavioral, and social problems comprise an international pandemic of prevent...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Neurological Soft Signs and Clinical Features of Tic-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Indicate a Unique Subtype
This study examined whether neurological soft signs (NSSs) of patients with tic-related and tic-free OCD enable discrimination of these subgroups. We used the Neurological Evaluation Scale to assess 32 patients with tic-related and 94 with tic-free OCD, as well as 84 controls. Most patients with tic-related OCD were male, with earlier illness onset and poorer insight scores than those of patients with tic-free OCD. Patients with tic-related OCD had poorer motor coordination, sensory integration, and motor sequencing than did tic-free patients. Logistic regression using NSS subscale scores predicted tic-related OCD. Patient...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Childhood Trauma and Childhood Mental Disorder in Military and Employed Civilian Men
We aimed to retrospectively investigate childhood trauma and childhood mental disorder in military and employed civilian men aged 18 to 54 years. Data, derived from the 2010 Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study and the 2007 Australian Bureau of Statistics National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing Study, were analyzed and compared using direct age standardization and logistic regression. A greater proportion of ADF reported childhood trauma, multiple trauma types, trauma onset below 12 years of age, and interpersonal trauma than civilian employed men. A greater proportion of ADF r...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Examining the Overlap Between Moral Injury and PTSD in US Veterans and Active Duty Military
Moral injury (MI) is a syndrome thought to be separate from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet having some overlap. To determine the overlap, we examined the relationship between MI and the four DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters (B, C, D, E) in US veterans and active duty military (ADM). The 45-item Moral Injury Symptom Scale (MISS-M) was administered to 591 veterans and ADM who had served in a combat theater and had PTSD symptoms. PTSD symptoms were measured with the PTSD Symptom Checklist-5, which assesses the four PTSD symptom clusters. Total MISS-M scores were more strongly associated with PTSD symptom cluster D (nega...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Independent Relationships of Metacognition, Mindfulness, and Cognitive Insight to Self-Compassion in Schizophrenia
The debilitating nature of psychosis may be exacerbated by societal stigma and feelings of social isolation over and above positive (e.g., hallucinations) and negative (e.g., flat affect) symptoms. Thus, recovery may be facilitated by increasing self-compassion, the ability to respond with a nonjudgmental attitude of kindness toward oneself as a result of connecting with one's own inadequacies and suffering. We conducted a stepwise regression in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 92) to determine the unique contributions of cognitive variables in predicting self-compassion, such as metacognition (the ab...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - December 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Author Index Volume 207
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - November 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Author Index Source Type: research

Subject Index Volume 207
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - November 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Subject Index Source Type: research

Self-Contempt as a Predictor of Suicidality: A Longitudinal Study
This study examined self-contempt related to having a mental illness as predictor of suicidality among 77 people with mental illness in Southern Germany. Self-contempt, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and suicidality were assessed at baseline; suicidality was measured again 3 months later. High self-contempt at baseline predicted increased suicidality at follow-up, adjusting for baseline suicidality, symptoms, diagnosis, age, sex, and hopelessness. These results suggest that self-contempt may be a risk factor for suicidality and call for specific interventions targeting self-stigma and its emotional consequences. (Sourc...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - November 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Avoiding Misdiagnosis When Auditory Verbal Hallucinations Are Present in Borderline Personality Disorder
Misdiagnosis is common for patients with a primary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). AVHs in BPD are associated with severe BPD and high levels of suicidality. Wrongly treating these patients as though they are suffering from schizophrenia or other primary psychotic disorder and not treating BPD can cause significant iatrogenic damage. We outline a specific pattern of symptoms and phenomenology that will assist diagnostic accuracy in these cases. A focused review identified the following characteristic pattern: AVHs in BPD cannot be distinguished phenom...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - November 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Clinical Features, Management, and Prognoses of Patients With Charles Bonnet Syndrome
Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterized by visual hallucinations with preservation of cognitive abilities. The hallucinations consist mostly of vivid (realistic) objects and tend to reoccur. Here, we evaluate the etiologies, symptoms, treatments, and prognoses of 13 CBS cases. All patients had visual hallucinations but were normal on cognitive and psychiatric assessments. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment options, and 3-month follow-up data were retrospectively reviewed. The possible causes of CBS and what the patients perceived during their hallucinations were recorded. Antipsychotic agent...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - November 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Do Changes in Employment Status Induce or “Harvest” Suicides?
In a seminal Swedish study, Gemmill and colleagues pursued whether suicides after economic contractions might reflect an “induction” process whereby economic change induces suicide in those otherwise unlikely to engage in self-destructive behavior, or a “displacement” process whereby economic contractions effectively bring forward suicides that would have occurred eventually, and found support for both hypotheses. We therefore undertook a replication study examining the hypotheses in the Australian state of New South Wales, analyzing suicide data for the same period as examined in Sweden (i.e., 2000...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - November 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Pilot Study of an Intervention to Prevent Suicide After Psychiatric Hospitalization
A prior meta-analysis found that the World Health Organization Brief Intervention and Contact Program (WHO BIC) significantly reduces suicide risk. WHO BIC has not been studied in high-income countries. We piloted an adapted version of WHO BIC on an inpatient mental health unit in the United States. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability. We also evaluated changes in suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and connectedness using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Of 13 eligible patients, 9 patients enrolled. Patients experienced significant improvements in suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and connectedness at 1 and...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - November 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Association of Suicide Attempt With Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Adolescents
In this study, we aimed to explore the potential pathophysiological relationship between suicide attempts and Toxoplasma gondii infection. Fifty patients aged between 12 and 18 years who attempted suicide and 50 healthy adolescents were included in this study. All adolescents were evaluated by a child psychiatrist using a semistructured interview and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies of patients and control subjects were analyzed from blood samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Psychiatric disorder...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - November 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research