Interoceptive Awareness and Anorexia Nervosa: When Emotions Influence the Perception of Physiological Sensations
This study measures the interoceptive awareness—using heartbeat self-counting and a sphygmomanometer—of 25 subjects suffering from AN and 25 control subjects, first at rest and then in an emotional situation. The results show that a deficit in interoceptive awareness was observed for the subjects suffering from AN at rest as well as when an emotional context was induced. This study encourages future investigations to focus on the impact of interoceptive deficit in AN to develop as efficient a care regimen as possible for these subjects. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Homelessness and Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review
The present systematic review aimed to summarize data on the prevalence and treatment of depressive symptoms among homeless people. We referred to the PubMed and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant studies on the topic. Among the 43 included studies, we found great variability in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among homeless people (ranging from 9.9% to 77.5%). Comparative studies among the homeless versus nonhomeless population showed that rates of depressive symptoms are 5 to 14 times higher in the homeless population. Similar differences were also found for suicidal ideation. The lack of research and tr...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

A Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis of the Psychiatrist Decision-Making Process Used in Determining When to Discharge Adults With Major Depressive Disorder Hospitalized for Active Suicidal Ideation With Intent
To ascertain the relative importance of attributes considered when deciding to discharge patients hospitalized with major depressive disorder (MDD) and active suicidal ideation with intent, a choice-based conjoint analysis was conducted via online survey among US-based psychiatrists actively managing such patients. Potential attributes and attribute levels were identified. Attribute importance in decision to discharge and the discharge time frame were assessed. One hundred psychiatrists completed the survey. The relative importance of attributes were current MDD severity (relative importance weight [out of 100] 24.8 [95% c...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Psychotic Experiences and Sleep Quality in the Emerging Adulthood: The Interplay Between Emotional Neglect, Bodily Threat, and Defense Mechanisms
The present study investigated the integrated role of emotional neglect, bodily threat, and defense mechanisms in understanding sleep quality and psychosis experiences in a sample of emerging adults. A sample of 898 emerging adults (295 males) with an age range between 19 and 30 years participated in this study. The emotional neglect and bodily threat factors of the Traumatic Experiences Checklist, the Defense Style Questionnaire–40, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the psychosis factor of the Inventory of Personality Organization were administered. Results of path analyses showed that the emotional neglect and bo...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Persistent Symptoms, Lyme Disease, and Prior Trauma
In conclusion, although PTLDS may be exacerbated by past trauma, trauma plays a role in only a subgroup of PTLDS. Whether addressing prior trauma can improve outcomes in this subgroup requires study. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Analysis of the Main Groups Victimized by Familiar Violence and by Violence by a Known Person in Brazil
This study aims to evaluate the ratio of the number of cases of family violence and violence by a known person, over the four surveys that took place in 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2011, within the population treated in the Brazilian health services, according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data from the Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes survey was used. The variables age, victim sex, aggressor sex, race, and schooling level were considered in the analysis. This study pointed out decreasing trend in the number of violence-related care within the older age group. The number of familial violence-related car...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Self-Perceived Stress Is Associated With Chest Pain and Personality in Patients With Refractory Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
This study aims to determine if the severity of self-perceived stress is associated with specific FGID and personality characteristics in 822 patients with FGID who have filled a Rome III questionnaire, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2), and a 10-point Likert scale for self-perceived stress. According to stress severity, the patients were divided into three groups: low (6; n = 356). Female sex was more frequent in the severe stress group than in the low stress group (p = 0.001). Stress severity was strongly correlated with the two MMPI-2 posttraumatic stress scales. Clinically, chest pain was more freq...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Cognitive Patterns and Conversion in a Representative Sample of Individuals at Risk for Psychosis
Clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals belong to a heterogeneous group, of which only a few will cross the threshold for a clinical diagnosis. Cognitive disturbances are present in CHR subjects and may be indicative of transition. Our study aims to identify such deficits in a representative CHR for psychosis sample. Our sample comprised 92 CHR individuals and 54 controls from a representative cohort of the general population. They were followed up for a mean of 2.5 years, with 15 individuals converting to schizophrenia or other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnoses. Neurocognitive asses...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Child Temperament as a Predictor of Parents' Potential for Emotional Abuse
Children who are constantly criticized and humiliated by their parents and whose needs for affection and attention are not sufficiently addressed are defined as people with personality traits, low self-confidence, and antisocial behaviors. These personality traits have a significant influence on the shaping of the child's temperament. Therefore, emotional abuse negatively affects both the personality and success of the child. In line with this, child temperament was analyzed as a predictor of the emotional abuse potential of parents who have children between the ages of 4 and 6. The experimental group of the study consiste...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of an Employment Intervention for Veterans Transitioning From the Military: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Military personnel face numerous challenges transitioning from military jobs to meaningful civilian employment. The Independence Project compared an innovative employment program (National Career Coach Program) with standard employment services (Local Community Resources) in a randomized controlled trial. Study participants were transitioning veterans with self-reported service-connected disabilities seeking permanent employment. The primary outcomes were paid employment and disability ratings over 1 year. Secondary outcomes included health and well-being. At 1-year follow-up, National Career Coach Program participants wer...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

An Orientation to Aviation Psychiatry: With 30 Case Examples and a 10-Year Follow-up
This report orients general psychiatrists to assessment and care for “safety sensitive” aviation workers. Our case study of 30 sequential aviation patients consists of demographic, clinical, and aviation characteristics plus a 10-year follow-up. Relatively few pilots and other aviation workers self-identified their psychiatric condition. Aviation outcomes associated with psychiatric disorder included personnel injury and/or aircraft damage (three cases), imminent risk without injury or damage (nine cases), impaired aviation functioning without imminent risk (15 cases), and neither risk nor psychiatric disorder or impai...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 22, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Defining the Concept and Clinical Features of Epistemic Trust: A Delphi study
Early identification of “patients at risk” for not completing regular treatment or not benefitting (sufficiently) from treatment might be among the most cost-effective strategies in mental health care. The recently introduced concept of epistemic trust (ET) may have the potential value to predict patients at risk and therefore act as a marker of treatment outcome. We argue that ET may be the final common pathway through which aversive relational experiences in the past result in interpersonal dysfunctioning, which in turn result in dysfunctional therapeutic relationships, rendering it difficult for patients to trust wh...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 1, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Implications of Involuntary Psychiatric Admission: Health, Social, and Clinical Effects on Patients
Involuntary psychiatric admission is an increasing, widespread practice adopted throughout the world; however, its legal regulation and practice are still under debate, and it is subject to criticism from the human rights point of view. Only a few studies have strictly focused on the outcomes and subsequent treatment implications of this practice. To perform a scoping review of the literature on involuntary psychiatric admission and systematize and summarize its outcomes and implications for adult psychiatric inpatients. (Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease)
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 1, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Unintended Deviations of a Random Event Generator by Patients With Late Life Depression and Anxiety During a Direct Mental Influence Task
The primary objective was to determine whether depression and anxiety influence the outcome of random microevents in a nonrandom manner in the absence of any physical intervention by using a random event generator (REG). The secondary objective was to correlate other dimensions of consciousness with the REG's output. The experimental group (n = 30) included individuals with depression, the control group (n = 15) included individuals without depression, and the comparison group (n = 10) included individuals with or without depression. It was hypothesized that those with depression or anxiety would significantly deviate the ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 1, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Are Affective Temperaments, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect Involved in Mentalization Abilities in Patients With Psychiatric Disorders?
Patients who have experienced emotional abuse and neglect often develop psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, whether emotional abuse, neglect, and mentalization abilities relate to one another and the role of possible mediators of this relationship in psychiatric patients are still unknown. We evaluated the potential role of affective temperament as a mediator of the relationship between emotional abuse and neglect and mentalization. We performed a cross-sectional study of 252 adult psychiatric inpatients. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Mentalization Questionnaire, and Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, ...
Source: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease - April 1, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research