“The Stigma of Mental Illness as a Barrier to Self Labeling as Having a Mental Illness” published in J Nerv Ment Dis 205:903–909: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Aggression and Violence Toward Healthcare Workers in a Psychiatric Service in Italy: A Retrospective Questionnaire-Based Survey: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Is Tapping on Acupuncture Points an Active Ingredient in Emotional Freedom Techniques: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies
We published a meta-analysis of component trials of emotional freedom techniques (EFT) in this journal. EFT is an evidence-based method, validated in over 100 clinical trials, that uses fingertip tapping on acupressure points in conjunction with techniques from exposure and cognitive therapy. The meta-analysis examined six studies in which an active control, such as diaphragmatic breathing or sham acupoints, was used in place of tapping on actual acupoints. The purpose of the meta-analysis was to determine whether tapping was an inert or an active ingredient in EFTs observed treatment effects. Subsequent to publication, er...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Tapping Away at a Misleading Meta-analysis: No Evidence for Specificity of Acupoint Tapping
Church et al.'s meta-analysis of three studies claimed to support the specificity of acupoint tapping as a therapeutic technique in the treatment of mental health problems. However, our critical analysis found substantial methodological problems and inaccurate statistical analyses, which render their results invalid. Specifically, 1) two included studies did not include participants with documented mental health problems; 2) two included studies did not specifically isolate the effect of acupoint tapping; 3) clear rationales for selected measures were not provided; 4) comparison groups were not bona fide therapies; 5) rese...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Cannabis and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Narrative Review With Considerations of Benefits and Harms
Despite substantial controversies concerning patients' reports of benefits from cannabis for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and inconsistent research findings regarding its efficacy and adverse risks, some states have already recognized PTSD as a qualifying condition for medical cannabis. Consequently, medical cannabis can also be provided for patients with complex PTSD who experience additional posttraumatic symptoms of affective dysregulation, negative perception of the self, and difficulties in relationships due to a history of repetitive trauma. In this article, we explore cannabis use in relation to benefits ver...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Narcissism and Quality of Life: The Mediating Role of Relationship Patterns
Pathological narcissism is associated with decreased quality of life, even when accounting for psychiatric comorbidity, but the processes behind this association are unclear. Here, we evaluate whether disturbed relatedness accounts for the negative association between narcissistic pathology and quality of life. Patients in day hospital treatment for personality pathology (N = 218, 70% female; mean age, 37.3 years) completed measures of personality disorder features, quality of life, and global symptoms before beginning treatment. Quality of object relations was assessed through semistructured interviews. Regression-based m...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Exploring the Relationship Between Schizotypal Traits and Dispositional Mindfulness From a Network Perspective
This study aimed to use network theory to explore the relationship between dispositional mindfulness dimensions and schizotypal traits. Participants were 1572 college students who completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (FFMQ-SF) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B). We first estimated a Gaussian Graphical Model including the FFMQ-SF and the SPQ-B dimensions. We then computed centrality indices and predictability, and we finally conducted a bootstrapping procedure to assess the accuracy of edge weights and the stability of the centrality indices. Describing was strongly and nega...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Psychiatric Symptoms, Psychosocial Factors, and Life Satisfaction Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness: A Path Analysis
This study explores the effects of biopsychosocial factors on life satisfaction among persons with serious mental illness. Participants in this study included a convenience sample of 194 adults recruited from Texas and Wisconsin. A path analysis was conducted with psychiatric symptoms as an exogenous variable, and illness insight, social self-efficacy, social support, community integration, and life satisfaction as endogenous variables. Beginning with a hypothesized model, a best model was obtained after removing the paths that were not significant and adding recommended paths supported by theory. In the final model, psych...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety, and Depression Symptoms in Survivors of Torture Living in the United States
We examined the roles of pretrauma, peritrauma, and postmigration factors as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety in a sample of 101 culturally heterogeneous torture survivors residing in the United States. Predictors included demographic variables (sex, education, marital status), peritrauma torture type variables generated by principal components analysis (PCA), and postmigration variables (employment status, legal immigration status, and family separation). Of the torture factors identified through PCA (torture inflicted on the self and torture inflicted on family members), torture inflic...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Positive and Useful Voices in Patients With Schizophrenia: Prevalence, Course, Characteristics, and Correlates
The objective of the current study is to explore the prevalence, course, characteristics, and associations of positive and useful voices. The Positive and Useful Voices Inquiry and some clinical and functioning instruments were administered to a sample of 68 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder presenting with AVHs. Both the lifetime and current prevalences of positive and useful voices were high. Although AVHs tended to remain stable, there was a trend to decrease over time. The strongest positive attributions of such voices were that they help patients to feel important, amuse them, and help them to co...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Religion and Spirituality, Meaning, and Faith in American Psychiatry From the 19th to the 21st Century
This article examines how religion has been mobilized in American psychiatry over the centuries within institutional settings, but also looks at a broad consideration of faith in psychiatrists' clinical interventions, how that has affected their interactions with religious ideas and people, and where they have found meaning and purpose in mental health care. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Rebuttal, Correction, Retraction
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - August 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Evaluation of Accuracy of Portrayals of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Popular War Movies
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Photography's Underappreciated Contributions to Neuropsychiatry: The Photographs of W. Eugene Smith in Minamata, Japan
Photographers and filmmakers have made important contributions to the international mental health community through documentation and social commentary, leveraging the power of visual imagery. To illustrate, this article uses the example of W. Eugene Smith who photographed the catastrophic effects of methylmercury poisoning from industrial pollution in the region around Minamata Bay, Japan. Although many art forms have been comfortably integrated into mainstream psychiatry and neuropsychiatry, photography has been underappreciated and underutilized. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Clinical Controversies Source Type: research

A Survey of American Psychiatrists Concerning Medication Prior Authorization Requirements
This study examined opinions of American psychiatrists regarding prior authorization (PA) requirements for third-party payer coverage of medications and quantified perceived impact of these requirements on clinical practice. One thousand selected psychiatrist members of the American Psychiatric Association were invited to participate in a survey. Response rate was 33.1%. Respondents predominantly believed the obligation to obtain PA reduces job satisfaction and negatively impacts patient care. A total of 59.9% of respondents reported employing either diagnosis modification or falsification of previous medication trials at ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Climate Change and Risk of Completed Suicide
Climate change is increasingly recognized as having multiple adverse mental health effects, many of which are just beginning to be understood. The elevated rates of suicides observed in some communities affected by climate change and rising rates of suicide in the United States as climate change intensifies have suggested the two may be associated. We searched PubMed and PsycInfo using the terms climate change and suicide, and provide here a review of the current literature on climate change and suicide that explores possible associations and methodological issues and challenges in this research. (Source: The Journal of Ne...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Defense Style of Children and Adolescents: Differences and Ability to Discriminate Among Clinical Categories
This study assessed the defense style of children referred to an outpatient clinic and examined what this style contributes to discriminating among various disorder categories, beyond internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A sample of 433 children and adolescents were grouped into four disorder categories: disruptive, depressive, anxiety, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Their parents completed the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS: mature, self-oriented, and other-oriented) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL: internalizing and externalizing symptoms). The disorder categories differed in t...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Relationships Between Somatic Symptoms and Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Among Frequent Attenders of the General Practice in Italy
Frequent attenders (FAs) of general practitioners (GPs) often complain of nonspecific physical symptoms that are difficult to define according to typical medical syndromes criteria but could be acknowledged as atypical manifestations of mental disorders. We investigated the possible correlation between somatic symptoms and panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms in a sample of 75 FAs of GPs in Italy, with particular attention to the impact on functional impairment. Assessments included the Patient Health Questionnaire, Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum–Self-Report (PAS-SR) lifetime version, Global Assessment of Functioning, and...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Psychological Nursing Intervention for Patients With Thyroid Cancer on Psychological Distress and Quality of Life: A Randomized Clinical Trial
In conclusion, our findings suggest that a psychological nursing intervention could reduce psychological distress and enhance the life quality of thyroid cancer patients, which could have clinical value to the treatment of thyroid cancer. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Conversations and Beyond: Religious/Spiritual Care Needs Among Clinical Mental Health Patients in the Netherlands
This study examines religious/spiritual (R/S) care needs and their possible determinants among mental health patients in the Netherlands. Patients in a Christian (CC, n = 100) and a secular (SC, n = 101) mental health clinic completed a questionnaire. Analysis revealed three factors on the R/S care needs measure: (1) “R/S conversations,” (2) “R/S program and recovery,” and (3) “R/S similar outlook on life.” The presence of R/S care needs was predicted by the following: site (CC versus SC), R/S involvement, and religious strain. Most commonly, unmet R/S care needs were explanation about R...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Religion and Psychiatry in the Age of Neuroscience
In recent decades, an evolving conversation among religion, psychiatry, and neuroscience has been taking place, transforming how we conceptualize religion and how that conceptualization affects its relation to psychiatry. In this article, we review several dimensions of the dialogue, beginning with its history and the phenomenology of religious experience. We then turn to neuroscientific studies to see how they explain religious experience, and we follow that with two related areas: the benefits of religious beliefs and practices, and the evolutionary foundation of those benefits. A final section addresses neuroscientific ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Understanding Preferences for Addressing Spirituality Among Adults Seeking Outpatient Mental Health Care
Focusing on 472 religiously heterogenous adult patients seeking psychotherapy at a university-based outpatient clinic, this brief report examined (1) these patients' preferences about clinicians appreciating their religion and/or spirituality (R/S) backgrounds (spiritually affirming) and addressing spiritual concerns in treatment (spiritually integrated) and (2) role of demographic factors and psychological functioning in predicting preferences for R/S integration. Analyses revealed that more than half of patients reported moderate or greater importance for spiritually affirming care and one-third hoped to address spiritua...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Distress Concealment and Depression Symptoms in a National Sample of Canadian Men: Feeling Understood and Loneliness as Sequential Mediators
Men's tendency to conceal their distress has been linked with increased depressive symptoms. Although interpersonal connectedness has been associated with distress concealment and depression, it is unclear how connectedness mediates this association. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating effects of feeling understood and loneliness—two facets of interpersonal connectedness—in the association between distress concealment and depressive symptoms in men. A sample of 530 Canadian men was selected based on age- and region-stratification that reflects the national population. Participants complete...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Autistic Traits in Men With Substance Use Disorder
This study shows that ATs may be engaged in the development of SUDs. To explore the connection between ATs and SUDs, more research is needed. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Sleep Duration Change and Cognitive Function: A National Cohort Study of Chinese People Older than 45 Years
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and cognitive function in Chinese people older than 45 years, using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The baseline survey was conducted in 2011 and the second and third wave surveys were conducted in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate all associations. A total of 5811 individuals were included. No significant associations were found between short or long sleep duration at baseline and cognitive function. Compared with no change in sleep duration, a decrease in sleep duration ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Instilling Hope and Resiliency: A Narrative Photo-Taking Intervention During an Intercultural Exchange Involving 9/11 Survivors in Post 3/11 Japan
This study employed photo-taking as well as framing questions, which were developed by 9/11 docents from the August 2016 trip. These questions guided photo-taking and resulting photographs informed discussion in individual and group sharing sessions. This process helped identify codes that guided analysis. Participants acquired a deeper appreciation of their own ability to overcome adversity and experienced a gratifying desire to help 3/11 survivors better cope with their experiences. This narrative photo-taking and group sharing experience demonstrates that a cross-cultural exchange between survivors of different disaster...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Illness Insight and Medication Adherence Among Patients With Bipolar Disorder
The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with illness insight and medication adherence in bipolar disorder (BD). This is a cross-sectional study (with a retrospective evaluation of longitudinal variables) and a secondary analysis of a BD database. The insight of 108 outpatients (age, 48.2 ± 14.1 years, 69% women, 33% euthymic) was measured with three items of the Association of Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry scale. Their adherence was assessed through patients' and caregivers' reports, plus serum levels. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses. Full insight was inde...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Olfactory Function in Depressed Adolescents
This study conducted with a small sample size revealed that olfactory function of the adolescents with depression was similar to olfactory function of the healthy adolescents. It is required to conduct further adequately powered, longitudinal studies in order to verify these results. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Trajectories of Religious Change From Adolescence to Adulthood, and Demographic, Environmental, and Psychiatric Correlates
Studies of religiosity and mental health largely characterize religiousness as stable over time. However, research shows that religiosity likely changes significantly with development. It is unclear whether associations of religiosity with mental health also change over the lifespan. Latent growth curves were created to quantify changes in multiple religious variables, identify associated psychosocial variables, and observe relationships between religiosity and mental health from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses used four waves of data from over 9000 subjects, from ages 12 to 34 years. Although religious service attendan...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Irritability Disorders in Adults: Diagnostic Categories Missing in Plain Sight?
This article proposes that the symptom of irritability might be productively reenvisioned as a focal point, analogous to anxiety and depression, around which irritability-related syndromes and disorders in adults might coalesce. If anxiety, depressive, insomnia, and pain disorders, why not irritability disorders? Both state and trait characteristics of irritability can lend themselves to DSM diagnostic frames. Based on clinical observations, specific irritability disorders in adults can be envisioned, modeled as Irritability Disorder of Adulthood, Irritability Disorder Secondary to Another Medical Condition, Substance-Indu...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Qualitative Reexamination of the Key Features of Burnout
Burnout is generally defined as a triad of emotional exhaustion, lack of empathy, and reduced professional accomplishment constructs. We sought to determine in an exploratory, qualitative study whether these three constructs adequately represent burnout. Participants who self-identified as experiencing burnout completed a questionnaire that asked about their experiences of the condition. A qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken to determine the primary symptom constructs nominated by participants. The thematic analysis resulted in 12 symptom clusters or “themes” being identified as putative burnout featur...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Combat Experiences Link With Posttraumatic Growth Among Veterans Across Conflicts: The Influence of PTSD and Depression
We examined the relation between combat experiences and posttraumatic growth along with its subscales, as well as the influence of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptom severity. The study contained a sample of 130 combat veterans representing a variety of deployment locations. Regression analysis revealed combat experiences to be associated with posttraumatic growth beyond the effect of age (β = 0.21; p = 0.014). In addition, the association between combat experiences and posttraumatic growth was most evident among those endorsing low levels of depression symptom severity (partial η squared = 0.07;...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Psychosocial Reactions to Plagues in the Cultural History of Medicine: A Medical Humanities Approach
The aim of this work is to elucidate psychosocial reactions to plagues by analyzing three landmark descriptions from different eras: Thucydides' description of the plague of Athens (430 BC) in The History of the Peloponnesian War, Giovanni Boccaccio's description of the plague in Florence (1348) in The Decameron, and Albert Camus' description in The Plague (1947). Using a narrative inquiry, we found psychosocial reactions to be complex and ambivalent and could discern several coping strategies. We propose that this knowledge can help psychiatrists and other healthcare professionals during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. (So...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Alone Together in Our Fear: Perspectives From the Early Days of Lockdown Due to COVID-19
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - June 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Facilitating the Delivery of Cognitive Remediation in First-Episode Psychosis: Pilot Study of a Home-Delivered Web-Based Intervention: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

2019 Reviewer Acknowledgment: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Not Just Homeless, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Case Report
Over a 3-month period, a homeless person was admitted several times to emergency departments after displaying severe behavioral changes and paranoia. No psychiatric tests were performed but all other tests were repeatedly normal; antianxiety treatments or painkillers were the common outcome. It may seem that any diagnosis rested on the patient's immediately apparent social circumstances. Indeed, the patient was admitted to our internal medicine department after a diagnosis of acute delirium within a context of social disadvantage. This social predicament, namely, the patient's evident homelessness, proved to be a false but...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Trauma and Suicide: A Pilot Study Assessing Risk in Adults Diagnosed With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
This pilot study explored suicide risk in patients suffering from trauma and psychosis. Forty-seven participants diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders participated in the study. An archival design was used to identify the severity of suicide risk in participants with trauma and psychosis. Data included a chart review of documented trauma and responses to the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results of a linear regression indicated that chart-documented trauma and heightene...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Varieties of Religious (Non)Affiliation: A Primer for Mental Health Practitioners on the “Spiritual but Not Religious” and the “Nones”
Given changing demographics of religiosity and spirituality, this article aims to help clinicians understand contemporary trends in patient religious and spiritual orientation. It first identifies and describes the evolving varieties of religio-spiritual orientation and affiliation, as identified in survey studies. Particular attention is given to the examination of those who identify as spiritual but not religious (SBNR) and None (i.e., no religious affiliation), which is important to mental health practice because many patients now identify as SBNR or None. Next, empirical data are considered, including what the literatu...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Well-Being and Self-Disorders in Schizotypal Disorder and Asperger Syndrome/Autism Spectrum Disorder
We explored subjective well-being in two groups of young adult participants diagnosed with either schizotypal disorder (Sd) (n = 29) or Asperger syndrome/autism spectrum disorder (As/ASD) (n = 22). Well-being was impaired in both groups and was lower in the Sd group than in the As/ASD group. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between well-being and the presence of self-disorders. The negative effect of self-disorders on well-being was still significant when adjusted for diagnosis, age and gender, and level of function. The present findings point toward clinically important disorder-specific differences in the na...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

French Red Cross Volunteer Rescue Workers: Psychological Characteristics and Healthcare Support After the January 2015 Terrorist Attacks in Paris
We examined the psychological characteristics of volunteer rescuers after the January 2015 terrorist attacks in France. We analyzed the results of the IMPACTS study regarding the somatic, psychological, and social characteristics of the French Red Cross volunteer rescuers who intervened during these terrorist attacks. We used a standardized questionnaire during a face-to-face interview, 6 to 9 months after the attacks. Forty-one volunteers were included. Nine were presenting anxiety disorders, 11 were displaying recurrent depressive episodes, and five were displaying abusive alcohol consumption. Twenty-seven were provided ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Temperament, Character, and Defense Mechanism Changes With Treatment in Depression: A 9-Month Naturalistic Follow-up
The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in temperament, character, and defense mechanisms with the treatment and remission in patients with major depressive disorder. The study was designed as a longitudinal observational follow-up study of patients with repeated measures at 0, 12, and 36 weeks. In baseline comparisons, the major depression group showed higher harm avoidance and novelty seeking scores and lower self-directness and mature defense styles scores compared with healthy controls. In the follow-up, temperament dimensions and neurotic defenses remained unchanged, mature defense styles and self-directness...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Relation Between Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity and Startle Potentiation to Predictable and Unpredictable Threat
Aberrant threat reactivity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the literature on this association is mixed. One factor that may contribute to this inconsistent association is differences in severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) across studies, but no studies have tested this hypothesis. The relation between PTSD and threat reactivity may also differ between unpredictable threats (U-threats) and predictable threats (P-threats), given burgeoning evidence to support a particular role for aberrant responding to U-threat in PTSD. The present study examined how...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Sleep Quality and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older People With Subjective Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer Disease
We aimed to investigate sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). A total of 221 participants were divided into the following five groups: normal controls (NCs), SCD without memory concerns (SCD-0), SCD with memory concerns (SCD-1), MCI, and AD according to their cognitive status. Compared with NC, individuals with SCD-0, SCD-1, MCI, and AD had more sleep problems and reduced HRQOL. Participants with poor sleep quality had an increased risk of cognitive impairment compared with participants w...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Association Between Alexithymia and Immature Coping Styles Is Mediated by Self-Inconsistency and Is Correlated to Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms
This study aimed to investigate whether a multivariate association between alexithymia and coping styles is affected by self-inconsistency and whether the association contributed to obsessive-compulsive symptoms in 34 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 53 healthy participants. Alexithymia, coping styles, self-inconsistency, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were evaluated using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Coping Style Questionnaire, the Self-Consistency and Congruence Scale, and the Vancouver Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, respectively. We found that self-inconsistency partially mediated the a...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

“We're Afraid to Say Suicide”: Stigma as a Barrier to Implementing a Community-Based Suicide Prevention Program for Rural Veterans
Suicide is a significant public health concern for veterans residing in rural communities. Although various initiatives have been implemented to prevent suicide among veterans, efforts specific to rural veterans remain limited. To aid such efforts, we examined stigma as a potential barrier to community readiness in the implementation of a community-based suicide prevention program for rural veterans. In this qualitative study, community readiness interviews were conducted with 13 participants in a rural community. Themes included lack of awareness regarding veteran suicide, rare discussions of veteran suicide, and suicide-...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Can Cognitive Remediation in Groups Prevent Relapses?: Results of a 1-Year Follow-up Randomized Controlled Trial
International guidelines define relapse prevention for schizophrenia patients as a key therapeutic aim. However, approximately 80% to 90% of schizophrenia patients experience further symptom exacerbation after the first episode. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether group integrated neurocognitive therapy (INT), a cognitive remediation approach, reduces relapse rates in schizophrenia outpatients. INT was compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-eight stabilized outpatients participated in the study with 32 allocated to the INT group and 26 to the TAU group. A test batter...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Predicting Patients' Readmission: Do Clinicians Outperform a Statistical Model? An Exploratory Study on Clinical Risk Judgment in Mental Health
This study explores whether clinicians or a statistical model can better identify patients at risk of early readmission and investigates variables potentially associated with clinicians' risk judgment. We focus on a total of 142 patients discharged from acute psychiatric wards in the Verona Mental Health Department (Italy). Psychiatrists assessed patients' risk of readmission at 30 and 90 days postdischarge, predicted their postdischarge compliance, and assessed their Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score at admission and discharge. Clinicians' judgment outperformed the statistical model, with the difference reachin...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Critical Review of Behavioral and Emotional Disinhibition
The theory of “disinhibition” has been very influential in psychiatry and neurology for over a century. Disinhibition has been used to explain clinical findings in many neurological and psychiatric disorders including dementia, traumatic brain injury, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, substance abuse, impulsivity in personality disorders, and neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, disinhibition has been used as a unifying theory to link clinical observations with cognitive findings, and even cellular findings. This review discusses the origins and history of the theory of disinhibition and its strengt...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - March 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Clinical Controversies Source Type: research

Temperament, Character, and Subjective Well-Being in Croatian War Veterans Suffering From Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
This study enrolled 148 Croatian male war veterans being treated for combat-related PTSD. The participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory–Second Edition, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Temperament and Character Inventory–Revised. Two multivariate regression analyses with life satisfaction as a dependent variable and temperament and character dimensions, respectively, as predictor variables, were performed. Temperament dimensions harm avoidance and novelty seeking as well as character dimensions self-directedness and cooperativeness were unique predictors of life satisfaction, while controlling for t...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - March 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research