Parkinsonism in children: Clinical classification and etiological spectrum
Infantile- and childhood-onset parkinsonism is mainly due to genetic alterations and is an exceedingly rare condition, unlike Parkinson's disease (PD), which is one of the most common neurologic disorders in adulthood. The clinical characterization of parkinsonism during early stages of neuromotor development is controversial due to the lack of consensus regarding the clinical criteria of PD or parkinsonism in the immature brain. The classification here proposed is based on a review of conditions that emerge during infancy and childhood, with key symptoms evocative of adult parkinsonism. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vincenzo Leuzzi, Francesca Nardecchia, Roser Pons, Serena Galosi Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Impaired metabolic brain networks associated with neurotransmission systems in the a-synuclein spectrum
While the involvement of multiple neurotransmitter systems in α-synucleinopathies is reported, a comprehensive study on their metabolic connectivity reconfiguration in the preclinical and clinical disease-spectrum is lacking. We aimed to investigate shared and disease-specific neural vulnerabilities of the nigro-striato-cortical dopaminergic, noradrenergic an d cholinergic networks within the α-synuclein-spectrum, by means of a metabolic connectivity approach. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Giulia Carli, Silvia Paola Caminiti, Arianna Sala, Andrea Galbiati, Andrea Pilotto, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Alessandro Padovani, Daniela Perani Source Type: research

Self-concocted, curious and creative coping strategies in movement disorders
Movement disorders comprise a range of physically and emotionally debilitating conditions which profoundly impact daily activities. Most are associated with significant reductions in quality of life (QOL), which itself is a multidimensional construct influenced not only by physical impairment but also by psychological factors, patient resilience, social support and coping strategies. Maintaining maximal QOL in the face of disease-related challenges is a major focus of movement disorder practice. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Eoin Mulroy, Christos Ganos, Anna Latorre, Astrid J. Terkelsen, Bettina Balint, Pankaj A. Agarwal, Amit Batla, Kailash P. Bhatia Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Essential tremor: Is the word “essential” really essential?
Essential tremor (ET) is among the common movement disorders. A surge in research in recent years has considerably improved our understanding of disease etiology and pathogenesis, and its associated clinical phenomenology and natural history. With this progress have emerged a multitude of new questions and conundrums and newly proposed terminologies. Amidst these various related discussions, it is worth revisiting the essence of the nomenclature, “essential tremor”, to assess how well it continues to fit the growing understanding of this entity. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Abhishek Lenka, Elan D. Louis Tags: Point of view Source Type: research

Patterns of diffusion kurtosis changes in Parkinson's disease subtypes
Diffusion kurtosis imaging has been applied to evaluate white matter and basal ganglia microstructure in mixed Parkinson's disease (PD) groups with inconclusive results. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Alzbeta Sejnoha Minsterova, Klobusiakova Patricia, Pies Adrian, Galaz Zoltan, Mekyska Jiri, Novakova Lubomira, Nemcova Elfmarkova Nela, Rektorova Irena Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype and risk of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease
To investigate the association between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryul Kim, Jung Hwan Shin, Sangmin Park, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon Source Type: research

Altered gut microbiota in Parkinson's disease patients/healthy spouses and its association with clinical features
Increasing evidence shows that gut microbiota dysbiosis may play important roles in the occurrence and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the findings are inconsistent. Besides, the effect of family environment on gut microbiota dysbiosis remains unclear. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan Zhang, Liya Yue, Xing Fang, Gengchao Wang, Cuidan Li, Xiaodong Sun, Xinmiao Jia, Jingjing Yang, Jinhui Song, Yu Zhang, Chongye Guo, Guannan Ma, Ming Sang, Fei Chen, Puqing Wang Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

The “round the houses” sign and “zig-zag” sign in progressive supranuclear palsy and other conditions
We read with interest the recent correspondence by Abate et al. in which they described and coined the “zig-zag” sign in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) [1]. We have similarly noticed multiple patients with PSP undertaking a wandering or serpiginous route to vertical saccades. The sign, which consists of multiple slow oblique saccades in apparently random alternating directions, differs from Quinn's original description of the “round-the-houses” sign wherein vertical saccades in PSP traverse a single curved arc in the setting of largely preserved range of vertical gaze [2]. (Source: Parkinsonis...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Conor Fearon, Robert Field, Eoghan Donlon, Olwen C. Murphy, Simon Cronin, Cliona Buckley, Laura Williams, Yudy Llamas, Sean O'Dowd, Sean S. O'Sullivan, Daniel R. Gold, Daniel R. Gold, Richard Walsh, Daniel G. Healy, Niall Quinn, Timothy Lynch Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

CMT4J, parkinsonism and a new FIG4 mutation
We read with great interest the recent article by Zimmermann and colleagues [1] describing five patients with a phenotypical continuum between Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (CMT4J) and Yunis-Var ón syndrome associated to FIG4 mutations. Three of them had parkinsonism, an uncommon associated clinical manifestation. Here we report a case with CMT4J and biallelic pathogenic mutations in FIG4 that developed an early-onset parkinsonism. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ignacio J. Posada, Cristina Dom ínguez-González Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

A 12-month, dose-level blinded safety and efficacy study of levodopa inhalation powder (CVT-301, Inbrija) in patients with Parkinson's disease
CVT-301 (Inbrija ™) is a levodopa inhalation powder for on-demand treatment of OFF episodes in Parkinson's disease patients treated with carbidopa/levodopa. Safety and efficacy results of a 12-month, dose-level blinded extension study of a phase 3 trial (SPAN-PD) of CVT-301 are presented. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Eric S. Farbman, Cheryl H. Waters, Peter A. LeWitt, Monika Rudzi ńska, Michael Klingler, Angela Lee, Jenny Qian, Charles Oh, Robert A. Hauser Source Type: research

Functional movement disorder comorbidity in Parkinson's disease: Unraveling the web
Functional movement disorders are commonly seen in neurology services and may coexist with other neurological diseases. This combination is known as “functional overlay” and an increasing interest on this topic has emerged in the past decade as the field of functional neurological disorders has moved forward. Some neurological diseases may be more prone to develop “functional overlay” than others, and within the field of movement disorde rs, most studies have focused on patients with Parkinson's disease. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Monica M. Kurtis, Isabel Pare és Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Bilateral pallidal stimulation improves cervical dystonia for more than a decade
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment in medically resistant cervical dystonia (CD) with a documented therapeutic effect. Long term outcome beyond a decade, however, has not been studied systematically. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Alain Kaelin-Lang, Hana You, Jean-Marc Burgunder, Tarja L önnfors-Weitze, Thomas J. Loher, Ethan Taub, Ioannis U. Isaias, Joachim K. Krauss, W.M. Michael Schüpbach Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

The retina as a window to the basal ganglia: Systematic review of the potential link between retinopathy and hyperkinetic disorders in diabetes
There is evidence that glycemic fluctuations trigger vascular-mediated dysfunction in both the retina and the striatopallidal regions in patients with diabetes. The latter is associated with a variety of hyperkinetic disorders that are rare but disabling and potentially preventable. We conducted a systematic review of the potential association between diabetic retinopathy and the risk and prognosis of hyperkinetic disorders in patients with diabetes. We identified a total of 461 articles and 147 were eligible for review. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Karlo J. Lizarraga, Natalia Chunga, Nicolas A. Yannuzzi, Harry W. Flynn, Carlos Singer, Anthony E. Lang Tags: Point of view Source Type: research

Multiparametric laryngeal assessment of the effect of thalamic deep brain stimulation on essential vocal tremor
EVT is a refractory voice disorder that significantly affects quality of life. This work aims to conduct a multiparametric assessment of the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) on essential vocal tremor (EVT) and investigate the relation between DBS lead location and EVT outcomes. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Elizabeth Erickson-DiRenzo, Fiene Marie Kuijper, Daniel A.N. Barbosa, Erika A. Lim, Peter T. Lin, Melanie A. Lising, Yuhao Huang, C. Kwang Sung, Casey H. Halpern Source Type: research

A trial of buspirone for anxiety in Parkinson's disease: Safety and tolerability
In Parkinson's disease (PD), anxiety is common, associated with lower health-related quality of life, and undertreated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the tolerability of buspirone for the treatment of anxiety in PD. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ruth B. Schneider, Peggy Auinger, Christopher G. Tarolli, Julia Iourinets, Mar ía Cristina Gil-Díaz, Irene H. Richard Source Type: research

Do variants in IRF2BPL cause both neurological disorders and keratoconus 8?
In this issue of Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, Prilop et al. describe a man who had started to experience difficulties with handwriting during school age, developed gait difficulty at age 19, and required a wheelchair at age 42. Oromandibular musculature was involved severely and the patient had become unable to speak; there was upper limb dystonia, blepharospasm, Parkinsonian signs that were mildly responsive to levodopa, and ataxia. The patient died at age 54 years. This patient also had bilateral keratoconus - progressive thinning and ectasia of the cornea - manifest already at 6 years of age, requiring corneal tr...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Efthymia Kafantari, Sten Andr éasson, Torbjörn Säll, Andreas Puschmann Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Interference of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator by deep brain stimulation
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is safe and effective in treating movement disorders of tremor, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED), such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are commonly utilized in patients with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The concomitant use of DBS and CIED is not uncommon but data on device-device interaction are limited [1 –5]. Here we present the first case of interference of a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) by DBS and the subsequent assessment to detect and mitigate the interference, which has sig...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hemal M. Nayak, Emilie Sauser, Tao Xie Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Prolonged visual fixation as a surrogate marker of cholinergic deficit in Parkinson's disease: A 2-year follow-up study
The search for biomarkers of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is driven by the potential clinical applications in disease prognostication. Various eye tracking studies on cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease suggest a promising role of eye movement parameters as a biomarker for cognitive decline but the clinical utility has not been validated in longitudinal studies. The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal progression of eye fixation duration in a visual search task and its correlation with domain-specific cognitive impairment. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wing Ho Wong, Anne Chan, Adrian Wong, Claire KY. Lau, Jonas HM. Yeung, Vincent Mok, Sau Man Sandra Chan Source Type: research

Personality traits associated with freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease patients
Freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the main cause of falling and greatly decreases the quality of life. The causes of FOG include not only motor symptoms such as rigidity and bradykinesia, but also non-motor symptoms such as cognitive decline and anxiety. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Makoto Sawada, Kenji Wada-Isoe, Satoko Nakashita, Tetsuya Maeda, Ritsuko Hanajima, Kenji Nakashima Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cortical cholinergic dysfunction correlates with microglial activation in the substantia innominata in REM sleep behavior disorder
This study aimed to explore whether reduced cortical acetylcholinesterase activity in iRBD is linked to microglial activation in the substantia innominata (SI), the major source of cholinergic input to the cortex. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kristian St ær, Alex Iranzo, Morten G. Stokholm, Karen Østergaard, Mónica Serradell, Marit Otto, Kristina B. Svendsen, Alicia Garrido, Dolores Vilas, Joan Santamaria, Arne Møller, Carles Gaig, David J. Brooks, Per Borghammer, Eduardo Tolosa, Nicola Pa Source Type: research

Isolated head tremor: A DAT-SPECT and somatosensory temporal discrimination study
To better understand the pathophysiology of isolated head tremor, we investigated somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) and dopaminergic neurotransmission with 123I-FP-CIT (DAT-SPECT) in patients with isolated head tremor, as well as potential correlations with their clinical features. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gina Ferrazzano, Viviana Frantellizzi, Maria Ilenia De Bartolo, Maria Silvia De Feo, Antonella Conte, Giovanni Fabbrini, Giuseppe De Vincentis, Alfredo Berardelli Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Comparison of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy and phosphorylated α-synuclein skin deposits in synucleinopathies
Introduction: Cardiac [123I]metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy (123I-MIBG) is considered a useful test in differentiating multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Lewy body disorders (LBD), including idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and pure autonomic failure (PAF). The detection of skin nerve phosphorylated- α-synuclein (p-α-syn) deposits could be an alternative marker in vivo. We sought to compare 123I-MIBG scintigraphy and skin biopsy findings in α-synucleinopathies. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Maria Pia Giannoccaro, Vincenzo Donadio, Giulia Giannini, Grazia Devigili, Giovanni Rizzo, Alex Incensi, Ernesto Cason, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Roberto Eleopra, Pietro Cortelli, Rocco Liguori Source Type: research

The evolution of parkinsonism in primary progressive apraxia of speech: A 6-year longitudinal study
Primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) is a neurodegenerative syndrome in which patients present with an isolated motor speech disorder. Some PPAOS patients develop parkinsonism and other features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and/or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) over time. We aimed to assess the evolution of parkinsonian characteristics in PPAOS patients who had been followed yearly for at least six years. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeynep Idil Seckin, Joseph R. Duffy, Edythe A. Strand, Heather M. Clark, Rene L. Utianski, Mary M. Machulda, Hugo Botha, Farwa Ali, Nha Trang Thu Pham, Val J. Lowe, Jennifer L. Whitwell, Keith A. Josephs Source Type: research

Familial dementia with Lewy bodies with VPS13C mutations
Mutations in the vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog C (VPS13C) gene have been reported to be associated with early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) [1 –3]. VPS13C has been shown to be involved in mitochondrial function through the maintenance of mitochondrial transmembrane potential; thus, loss of VPS13C function causes mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to various neurological symptoms [1]. Previous studies reported that the majority of the pat ients with VPS13C mutations had early-onset parkinsonism with an age at onset of 45 years or younger and the cognitive function deteriorated rapidly with d...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryota Kobayashi, Hiroya Naruse, Shingo Koyama, Shinobu Kawakatsu, Hiroshi Hayashi, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Mitsui, Yasuyuki Ohta, Tatsushi Toda, Shoji Tsuji, Koichi Otani Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Adapting to post-COVID19 research in Parkinson's disease: Lessons from a multinational experience
With more than 30 million confirmed cases and almost a million deaths, COVID-19 is redefining the way clinical research is being conducted around the world. Lifting of lockdown measures when community spread appeared to have abated has led to resurgence of new clusters, resulting in prompt reinstitution of restrictions such as that experienced in Korea, China, Italy, India, and certain cities in Brazil and the USA. This dynamic back and forth curtailment will likely go on until an effective treatment or vaccine is widely available, necessitating novel adaptations for researchers to continue to thrive worldwide. (Source: Pa...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Eng-King Tan, Alberto Albanese, KRay Chaudhuri, Shen-Yang Lim, Nicodemus Edrick Oey, Christine Hui Shan Chan, Yun-Cheng Wu, Beomseok Jeon, Daniel Truong, Werner Poewe, Pramod Kumar Pal, Louis Tan, Puneet Opal, Carlo Colosimo, H.A. Jinnah, Francisco Cardos Tags: Point of view Source Type: research

Hoping for the best, planning for the worst: Palliative care approach to Parkinson disease during the COVID-19 pandemic
Palliative care emphasizes expertise in handling difficult conversations, discussing patients ’ wishes and supporting the caregiver(s). Here we outline the palliative approach of hoping for the best while preparing for the worst in several “what if” scenarios for people with Parkinson disease and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Indu Subramanian, Christina L Vaughan Tags: Point of view Source Type: research

The impact of dispositional optimism and depression on post-operative motor functioning following deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease
This study investigated the influence of dispositional optimism on motor outcomes following STN-DBS in individuals with PD. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hannah Ray, Amanda Cook Maher, Wilma Mackenzie, Laura Zeitlin, Kelvin L. Chou, Parag G. Patil, Carol C. Persad Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

How specific are non-motor symptoms in the prodrome of Parkinson's disease compared to other movement disorders?
The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on motor signs is often preceded by several non-motor symptoms that can indicate early prodromal neurodegenerative processes. Such prodromal symptoms can aid the early detection of PD, but their specificity for prodromal PD in comparison to prodromes of other movement disorders is still largely unclear. We here aim to give a first insight into the published evidence of prodromal non-motor symptoms in PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), Huntington's disease (HD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). (So...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mariana Moscovich, Sebastian Heinzel, Ronald B. Postuma, Ralf Reilmann, Thomas Klockgether, Heike Jacobi, G ünter Höglinger, Daniela Berg Tags: Point of view Source Type: research

A movement disorder specialist gets a taste of his own medicine
We present a case in which a movement disorder neurologist developed two different hyperkinetic movements due to corticospinal tract hyperexcitability, which resolved completely with surgical removal of an epidural spinal canal tumor. The first-hand description of these movements creates a unique opportunity for enhanced insight into these complex movement phenomena. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jay A. van Gerpen, Erik H. Middlebrooks, Philip W. Tipton Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Orthostatic hypotension as a core symptom in a Japanese family harboring SNCA duplication
a-Synuclein (SNCA) multiplication (PARK4) is responsible for Parkinson's disease (PD) with autosomal dominant inheritance. The occurrence of autonomic dysfunction is approximately 34% –38% in SNCA duplication carriers [1,2]. However, severe orthostatic hypotension as the most prominent symptom appears rare. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Haitian Nan, Ryusuke Takaki, Tetsuhiro Maruyama, Yasuhisa Baba, Shinji Ohara, Kazumasa Shindo, Yoshihisa Takiyama Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Intermediate phenotype of ATP13A2 mutation in two Chilean siblings: Towards a continuum between parkinsonism and hereditary spastic paraplegia
ATP13A2 mutations have been implicated in juvenile parkinsonism (PARK9) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis [1]. Recently, association with complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like phenotype have been reported [2,3]. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Marcelo Miranda, Florian Harmuth, M. Leonor Bustamante, Malco Rossi, Marc Sturm, Ólafur Th Magnusson, Peter Bauer, Thomas Klockgether, Alfredo Ramirez Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Sudden unexpected death in Parkinson ’s disease: Who would think of the thyroid gland?
We enjoyed reading the recent paper by Chen and colleagues entitled, “Risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients with hypothyroidism: A nationwide population-based cohort study” [1]. The authors are to be congratulated for this informative prospective study demonstrating that patients with hypothyroidism have an increased risk of developing PD [1]. Although thi s study is unique in its approach, we would like to add some thoughts that may open the debate about the possible cardiovascular repercussions mediated by hypothyroidism in patients with PD and even trigger sudden fatal events in these individuals. (So...
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: La ís D. Rodrigues, Leandro F. Oliveira, Carla A. Scorza, Fulvio A. Scorza, Monica L. Andersen, Sergio Tufik, Josef Finsterer, Antonio-Carlos G. de Almeida Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Insulin resistance, diabetes and Parkinson's disease: The match continues
It is still a matter of debate whether diabetes increases the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). Altogether, prospective cohort studies suggest an increased risk, while case-control studies have found the opposite [1,2]. Having said this, PD patients with concomitant diabetes show more severe disease and more rapid disease progression [3 –5]. At the same time, epidemiological studies have reported a reduced incidence of PD in diabetes patients receiving dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or thiazolidinediones for their diabetes [6,7]. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Anna Delamarre, Vincent Rigalleau, Wassilios G. Meissner Source Type: research

Variations in hospitalization rates across Parkinson's Foundation Centers of Excellence
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased risk for hospitalization and often experience worsening of PD when hospitalized. It is therefore important to identify strategies to prevent hospitalization. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Florentine Zeldenrust, Sarah Lidstone, Samuel Wu, Michael S. Okun, Fernando Cubillos, James Beck, Thomas Davis, Kelly Lyons, Eugene Nelson, Miriam Rafferty, Peter Schmidt, Yunfeng Dai, Connie Marras Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - October 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Introduction
Translational research into the therapeutics of Parkinson disease (PD) has been guided by the words of James Parkinson, whose 1817 monograph on the “shaking palsy” warned that “…Until we are better informed respecting the nature of the disease, the employment of internal medicines is scarcely warrantable”. Fortunately, Arvid Carlsson’s studies with levodopa treatment warranted translation from experiments in reserpinized rabbits to a therapy effective at relieving the discomforts and disabilities of PD patients. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Peter LeWitt, Peter Jenner Source Type: research

Effect of deep brain stimulation on caregivers of patients with Parkinson's disease: A systematic review
Caregivers of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) often provide important support in the pre- and postoperative phase of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). DBS-associated changes of patient-functioning may affect caregiver wellbeing and impact the support system. Factors influencing caregiver-wellbeing under these circumstances are incompletely known. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Van Hienen Mm, M.F. Contarino, Middelkoop Ham, van Hilten Jj, Geraedts Vj Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Serum TNF- α and neurodegeneration in isolated REM sleep behavior disorder
To investigate serum inflammatory cytokine profiles in patients with isolated REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and to explore whether these markers are associated with phenoconversion risk to α-synucleinopathies. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryul Kim, Jee-Young Lee, Han-Joon Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Hyunwoo Nam, Beomseok Jeon Source Type: research

Clinical patterns of gait freezing in Parkinson's disease and their response to interventions: An observer-blinded study
Freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is provoked by specific situations. The sensitivity of these situations to detect FOG and the relative FOG response to l-dopa and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is unknown. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Olga Gavriliuc, Steffen Paschen, Alexandru Andrusca, Ann-Kristin Helmers, Christian Schlenstedt, G ünther Deuschl Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation of the ventralis oralis anterior thalamic nucleus is effective for dystonic tremor
Dystonic tremor (DT) is a phenomenological feature of dystonia which may occur in the body part affected by dystonia. Its management relies on oral medications, botulinum neurotoxin and deep brain stimulation (DBS). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: L. Mongardi, V. Rispoli, A. Scerrati, F. Giordano, J.G. Capone, A.E. Vaudano, P. De Bonis, F. Morgante, M. Picillo, M.A. Cavallo, M. Sensi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Longitudinal association between dopamine agonists and weight in Parkinson's disease
To examine the longitudinal relation of dopamine agonists (DA) use with body mass index (BMI) change and weight gain in Parkinson's disease (PD). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fanny Artaud, Pei-Chen Lee, Graziella Mangone, Marie Vidailhet, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Alexis Elbaz Source Type: research

The cerebellum in idiopathic cervical dystonia: A specific pattern of structural abnormalities?
In recent years, cerebellar abnormalities have gained increasing attention as possible physiopathological substratum of idiopathic cervical dystonia (ICD), but a consistent pattern of cerebellar structural modifications has not yet been established. We systematically investigated the presence of volumetric alterations of cerebellar gray (GM) and white matter (WM) in ICD patients, as well as their clinical relevance. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Giuseppe Pontillo, Anna Castagna, Elena A. Vola, Antonella Macerollo, Silvio Peluso, Camilla Russo, Francesca Baglio, Fiore Manganelli, Arturo Brunetti, Sirio Cocozza, Marcello Esposito Source Type: research

The changes of exercise pattern and clinical symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease in the era of COVID-19 pandemic
In this study, we investigated the change in physical activity and subsequently clinical symptoms of PD during the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Joomee Song, Jong Hyeon Ahn, Inyoung Choi, Jun Kyu Mun, Jin Whan Cho, Jinyoung Youn Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Prevalence and clinical associations of tau in Lewy body dementias: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Alzheimer's disease neuropathologies (amyloid- β and tau) frequently co-exist to varying degrees in Lewy body dementias (LBD), which include dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kai Sin Chin, Nawaf Yassi, Leonid Churilov, Colin Louis Masters, Rosie Watson Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Video-tutorial for the Movement Disorder Society criteria for progressive supranuclear palsy
The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society-endorsed Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Study Group published clinical diagnostic criteria for progressive supranuclear palsy in 2017, aiming to optimize early, sensitive and specific diagnosis. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vassilena Iankova, Gesine Respondek, Gerard Saranza, C èlia Painous, Ana Cámara, Yaroslau Compta, Ikuko Aiba, Bettina Balint, Nikolaos Giagkou, Keith A. Josephs, Mika Otsuki, Lawrence I. Golbe, Kailash P. Bhatia, Maria Stamelou, Anthony E. Lang, Günter Source Type: research

Novel compound heterozygous FBXO7 mutations in a family with early onset Parkinson's disease
Mutations in the F-box protein 7 (FBXO7) gene result in autosomal recessive parkinsonism. This usually manifests as early-onset parkinsonian-pyramidal syndrome but patients exhibit high phenotypic variability. Here we describe the findings of a Yemeni family with two novel FBXO7 mutations. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Oswaldo Lorenzo-Betancor, Yi-Han Lin, Ali Samii, Suman Jayadev, Hojoong M. Kim, Katelan Longfellow, B. Jane Distad, Dora Yearout, Ignacio F. Mata, Cyrus P. Zabetian Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

A rapid and low-cost test for screening the most common Parkinson's disease-related GBA variants
Deleterious variants in the GBA gene confer a 2- to 20-fold increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with a more severe disease course. The presence of a highly-similar pseudogene complicates genetic screening, both by Sanger and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Among PD-associated GBA variants, four missense substitutions (p.L444P, p. N370S, p. T369  M, p. E326K) account for the majority of cases. Here, we aimed at developing an allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) able to concomitantly detect the most common PD-related GBA variants. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Letizia Straniero, Valeria Rimoldi, Giada Melistaccio, Alessio Di Fonzo, Gianni Pezzoli, Stefano Duga, Rosanna Asselta Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Delineating the motor phenotype of SGCE-myoclonus dystonia syndrome
To perform phenotype and genotype characterization in myoclonus-dystonia patients and to validate clinical rating tools. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Maria I. Vanegas, Anna Marc é-Grau, Laura Martí-Sánchez, Sara Mellid, Heidy Baide-Mairena, Marta Correa-Vela, Anna Cazurro, Carla Rodríguez, Laura Toledo, Joaquín Alejandro Fernández-Ramos, Roser Pons, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa, Maria José Martí, Jes Source Type: research

REM sleep behavior disorder in early Parkinson ’s disease predicts the rapid dopaminergic denervation
To test the hypothesis that REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in early Parkinson's disease (PD) predicts rapid progression of dopaminergic denervation. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Young Eun Kim, Yun Joong Kim, Hee Sung Hwang, Hyeo-il Ma Source Type: research

Parkinsonism in a patient with Plasmodium falciparum malaria
We present a case of a 53-year-old male presenting with parkinsonism after falciparum malaria. (Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders)
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - September 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nadia Gandarilla-Mart ínez, Álvaro Carbayo-Viejo, Almudena Sánchez-Gómez, Francesc Valldeoriola-Serra Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research