Trends in emergency ophthalmic care during COVID-19: A comparative analysis
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the delivery of medical care in the United States. On March 18, 2020, the American Academy of Ophthalmology released a statement calling for ophthalmologists in the United States to discontinue any non-urgent care due to the pandemic. [1] At the same time, emergency departments (ED) across the U.S. witnessed a marked decrease in patient visits for conditions unrelated to COVID-19. [2] However, the particular effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the presentation of ophthalmic emergencies has not been specifically studied. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - May 6, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Hailey Robles-Holmes, Jayanth Sridhar, Hasenin Al-khersan, Marissa Patel, Jodi Hwang, Lauren Hucko, Kara M. Cavuoto Source Type: research

COVID-19 vaccine adverse reactions bring patients to emergency departments
To the Editor (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - May 6, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Baruch S. Fertel, Jason Milk, Erin L. Simon, McKinsey R. Muir, Courtney M. Smalley Source Type: research

Influence of post-COVID-19 deconfinement on psychiatric visits to the emergency department
During the deconfinement period after the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the number and characteristics of psychiatric visits changed in our emergency department (ED). We aimed to assess changes in the number of visits and characterize the profiles of these patients. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - May 6, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Flament Julien, Scius Nathan, Zdanowicz Nicolas, Regnier Maxime, De Canni ère Louis, Thonon Henri Source Type: research

Comparison of performances of top emergency medicine journals in terms of COVID-19 publications in 2020
The aim of this study is to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative contribution of Emergency Medicine (EM) journals to scientific literature on COVID-19 and compare the journals in terms of publications. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - April 8, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Ali Kemal Erenler, Ahmet Baydin Source Type: research

Higher daily pain severity after emergency department visits is associated with lower return-to-work rates
Pain can impair functional status, including a patient's ability to return to work. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an association between pain levels and return-to-work status during the first 4  days post-ED discharge in ED patients seen for undifferentiated acute pain. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 23, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Stephanie A. Eucker, Pratik Manandhar, Kami Arulraja, Deepti Agnihotri, Charles V. Pollack, Caroline Freiermuth Source Type: research

Top 10 presenting diagnoses of homeless veterans seeking care at emergency departments
The health concerns that spur care-seeking in emergency departments (EDs) among homeless populations are not well described. The Veterans Affairs (VA) comprehensive healthcare system does not require health insurance and thus offers a unique window into ED service use by homeless veterans. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 23, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Jack Tsai, Dorota Szymkowiak, Stefan Kertesz Source Type: research

Pituitary apoplexy in the setting of COVID-19 infection: A case report
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a febrile respiratory illness first documented in December 2019 in Wuhan, China that was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020 [1]. At the time of this writing COVID 19 infections have impacted 191 counties, and the death toll stands at 1,488,513 [2]. COVID-19 infection is known to cause coagulopathy and an inflammatory state [3], but there are few case reports involving COVID-19 related spontaneous bleeding outside of disseminated intravascular coagulation [3]. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 23, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Michael LaRoy, Morgan McGuire Source Type: research

Does pain severity predict stone characteristics or outcomes in emergency department patients with acute renal colic?
After initial emergency department (ED) management of acute renal colic, recurrent or ongoing severe pain is the usual pathway to ED revisits, hospitalizations and rescue interventions. If index visit pain severity is associated with stone size or with subsequent failure of conservative management, then it might be useful in identifying patients who would benefit from early definitive imaging or intervention. Our objectives were to determine whether pain severity correlates with stone size, and to evaluate its utility in predicting important outcomes. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 22, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Katie Gourlay, Graeme Splinter, Jake Hayward, Grant Innes Source Type: research

Erratum to “Shock index as a predictor of mortality among the COVID-19 patients” [American Journal of Emergency Medicine 40 (2021) 106–109]
The publisher regrets the below abstract was missed to be included in the article. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 22, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Fatih Do ğanay, Fuat Elkonca, Avni Uygar Seyhan, Erdal Yılmaz, Ayşe Batırel, Rohat Ak Source Type: research

COVID-19 croup: Solitary infections and a coinfection case – author reply to a letter
Thank you for sharing your institution's recent data and experience with a case of croup who was seen in your emergency department (ED), admitted on oxygen after dexamethasone treatment, and was found to be co-infected with both SARS-CoV-2 and enterovirus. I am glad your patient had a swift recovery. In our three reported cases of croup associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection over a two-month period, all three patients were positive for a single virus and had a negative viral panel (Biofire ® FilmArray Respiratory Panel) (CR) for nineteen other viruses, including the ones most commonly associated with croup [1]. (Source: ...
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 22, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Paul C. Mullan, April M.R. Venn, James M. Schmidt Source Type: research

Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with admission hyperglycemia and diabetes after mechanical thrombectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) is a severe complication of revascularization therapy. We aimed to investigate the association of admission hyperglycemia and sICH after mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 22, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Lin Zang, Dan Zhang, Yanyan Yao, Yujie Wang Source Type: research

Predictors of a short hospitalization in bone marrow transplantation patients presenting to the emergency department
Despite the advantages of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), patients receiving this intervention visit the emergency department (ED) frequently and for various reasons. Many of those ED visits result in hospitalization, and the length of stay varies. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 22, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Jean El Cheikh, Rola Cheaito, Sarah S. Abdul-Nabi, Mohamad Ali Cheaito, Afif Jean Mufarrij, Hani Tamim, Maha Makki, Imad El Majzoub Source Type: research

Colchicine administration for percutaneous coronary intervention: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
The efficacy of colchicine administration in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains controversial. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the influence of colchicine administration versus placebo on treatment efficacy for PCI. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 22, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Chenchao Fu, Bin Wang Source Type: research

Fast track dialysis: Improving emergency department and hospital throughput for patients requiring hemodialysis
To describe the impact of a novel communication and triage pathway called, fast track dialysis (FTD) on the length of stay (LOS), resource utilization, and charges, for unscheduled hemodialysis for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients presenting, to the emergency department (ED). (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 21, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Christopher O'Donnell, Ethan Molitch-Hou, Kyle James, Traci Leong, Michael Perry, Daniel Wood, Tahsin Masud, Brittany Thomas, Michael A. Ross, Nicole Franks Source Type: research

The prevalence of serious bacterial infections in neutropenic immunocompetent febrile children
Febrile neutropenic immunocompromised children are at a high risk of Serious Bacterial Infections (SBI). (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 21, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Rosy Hao, Mona Saleh, Tian Liang, Neh Molyneaux, Isaac Gordon, Chiemelie Anyachebelu, Richard Sinert Source Type: research

Practical assessment of different saw types for field amputation: A cadaver-based study
Field amputation can be life-saving for entrapped patients requiring surgical extrication. Under these austere conditions, the procedure must be performed as rapidly as possible with limited equipment, often in a confined space, while minimizing provider risk. The aim of this study was to determine the ideal saw, and optimal approach, through bone or joint, for a field amputation. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 21, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Dominik A. Jakob, Michael Minneti, Elizabeth R. Benjamin, Lydia Lam, Morgan Schellenberg, Kazuhide Matsushima, Demetrios Demetriades, Kenji Inaba Source Type: research

Complications of serious acute conditions in children during the COVID-19 pandemic
A previous population-based study defined a broad set of complications of acute conditions encountered in Pediatric Emergency Departments (PEDs). These conditions represent a spectrum of diagnoses in which optimal PED care seems to reduce the risk of complications [1]. Recent studies on the impact of the severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic found increased rates of appendiceal perforation, and severe diabetic ketoacidosis [2,3]. We investigated the rates of complications of serious acute conditions (CSAC) in PED patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 21, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Ron Jacob, Giora Weiser, Gabi Padeh, Michal Maimon, Dania Takagi, Naama Kuchinski Cohen, Adi Klein, Livnat Sharkansky, Irena Chistyakov, Itai Shavit Source Type: research

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome following COVID-19 vaccination
We have read the article by Soh et al. reporting two cases of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) with CoronaVirus 2019 (COVID-19) [1] and we have identified another case by Kajani et al. [2] and the three cases represent NMS with COVID-19, as a part of its neurological complications that was attributed to injury of skeletal muscles and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizing central nervous system ACE2 receptors. Also, autopsy studies of COVID-19 patients have shown evidence of neuronal degeneration and hyperemic and edematous brain tissue [3]. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 20, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Mostafa Alfishawy, Zouheir Bitar, Amr Elgazzar, Mahmoud Elzoueiry Source Type: research

Using laypersons to train friends and family in Hands-Only CPR improves their willingness to perform bystander CPR
Out of hospital cardiac arrest is a leading killer in the United States [1]. Although the successful use of Closed Chest Cardiac Message was first reported in humans in the late 1800s, it was not until 1960 that medical professionals adopted modern Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) using external cardiac compressions [2]. During the 1960s, several organizations started to teach layperson CPR, and in the 1970s, a group from Seattle started the Medic II program to expand training of layperson CPR [3]. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 20, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Edmond A. Hooker, Meghan Werft Source Type: research

Pediatric emergency department utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City
Soon after the first patient in New York City (NYC) was diagnosed with the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), the number of confirmed cases in New York State (NYS) skyrocketed with NYC being labeled the national epicenter of the pandemic [1]. State and city attempts to harness resources and stem the tide of infections escalated over the initial weeks, including a “NY on PAUSE” order limiting travel, business, and public gatherings. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 20, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: William C. Sokoloff, William I. Krief, Kimberly A. Giusto, Tasnima Mohaimin, Cole Murphy-Hockett, Joshua Rocker, Kristy A. Williamson Source Type: research

Impact of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin implementation on emergency department length of stay, testing, admissions, and diagnoses
In this study, we aimed to compare ED LOS, admissions, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) diagnoses before and after the implementation of hs-cTn. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 19, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: James S. Ford, Ernestine Chaco, Daniel J. Tancredi, Bryn E. Mumma Source Type: research

The impact of SARS and COVID-19 on major trauma in Hong Kong
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been enormously disruptive and harmful to people around the world, but its impact on other illnesses and injuries has been more variable. To evaluate the ramification of infectious disease outbreaks on major traumatic injuries, we compared changes in the incidence of major trauma cases during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) period with COVID-19 in 2020. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 19, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Joseph Harold Walline, Kevin Kei Ching Hung, Janice Hiu Hung Yeung, Priscilla P. Song, Nai-Kwong Cheung, Colin A. Graham Source Type: research

Impact in total ischemic time and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction admissions during COVID-19
Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, cardiovascular disease is still the main cause of death in developed countries. Of these deaths, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) account for a substantial percentage of deaths. Improvement in ACS outcomes, are achieved by reducing the time from symptom onset until reperfusion or total ischemic time (TIT). Nevertheless, due to the overwhelming reality at the beginning of the pandemic, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) care may have been compromised. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 18, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Sharon Bruoha, Chaim Yosefy, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Jonathan Rieck, Yan Orlov, Azriel Osherov, Abu Hamed Jihad, Yaniv Sherer, Nasi Viki, Jamal Jafari Source Type: research

Characterization of electric scooter injuries over 27  months at an urban level 1 trauma center
Electric scooters (e-scooters) have become a widespread method of transportation. The purpose of this study is to provide risk stratification tools for modifiable risk factors associated with e-scooter injury morbidity. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 18, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Ophelie Lavoie-Gagne, Matthew Siow, William Harkin, Alec R. Flores, Paul J. Girard, Alexandra K. Schwartz, William T. Kent Source Type: research

Association between wide QRS pulseless electrical activity and hyperkalemia in cardiac arrest patients
We evaluated the relationship between hyperkalemia and wide QRS complex in patients with pulseless electrical activity (PEA) cardiac arrest. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 18, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Young-Min Kim, Jong Eun Park, Sung Yeon Hwang, Se Uk Lee, Taerim Kim, Hee Yoon, Min Seob Sim, Ik Joon Jo, Gun Tak Lee, Tae Gun Shin Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 and croup, a rare relationship or coincidence?
With interest we have read the series of 3 children with croup ascribed to COVID-19, written by Venn and colleagues [1]. In April 2020 an anxious 18-month-old boy was admitted at our hospital with respiratory distress, inspiratory stridor, barking cough, fever and oxygen saturation of 89%. Diagnosed with severe croup, he was treated with oxygen supplementation and dexamethasone. As part of our policy during COVID-19 pandemic, we performed RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 in all children admitted with respiratory complaints. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 17, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Caroline L.H. Brackel, Niels W. Rutjes, Taco W. Kuijpers, Suzanne W.J. Terheggen-Lagro Source Type: research

Frequency and yield of blood cultures for observation patients with skin and soft tissue infections
1) To measure frequency and yield of blood cultures obtained for observation status adult patients with skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI), 2) describe how often blood cultures were performed according to Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) SSTI guideline indications, 3) identify proportion of patients meeting Center for Medicare Services (CMS) sepsis criteria. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 17, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Emily K. Sturkie, Carlton R. Moore, Christopher A. Caulfield, Erin Schmid, Anne M. Lachiewicz, John R. Stephens Source Type: research

Speech recognition shortens the recording time of prehospital medical documentation
Immediate information communication between prehospital and medical institutions is important for care of emergency patients [1,2]. Electronic prehospital records are preferred over handwritten records to accomplish immediate information sharing [1]. Recent advancements in information communication technology (ICT) devices such as tablet computers or smartphones may allow for these devices to contribute to early information communication in emergency activities. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 17, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Takashi Shimazui, Taka-aki Nakada, Shingo Kuroiwa, Yuki Toyama, Shigeto Oda Source Type: research

Decreased time to intubation by experienced users with a new lens-clearing video laryngoscope in a simulated setting
Traditionally, direct laryngoscopy (DL) has been the preferred method to perform endotracheal intubations. Over the last two decades, however, video laryngoscopy (VL) has become increasingly prevalent not only in hospital-based environments but increasingly in pre-hospital and combat settings as well [1,2]. To date, there exist several studies that compare VL to DL in both pre-hospital and hospital settings with varied results, however not all uniformly show any of the VL systems to be superior to DL [3-9]. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 17, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Andrew Napier, Tony Zitek Source Type: research

Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: Etiologies, evaluation, and management
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an endocrine emergency. A subset of diabetic patients may present with relative euglycemia with acidosis, known as euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA), which is often misdiagnosed due to a serum glucose (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 15, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Brit Long, Skyler Lentz, Alex Koyfman, Michael Gottlieb Source Type: research

Comparison of the quick SOFA score with Glasgow-Blatchford and Rockall scores in predicting severity in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the common causes of mortality and morbidity. The Rockall score (RS) and Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS) are frequently used in determining the prognosis and predicting in-hospital adverse events, such as mortality, re-bleeding, hospital stay, and blood transfusion requirements. The quick Sepsis Related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score is easy and swift to calculate. The commonly used scores and the qSOFA score were compared and why and when these scores are most useful was investigated. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 15, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Bahad ır Taslidere, Ertan Sonmez, Ayşe Büşra Özcan, Liljana Mehmetaj, Elmas Biberci Keskin, Bedia Gulen Source Type: research

Analgesic refractory colic pain: Is prolonged conservative management appropriate?
To propose a clear definition and management pathway of patients with analgesic refractory colic pain (ARCP). (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 15, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: A. Gonz ález-Padilla Daniel, González-Díaz Alejandro, García-Rojo Esthera, Abad-López Pabloa, Santos-Pérez de la Blanca Rocíoa, Hernández-Arroyo Marioa, Teigell-Tobar Julioa, Peña-Vallejo Helenaa, Rodríguez-Antolín Alfredoa, Cabrera-Meirás Fer Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone levels as a predictor marker predict the prognosis of patients with sepsis
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with high mortality. There is an upward trend in sepsis prevalence and mortality worldwide. Early and accurate prediction of outcome in sepsis is important. There remains a great need to improve a reliable prognostic model for sepsis patients with widely available variables. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between serum thyroid hormone levels and prognosis in sepsis patients. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 12, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Yiping Wang, Fangyuan Sun, Guangliang Hong, Zhongqiu Lu Source Type: research

Renal angiomyolipoma rupture in a young female with COVID-19
We present the case of a 22-year-old female diagnosed with renal angiomyolipoma (AML) rupture 2  weeks after COVID-19 infection, ultimately requiring admission for hemorrhage control via endovascular embolization. Emergency medicine physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for renal AML rupture and other spontaneous bleeding events in patients with recent COVID-19 infection due t o a possible correlation between the two. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 11, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: L.T. Jocelyn Young, E.N.S. Jeffrey Kalczynski, L.T. Alec Emerling, L.C.D.R. William Bianchi Source Type: research

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the emergency department: A single center retrospective study
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES), and the related term Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS) denote a constellation of clinical symptoms paired with key radiological findings. These symptoms may include headache, altered mental status, visual changes, and seizures. PRES is a rare condition and remains a challenging diagnosis to make in the emergency department. Data on risk factors and clinical presentation are limited, and there is no recent literature-supported diagnostic criteria. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 11, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Ross Miller, Samuel Wagner, Jordan Hammond, Nathan Roberts, Ken Marshall, Bradley Barth Source Type: research

Emergency department visits for dental problems among adults with private dental insurance: A national observational study
Dental insurance may be a protective factor in reducing unnecessary emergency department (ED) use for nontraumatic dental pain. The purpose of this study was to 1) characterize patient demographics and identify risk factors associated with ED utilization for dental problems among individuals dually enrolled in medical and dental insurance and 2) investigate antibiotic and opioid prescription patterns among these patients following discharge. Further study of this unique population may provide insight into other causes of unmet dental need beyond lack of dental insurance. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 10, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Troy B. Amen, Inkyu Kim, Greg Peters, Alba Guti érrez-Sacristán, Nathan Palmer, Lisa Simon Source Type: research

Gastropericardial fistula induced acute purulent pericarditis
Gastropericardial fistula is a rare but lethal condition. Several etiologies have been reported, including previous gastric or esophageal surgery, malignancy, trauma, infection, and ulcer perforation. Typical symptoms included chest pain, epigastric pain, fever and dyspnea. Gastropericardial fistula can lead to serious complications, including cardiac tamponade, sepsis, hemodynamic compromise and death. Therefore, early diagnosis and timely management are important for physicians to prevent from catastrophic complications. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 10, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Boyang Ni, Yu-Long Chen, Po-Chen Lin, Yueh-Tseng Hou, Yaw-Tsan Ho, Meng-Yu Wu Source Type: research

Use of ‘Low approach’ femoral central venous cannulation during COVID 19 pandemic
Central venous catheterization is one of the most commonly performed procedures in intensive care units. Wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) for placing central venous catheter can make the procedure challenging because of poor visibility. Insertion of central venous catheter becomes even more difficult when the patient is in respiratory distress and is unable to lie flat on the bed. All these increase chances of error and complication rate. Most common route of central venous access are through internal jugular or subclavian veins but slight mistake can lead to grave complications like pneumothorax or haemothorax ...
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 10, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Kunal Singh, Alok Kumar Bharti, Prakash K. Dubey Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in pediatric trauma patients: Evidence from meta-analysis
Trauma requiring massive transfusions hinders the successful resuscitation and deteriorates outcomes [1]. Antifibrinolytic therapy has become an emerging standard in the resuscitation of patients in early hemorrhagic shock and should be administered as soon as potentially lethal hemorrhage is suspected [2]. Tranexamic acid (TXA) inhibits plasminogen activation. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 8, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Mahdi Al-Jeabory, Aleksandra Gasecka, Wojciech Wieczorek, Jaroslaw Mayer-Szary, Milosz J. Jaguszewski, Lukasz Szarpak Source Type: research

Descriptive analysis of prostatitis in the emergency department
Prostatitis is one of the most common urologic diseases in ambulatory patients. However, prostatitis data are limited from the emergency department (ED) setting. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 7, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Santiago Cantillo Campos, Justin M. Elkins, Johnathan M. Sheele Source Type: research

The effect of mild hypercapnia on hospital mortality after cardiac arrest may be modified by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The main objective was to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide on hospital mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and non-COPD patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 6, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Dawei Zhou, Yi Ye, Yueyue Kong, Zhimin Li, Guangzhi Shi, Jianxin Zhou Source Type: research

Assessment of benzodiazepine dosing strategies for the management of status epilepticus in the emergency department
Although guidelines recommend specific benzodiazepines doses for the treatment of generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE), underdosing appears to be common. The purpose of this investigation was to assess benzodiazepine dosing strategies for the initial management of GCSE in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED). (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 6, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Kyle A. Weant, Stephanie L. Barr é, Sara Bruner, Ryan Smiley, Gregory A. Hall Source Type: research

Sphenopalatine ganglion block for the treatment of acute headache: An old treatment revisited
The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is a collection of parasympathetic nerve cells located just behind the bony structures of the nose. It is closely associated with the trigeminal nerve, which is the main nerve involved in headache disorders [1]. SPG nerve blocks for the treatment of headache were first described in the 1900's using a technique involving the application of numbing medication onto cotton swabs then placed into the back of the nose [1]. If effective, an SPG nerve block would potentially be the ideal headache treatment – fast acting, while avoiding the need for intravenous access, and minimal adverse eff...
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 6, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Meredith Busman, Tiffany Fleeger, Erin Leach, Natalie Payne, Andrew Nguyen, Kismet Gray, P.A. Russel Morris, Christopher Clark, Jeffrey Jones Source Type: research

Mind the caretaker: ED referrals of community-dwelling older adult patients by their primary caregivers are accurate
ED referral of older adults on the initiative of their family or paid live-in caregiver is common but not previously studied. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 6, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Ami Schattner, Amin Sabbah, Ina Dubin Source Type: research

Assessment of the SpO2/FiO2 ratio as a tool for hypoxemia screening in the emergency department
We assessed the performance of the ratio of peripheral arterial oxygen saturation to the inspired fraction of oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) to predict the ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) among patients admitted to our emergency department (ED) during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 5, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Pierre Catoire, Eric Tellier, Caroline de la Riviere, Marie-Christine Beauvieux, Guillaume Valdenaire, Michel Galinski, Philippe Revel, Xavier Combes, C édric Gil-Jardine Source Type: research

Idarucizumab (PRADAXA ®) as a sole reversal agent in an unstable hemorrhagic shock patient on an unknown anticoagulant with elevated protime/international normalized ratio (PT/INR).
We present a case of an 85-year-old female with an unknown medication history, shortness of breath and severe anemia due to an upper gastrointestinal bleed. Laboratory abnormalities were significant for INR 6.43 and serum creatinine 2.21  mg/dL. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 5, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Sara Kutner, Nicholas Scaturo, Brett Williams Source Type: research

The efficacy of continuous use disposable N95 masks in clinical practice in the emergency department
This study investigates the efficacy of wearing disposable N95s continuously during clinical work. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 5, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Rebecca Jeanmonod, Leah Rivard, Jonathan Pester, Kathleen McMahon, Ronald Check, Brian Kelly, Vamsi Balakrishnan, Donald Jeanmonod Source Type: research

Prognostic value of admission serum magnesium in acute myocardial infarction complicated by malignant ventricular arrhythmias
Although electrolyte abnormalities are related to worse clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), little is known about the association between admission serum magnesium level and adverse events in AMI patients complicated by out-of-hospital cardiac arrest presenting with malignant ventricular arrhythmias (OHCA-MVA). We investigated the prognostic value of serum magnesium level on admission in these patients. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 5, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Yoshifumi Mizuguchi, Takao Konishi, Toshiyuki Nagai, Tomoya Sato, Sakae Takenaka, Atsushi Tada, Yuta Kobayashi, Hirokazu Komoriyama, Yoshiya Kato, Kazunori Omote, Takuma Sato, Kiwamu Kamiya, Shingo Tsujinaga, Hiroyuki Iwano, Kenjiro Kikuchi, Shinya Tanaka Source Type: research

Disaster medicine training: The case for virtual reality
The current Covid 19 pandemic has provided an opportunity to reflect on how future training and preparedness for pandemics and disasters might be improved upon. Previous authors have highlighted knowledge and skill gaps in disaster medicine (DM) training for physicians [1]. Integrating cutting-edge technology to improve cost effectiveness in DM training, quality and outcome goals can be achieved using virtual reality platforms. A number of emergency management and response organisations are currently exploring and incorporating its use as part of their training and education programs [2,3]. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 4, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Derrick Tin, Attila J. Hertelendy, Gregory R. Ciottone Source Type: research

Experience with lower dose flumazenil at an academic medical center
Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are frequently used in self-poisonings [1]. Flumazenil effects for BZD reversal are dose-dependent and higher doses are often used to achieve desired outcomes. However, higher doses are associated with increased risk of seizures, cardiac dysrhythmias, and other adverse drug effects (ADEs) [2,3]. Multidrug intoxications involving tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), stimulants, ethanol, anticonvulsants, propoxyphene, barbiturates, and other anxiolytics increase the frequency of significant ADEs from flumazenil [1-6]. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 4, 2021 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Rachel F. Schult, Deena Omar, Timothy J. Wiegand, Rachel M. Gordetsky, Nicole M. Acquisto Source Type: research