Parkinsonism and dysautonomia: Multiple system atrophy?
Albanese and colleagues present an intriguing 51 year old man with bilateral levodopa unresponsive parkinsonism and multidomain autonomic failure including severe postural hypotension (confirmed by cardiovascular autonomic testing), followed by urgency and urinary incontinence, impotence, occasional bowel incontinence suggesting a diagnosis of MSA-P at first sight [1]. MSA red flags including orofacial dystonia, anterocollis, camptocormia, contractures, minipolymyoclonus (jerky postural tremor), excessive new-onset snoring, inspiratory stridor, sleep apnea or REM sleep behavior disorder, cold hands or feet were remarkably ...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregor K. Wenning Source Type: research

Extensive cerebellar and thalamic degeneration in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by repeat expansions in the ATXN10 gene. Patients present with cerebellar ataxia frequently accompanied by seizures. Even though loss of cerebellar Purkinje neurons has been described, its brain degeneration pattern is unknown. Our aim was to characterize the gray and white matter degeneration patterns in SCA10 patients and the association with clinical features. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Carlos R. Hernandez-Castillo, Rosalinda Diaz, Israel Vaca-Palomares, Diana L. Torres, Amanda Chirino, Aurelio Campos-Romo, Adriana Ochoa, Astrid Rasmussen, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz Source Type: research

Dystonia as complication of thalamic neurosurgery
Thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation of the ventralis intermedius nucleus are effective symptomatic treatments for tremor, irrespective of the underlying diagnosis. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Marina Picillo, Vijayashankar Paramanandam, Francesca Morgante, Musleh Algarni, Diana A. Olszewska, Renato Puppi Munhoz, Tipu Aziz, Erlick Pereira, Mojgan Hodaie, Suneil K. Kalia, Andres M. Lozano, Tim Lynch, Alfonso Fasano Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: An explorative network study
Research on the association between non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) and patients' quality of life (QoL) has given insight into the burden of NMS. Most studies investigate NMS by assessing the contribution of individual symptoms to QoL. However, symptoms could also have an interactive relationship, which might not be fully taken into account when only studying these individual contributions. Recently, a network approach has been developed that treats symptoms as nodes and associations between symptoms as edges in a network, providing the opportunity to investigate the dimensional spectrum of NMS. (Sourc...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gwenda Engels, Linda Douw, Yvonne Kerst, Henry Weinstein, Erik Scherder, Annemarie Vlaar Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Drug induced parkinsonism: Symptomatic beyond 22 months
We report 2 cases of drug induced Parkinsonism followed longitudinally that remained symptomatic 22 and 27 months after stopping causative agents with normal dopamine ioflupane iodine-123 (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans at 8 and 16 months. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jaskaren Randhawa, Raja Mehanna Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

The gut microbiota: A novel therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease?
The gastrointestinal microbiota (GM) have become an increasingly topical area in the quest to better understand the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Multiple studies have shown alterations in the GM of PD cohorts [1], suggesting a biomarker relevant to prodromal disease could be possible [2]. More recently, a novel approach to individualising PD treatment was identified when the bacteria that metabolise l-dopa to dopamine and m-tyramine (a phenomenon first identified in the 1970s) [3], were finally found. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Michal Lubomski, Ryan L. Davis, Carolyn M. Sue Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Small fiber neuropathy in Parkinson's disease explored by the sudoscan
Small fibers function was evaluated by the electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) in 67 consecutive PD patients and 66 age-matched controls using sudoscan technology. There is no significant reduction in ESC in PD patients compared with controls. We found a weak correlation between feet ESC and modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cyprian Popescu Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Diagnostic validity of magnetic resonance parkinsonism index in differentiating patients with progressive supranuclear palsy from patients with Parkinson's disease
This article purposed to detect the diagnostic performance of Magnetic resonance parkinsonism index (MRPI). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kejia Zhang, Zhenzhen Liang, Chunpeng Wang, Xueyuan Zhang, Binbin Yu, Xin Liu Source Type: research

Expanding the canvas of PRKN mutations in familial and early-onset Parkinson disease
Mutations in PRKN (PARK2) are commonly encountered in early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanjay Pandey, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh Tomar, Sumeet Kumar, Shreya Dinesh, B.K. Thelma Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Single-pulse subthalamic deep brain stimulation reduces premotor-motor facilitation in Parkinson's disease
Deep brain stimulation improves motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease and changes primary motor cortex excitability, but how subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects premotor-motor cortical connectivity remains unclear. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Anne Weissbach, Kaviraja Udupa, Zhen Ni, Carolyn Gunraj, Cricia Rinchon, Julianne Baarbe, Alfonso Fasano, Renato P. Munhoz, Anthony Lang, Vera Tadic, Norbert Br üggemann, Alexander Münchau, Tobias Bäumer, Robert Chen Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Investigating PUM1 mutations in a Taiwanese cohort with cerebellar ataxia
Mutations in the PUM1 gene were recently identified to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 47 (SCA47). However, their role in cerebellar ataxia in various populations remains elusive. The aim of this study was to elucidate the frequency and spectrum of PUM1 mutations in a cohort of Taiwanese patients with molecularly undetermined cerebellar ataxia. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuan-Lin Lai, Yi-Chu Liao, Pei-Chien Tsai, Cheng-Tsung Hsiao, Bing-Wen Soong, Yi-Chung Lee Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Hypertension and progressive supranuclear palsy
The epidemiologic evidence of whether hypertension is associated with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is inconsistent. The ENGENE-PSP case-control study determined various PSP risk factors including whether hypertension preceded PSP onset. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Soniya V. Rabadia, Irene Litvan, Jorge Juncos, Yvette Bordelon, David E. Riley, David Standaert, Stephen G. Reich, Deborah A. Hall, Benzi Kluger, David Shprecher, Connie Marras, Joseph Jankovic, for the ENGENE PSP study Source Type: research

Quantifying physical activity in early Parkinson disease using a commercial activity monitor
Physical inactivity in Parkinson disease (PD) has an impact on motor and non-motor symptoms of the disease. It is unclear whether this decline in physical activity occurs early in the disease, in addition to any decline due to aging, and whether commercial activity monitors can be used to self-monitor physical activity levels in this population. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sujata Pradhan, Valerie E. Kelly Source Type: research

Excessive phase synchronization in cortical activation during locomotion in persons with Parkinson's disease
The objective of the present study is to test if interhemispheric synchronization differs between participants with PD and healthy elderly controls (NPD). We analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) signals recorded during bilateral movements, i.e., locomotion and hand tapping. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yael Miron-Shahar, Jan W. Kantelhardt, Adam Grinberg, Sharon Hassin-Baer, Ilan Blatt, Rivka Inzelberg, Meir Plotnik Source Type: research

Comment on “Small Fiber Neuropathy in Parkinson's disease explored by the sudoscan”
Dr. Cyprian's study show no significant different in electrochemical skin conductance between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, which is inconsistent with our recently published data. We propose that this difference may caused by the bias of patient selection and levodopa application. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiaofeng Xu, Wei Qiu Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Low prevalence of known pathogenic mutations in dominant PD genes: A Swedish multicenter study
To determine the frequency of mutations known to cause autosomal dominant Parkinson disease (PD) in a series with more than 10% of Sweden's estimated number of PD patients. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Andreas Puschmann, Itzia Jim énez-Ferrer, Elin Lundblad-Andersson, Emma Mårtensson, Oskar Hansson, Per Odin, Håkan Widner, Kajsa Brolin, Ropafadzo Mzezewa, Jonas Kristensen, Maria Soller, Emil Ygland Rödström, Owen A. Ross, Mathias Toft, Guido J. Bre Source Type: research

Late-onset phenotype associated with a homozygous GJC2 missense mutation in a Turkish family
Recessive mutations in the Gap Junction Protein Gamma 2 (GJC2) gene cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease type 1, a severe infantile-onset hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Milder, late-onset phenotypes including complicated spastic paraplegia in one family (SPG44), and mild tremor in one case, were reported associated to GJC2 homozygous missense mutations. Here, we report a new family with two siblings carrying a different homozygous GJC2 mutation, presenting with late-onset ataxic and pyramidal disturbances, and parkinsonism in one of them. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Demy J.S. Kuipers, Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Ba şar Bilgiç, Simone Olgiati, Marjolein H.G. Dremmen, Wilfred F.J. van IJcken, Guido J. Breedveld, GraziaM.S. Mancini, HaşmetA. Hanagasi, Murat Emre, Vincenzo Bonifati Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Non-motor symptoms burden, mood, and gait problems are the most significant factors contributing to a poor quality of life in non-demented Parkinson's disease patients: Results from the COPPADIS Study Cohort
To identify factors related to a poor health-related and global quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and compare to a control group. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Garc ía D. Santos, T. de Deus Fonticoba, Castro E. Suárez, C. Borrué, M. Mata, Vila B. Solano, Foraster A. Cots, Sauco M. Álvarez, Pérez Rodríguez, L. Vela, Y. Macías, S. Escalante, P. Esteve, S. Reverté-Villarroya, E. Cubo, E. Casas, S. Arnaiz, P Source Type: research

Letter to the editor, “Cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for patients with essential tremor”
We thank you for providing an opportunity to write correspondence or letter to the editor to the recent short communication titled, “Cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for patients with essential tremor” by Shin and colleagues, published by the journal, Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. [1]. We have read the short communication with much interest and they have explained the benefit of cerebellar repeti tive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the patients with essential tremor. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Navjyoti Gupta, Neha Sharma, Asir John Samuel Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

A tear fluid proteome of Parkinson's disease
Given the inaccessibility of the brain, attention has turned to body fluids, such as plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, as potential sources of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for neurodegenerative disease. This approach has proven successful in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it has been much harder to find reliable fluid biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD) [1]. The concentration of Lewy body pathology-associated α-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is reduced in PD patients, but with a large overlap between patient and control groups [2], and fluid biomarkers for neurodegeneration, such as neurofilament lig...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Henrik Zetterberg, Yaroslau Compta Source Type: research

Protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation at the Thr154 affects stability of DJ-1
Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are sporadic, but genetic variations have been discovered in PD patients. PARK7/DJ-1 is a known cause of early-onset autosomal-recessive PD and is implicated in neuroprotection against oxidative stress. Although several post-translational modifications of DJ-1 have been proposed, phospho-modification of DJ-1 and its functional consequences have been less studied. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yeon Uk Ko, Su-Jeong Kim, Juhyung Lee, Min-Young Song, Kang-Sik Park, Jun Bae Park, Hyun-Soo Cho, Young J. Oh Source Type: research

Dystonia in atypical parkinsonian disorders
Dystonia is common in the classic atypical parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, and to a lesser extent in dementia with Lewy bodies. Its clinical phenomenology, including body distribution, timing of appearance, severity, and relationship to dopaminergic and other medications may vary considerably within and between atypical parkinsonian disorders. From a pathophysiological standpoint, the coexistence of dystonia with parkinsonism challenges the functional model of the basal ganglia. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Luca Marsili, Matteo Bologna, Maja Kojovic, Alfredo Berardelli, Alberto J. Espay, Carlo Colosimo Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Response to the letter to the editor, “cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for patients with essential tremor”
We welcome the opportunity to respond to the letter by Gupta et al. titled “Cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for patients with essential tremor [1].” (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hae-Won Shin, Mark Hallett, Young H. Sohn Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

REM sleep behavior disorder predicts functional dependency in early Parkinson's disease
To determine whether non-motor symptoms predict the development of functional dependency in Parkinson's disease (PD). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryul Kim, Dallah Yoo, Jin Hee Im, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation in status dystonicus caused by anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is the most common type of autoimmune encephalitis, mostly affecting young patients. In children, movement disorders are the predominant manifestation of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis including chorea, stereotypies, tremor, myoclonus and generalized dystonia [1]. Herein we report a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis presenting with status dystonicus (SD) resistant to immunosuppressive therapies who responded well to bilateral Globus Pallidus Internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Alir Reza Tavasoli, Gholamali Shahidi, Mansour Parvaresh, Alfonso Fasano, Mahmoud Reza Ashrafi, Sareh Hosseinpour, Anthony E. Lang, Mohammad Rohani Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Relationship between jerky and sinusoidal oscillations in cervical dystonia
Dystonia is often associated with repetitive jerky oscillations (i.e. dystonic tremor), while tremor is characterized by sinusoidal oscillations. We propose two competing predictions for dystonic tremor and sinusoidal tremor relationship. In any given patient, (1) the oscillation could be characterized as either sinusoidal or jerky based on the degree of distortion in the waveforms, (2) the oscillation consists of both sinusoidal and jerky waveforms mixed in a certain proportion that varies among individuals. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sinem Balta Beylergil, Aditya P. Singh, David S. Zee, Hyder A. Jinnah, Aasef G. Shaikh Source Type: research

A prospective evaluation of clinical and instrumental features before and after ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in patients with idiopathic Normal pressure hydrocephalus: The Bologna PRO-Hydro study
Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a complex and often misdiagnosed syndrome, whose major challenge is to identify which patients will benefit from surgery. Previous studies reported a variability in positive surgery response. The role of tap test(TT) in screening patients suitable for shunting is controversial. The primary aim of this study was to describe the clinical/instrumental features and their longitudinal progression after surgery in iNPH patients. Secondarily, we aimed to investigate the response of the three iNPH domains and the best time of outcome assessment after TT. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Giulia Giannini, Giorgio Palandri, Alberto Ferrari, Federico Oppi, David Milletti, Luca Albini-Riccioli, Paolo Mantovani, Stefania Magnoni, Lorenzo Chiari, Pietro Cortelli, Sabina Cevoli, the BOLOGsNA PRO-HYDRO Study Group Source Type: research

Increased facilitation of the primary motor cortex in de novo Parkinson's disease
Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is useful to estimate the balance between inhibitory and facilitatory circuits of the primary motor cortex (M1) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Results of earlier studies are, however, incongruent: some reports describe normal short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), but others describe reduced SICI. We hypothesize that exaggerated intracortical facilitation masks normal inhibition, and that a triple-pulse method can reveal masked inhibition in PD. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuichiro Shirota, Shinya Ohminami, Ryosuke Tsutsumi, Yasuo Terao, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Shoji Tsuji, Ritsuko Hanajima Source Type: research

Earlier age of onset in multiple system atrophy with smoking and heavy alcohol use
To determine whether smoking or alcohol use impacts the age of onset and disease duration in multiple system atrophy (MSA). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lauren Jackson, Elizabeth A. Coon, J. Eric Ahlskog, James H. Bower, Paola Sandroni, Eduardo E. Benarroch, Jay N. Mandrekar, Phillip A. Low, Wolfgang Singer Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Subthalamic deep brain stimulation aggravates speech problems in Parkinson's disease: Objective and subjective analysis of the influence of stimulation frequency and electrode contact location
Speech disorders, including stuttering and hypophonia, have been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Onanong Phokaewvarangkul, Kamolwan Boonpang, Roongroj Bhidayasiri Source Type: research

White matter hyperintensities as a predictor of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease
To investigate the effect of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on long-term motor outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Seok Jong Chung, Yang Hyun Lee, Han Soo Yoo, Jungsu S. Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H. Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee Source Type: research

POSTUROGRAPHIC abnormalities in ambulatory atypical parkinsonian disorders: Differentiating characteristics
Postural instability is a common complaint in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, objective evaluation to identify posturographic characteristics to enable clinical differentiation is limited. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Pattamon Panyakaew, Chanawat Anan, Roongroj Bhidayasiri Source Type: research

Dual-task interference during hand dexterity is a predictor for activities of daily living performance in Parkinson's disease
Dual-task interference (DTI) leads to impairment of hand dexterity in Parkinson's disease (PD). The performance of activities of daily living (ADL) is negatively affected by dexterity in PD. However, the contribution of DTI to dexterity-related ADL disability remains unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the contribution of DTI to ADL performance as well as other factors affecting dexterity. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sevim Acar öz Candan, Tuba Şaziye Özcan Source Type: research

Human gene therapy approaches for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: An overview of current and completed clinical trials
Gene therapy has been employed in the human brain for a number of disorders in clinical trials and may serve as an avenue for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several gene therapy treatment strategies have been developed and evaluated in patients with PD. Three main strategies have been used-enhancement of dopamine synthesis, expression of trophic factors, and neuromodulation. Typically, genes are delivered via viral vectors and expressed within neurons in PD-relevant areas of the brain such as the striatum. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Frederick L. Hitti, Andrew I. Yang, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Gordon H. Baltuch Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Comment on “resting-state fMRI in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis”
We have read with great interest the article in press in Parkinsonism and Related Disorders written by Wolters et al., entitled “Resting-state fMRI in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis” [1]. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a promising imaging technique to investigate brain functional reorganization, has been widely used in Parkinson's disease (PD) that has improved the current knowledge about the mechanisms underlying motor and non-motor symptoms [2]. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: HongZhou Wang, WanHua Wang, XueYang Wang, JianBin Hu, LiZheng Yao Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

“Resting-state fMRI in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis”: Answer to Wang and colleagues
We would like to thank dr. Wang and his colleagues for their interest in our study. While the authors address important measures to assess the validity of a meta-analysis such as heterogeneity between studies, the pooling of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and patients with dementia (PDD) and the ON or OFF state during scanning, it is important to recognize the need for sufficient power when performing subgroup analyses. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Am ée F. Wolters, Sjors C.F. van de Weijer, Albert F.G. Leentjens, Annelien A. Duits, Heidi I.L. Jacobs, Mark L. Kuijf Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Longitudinal assessment of autonomic dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease
Clinical correlates of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease (PD) have been addressed mainly in a cross-sectional way. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Iva Stankovi ć, Igor Petrović, Tatjana Pekmezović, Vladana Marković, Tanja Stojković, Nataša Dragašević-Mišković, Marina Svetel, Vladimir Kostić Source Type: research

Selecting candidates for Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's disease: the role of patients' expectations
Patients with advanced Parkinson's Disease (PD) may be eligible for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in case of medication-related motor fluctuations or tremor refractory to oral medication. However, several PD symptoms are unresponsive to DBS and constitute relative contra-indications for DBS. Patients referred for DBS undergo an eligibility screening during which motor functioning and contra-indications for surgery are assessed. During this pre-screening the potential benefits and drawbacks of surgery are discussed, together with patients' expectations of the results of DBS. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: V.J. Geraedts, M.L. Kuijf, J.J. van Hilten, J. Marinus, M. Oosterloo, M.F. Contarino Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Are PSP patients included in clinical trials representative of the general PSP population?
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare parkinsonian syndrome with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Recently, the MDS published revised diagnosis criteria to provide early and reliable diagnosis of PSP and its variants. Two large randomized clinical trials were initiated in 2017, but the question remains regarding the extrapolation of their results to the general PSP population. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Louise-Laure Mariani, Raquel Guimar ães-Costa, David Grabli, Benjamin Le Toullec, Florence Cormier-Dequaire, Bertrand Degos, Bruno Dubois, Marie Vidailhet, Lucette Lacomblez, Jean-Christophe Corvol Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Pupillary response to light and tasks in early and late onset essential tremor patients
Late-onset essential tremor is characterised by shorter life expectancy and more advanced aging parameters and may therefore be an ‘aging-related’ tremor. Brainstem functions involved in pupillary responses are hypothesized to reflect such earlier aging. The pupillary light response (PLR) and a task evoked pupillary response (TEPR) were used to test this hypothesis in same-aged patients with early onset (EOET) and late onse t (LOET) essential tremor and healthy controls. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jos S. Becktepe, Felix G övert, Lisa Kasiske, Mevlüt Yalaz, Karsten Witt, Günther Deuschl Source Type: research

Progression of two Progressive Supranuclear Palsy phenotypes with comparable initial disability
To avoid bias and optimize statistical power of disease-modifying therapeutic trials, it is critical to include homogeneous populations with similar rate of progression over time. Patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)-Parkinsonism phenotype have overall slower disease progression than those with PSP-Richardson syndrome phenotype. However, it is unclear if the progression rate of PSP-Parkinsonism is the same when the PSP-Parkinsonism converts to PSP Richardson syndrome. We aimed to determine and compare disease progression rate of patients with the two most common PSP phenotypes: PSP-Parkinsonism and PSP Richar...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ali Shoeibi, Irene Litvan, Eduardo Tolosa, Teodoro del Ser, Euyhyun Lee, TAUROS Investigators Source Type: research

Transcranial magnetic stimulation improves cognition over time in Parkinson's disease
Cognitive impairment can occur in the early phase of Parkinson's disease and increases the risk of developing dementia. Cognitive deficits were shown to be associated with functional alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and caudate nucleus. Two previous transcranial magnetic stimulation studies over the left DLPFC showed short-term improvement in cognitive performance and focused on specific task. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jessica Trung, Alexandru Hanganu, Stevan Jobert, Clotilde Degroot, Beatriz Mejia-Constain, Mekale Kibreab, Marie-Andr ée Bruneau, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Antonio Strafella, Oury Monchi Source Type: research

Midbrain atrophy in patients with presymptomatic progressive supranuclear Palsy-Richardson's syndrome
In the present study, midbrain atrophy and the pons-to-midbrain area ratio (P/M ratio) were investigated as diagnostic markers for presymptomatic progressive supranuclear palsy-Richardson's syndrome (Pre-PSP-RS). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jong Hyeon Ahn, Minkyeong Kim, Ji Sun Kim, Jinyoung Youn, Wooyoung Jang, Engseok Oh, Phil Hyu Lee, Seong-Beom Koh, Tae-Beom Ahn, Jin Whan Cho Source Type: research

Third ventricular width assessed by transcranial ultrasound correlates with cognitive performance in Parkinson's disease
Cognitive impairment and dementia are common in PD; however, no stable marker of cognitive dysfunction is available. Transcranial sonography can evaluate global and focal brain atrophy and has been widely used in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Stefanie Behnke, Andrea Pilotto, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone, Rezzak Yilmaz, Christoph Pausch, Svea Dieterich, Jan B ürmann, Jörg Spiegel, Ulrich Dillmann, Marcus Unger, Ina Posner, Daniela Berg Source Type: research

REM sleep without atonia and the relation with Lewy body disease
REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) is the polysomnographic finding of persistent muscle tone during REM sleep, resulting in paroxysmal phasic or tonic EMG activity. RSWA is essential for the diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), but can also occur without dream-enacting behavior. Loss of atonia during REM sleep is considered as a biomarker for synucleinopathies. We will give an overview of the pathophysiology of RSWA and will highlight the diagnostic methods for RSWA. We will describe the different etiologies of RSWA and finally we will focus on the role of RSWA as biomarker for Lewy body disease. (Source: Parkinson...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Femke Dijkstra, Karlien Van den Bossche, Barbara de Bruyn, Nathan Reyn, Mineke Viaene, Ilse De Volder, Patrick Cras, David Crosiers Tags: Review article Source Type: research

MIBG scintigraphy of the major salivary glands in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration
The clinical distinction between Parkinson's disease (PD) and the atypical parkinsonian syndromes progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is often difficult, especially in the early stages of disease. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Elisabeth Schubert, Semih Dogan joerg, Ulrich Dillmann, Andrea Schaefer-Schuler, Klaus Fassbender, Samer Ezziddin, J örg Spiegel Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cognitive associations with comprehensive gait and static balance measures in Parkinson's disease
Gait and balance impairments are cardinal features of Parkinson's disease (PD) that require cognitive input. However, the extent to which specific gait and balance characteristics relate to cognition in PD is unclear. In addition, independent models of gait and balance have not been developed from the same cohort. We aimed to i) develop models of gait and balance in a large PD cohort and ii) determine which gait and balance characteristics best related to cognition. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rosie Morris, Douglas N. Martini, Katrijn Smulders, Valerie E. Kelly, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Kathleen Poston, Amie Hiller, Kathryn A. Chung, Laurice Yang, Shu-Ching Hu, Karen L. Edwards, Brenna Cholerton, Thomas J. Grabowski, Thomas J. Montine, Joseph F. Quin Source Type: research

Freezing of gait and major depressive disorder responding both to electroconvulsive therapy
Freezing of gait (FOG) is an episodic absence or marked reduction of forward progression of the feet despite the intention to walk [1]. During episodes of freezing, patients feel as if their feet ‘are being glued to the floor’. FOG is common in patients with Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism, and is associated with greater disease severity [2]. Stress, anxiety, a depressive mood and cognitively challenging situations are notorious for provoking or increasing the severity of F OG [3]. Here, we present a patient who clinically presented with a major depressive disorder (MDD) that was accompanied by FO...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: M. PhC. Klok, J. Nonnekes, M.L. Stek, B.R. Bloem, D. Rhebergen Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Haptic perception of verticality correlates with postural and balance deficits in patients with Parkinson's disease
Perception of verticality is fundamental for postural stability that is often impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Haptic perception of verticality has not been fully investigated in PD. The aim of the study was to assess subjective haptic vertical (SHV) in PD patients in relation to postural and balance impairments. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Laura Mori, Martina Putzolu, Gaia Bonassi, Giovanni Galeoto, Susanna Mezzarobba, Carlo Trompetto, Laura Avanzino, Roberta Marchese, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Elisa Pelosin Source Type: research

Cognitive correlates of prospective memory in dystonia
Executive dysfunctions are observed in focal dystonia (i.e., blepharospasm and cervical dystonia). Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future and plays a relevant role in everyday living and quality of life. Although alterations of prefrontal cortex occur in focal dystonia, until now, no study has yet investigated the occurrence of deficit of PM in focal dystonia. Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore PM and its cognitive correlates in cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gianpaolo Maggi, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Giusi Mautone, Silvio Peluso, Fiore Manganelli, Raffaele Dubbioso, Marcello Esposito, Gabriella Santangelo Source Type: research