Delay activity in the Wulst of pigeons (Columba livia) represents correlates of both sample and reward information.
Abstract The avian Wulst is the pallial (analogous to mammalian cortex) termination point of the thalamofugal pathway, one of two main visual pathways in birds, and is considered to be equivalent to primate striate cortex. We recorded neuronal activity from the Wulst in pigeons during two versions of a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Two birds were trained on a common outcomes (CO) procedure, in which correct responses following both the skateboarder and the flower stimuli were associated with reward. Two other birds were trained on a differential outcomes (DO) procedure in which correct responses following ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Anderson C, Johnston M, Marrs EJ, Porter B, Colombo M Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Functional interaction of ventral hippocampal CA1 region and prelimbic cortex contributes to the encoding of contextual fear association of stimuli separated in time.
ira M Abstract Although stimuli that are associated often overlap in time, previous events can also predict the occurrence of a later aversive stimulus and be associated with it to better guide future behavior. Associations of stimuli separated in time have been studied using discrete stimulus as the conditioned stimulus (CS) in trace conditioning or, more recently in our lab, using the context as the CS in contextual fear conditioning with temporal discontinuity (CFC-5s), a task that simultaneously includes the processing of time and space components. It is thought that fear memories are encoded by the strengthen...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Brenner Santos T, Eleutério Wallau A, Carlota Kramer-Soares J, Gabriela Menezes Oliveira M Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Editorial: Cerebellar Function.
PMID: 32173455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Parker K, Freeman J Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Bidirectional conditioning: Revisiting Asratyan's 'alternating' training technique.
Abstract The study of bidirectional conditioning began more than a century ago, yet it has failed to take strong root in psychology and neuroscience. We revisit this topic by exploiting E. A. Asratyan's alternating procedure of stimulus presentation, in which both forward (e.g., A→B) and backward (e.g., B→A) training trials are concurrently given, in order to analyze their potential interaction. Specifically, using a two-alternative, forced-choice task, we trained humans and pigeons to learn associations between stimuli depending on whether they were presented as sample stimuli or choice stimuli. Trials ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Navarro VM, Wasserman EA Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

The involvement of TRP channels in memory formation and task retrieval in a passive avoidance task in one-day old chicks.
Abstract An increase in the intracellular Ca2+ level in neurons is one of the main steps in the memory formation cascade. The increase results from extracellular Ca2+ influx by activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and release from intracellular stores by the stimulation of IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) via group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/5). Recent data indicate an additional mechanism resulting in Ca2+ influx into neurons, triggered by intracellular signals that are directly connected to the activation of group I mGluRs. This influx occurs through transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, whic...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Krolik A, Diamandakis D, Zych A, Stafiej A, Salinska E Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

N-terminal variant Asp14 Asn of the human p70 S6 Kinase 1 enhances translational signaling causing different effects in developing and mature neuronal cells.
Abstract The ribosomal p70 S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1) has been implicated in the etiology of complex neurological diseases including autism, depression and dementia. Though no major gene disruption has been reported in humans in RPS6KB1, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) causing missense mutations have been identified, which have not been assessed for their impact on protein function. These S6K1 mutations have the potential to influence disease progression and treatment response. We mined the Simon Simplex Collection (SSC) and SPARK autism database to find inherited SNVs in S6K1 and characterized the effect of two missens...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Priya Venkatasubramani J, Subramanyam P, Pal R, Reddy BK, Jeyalakshmi Srinivasan D, Chattarji S, Iossifov I, Klann E, Bhattacharya A Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Long-term changes in metabolic brain network drive memory impairments in rats following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that long-term changes in MBN drive memory impairments in adult rats subjected to neonatal hypoxic ischemia, using in vivo imaging microPET-FDG. The MBN analyses identified glucose metabolism abnormalities in HI non-h animals, which were not detected by conventional 18F-FDG standardized uptake value (SUVr) measurements. These animals exhibited a metabolic brain signature that may explain the cognitive deficit even with no identifiable brain damage. PMID: 32147586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nunes Azevedo P, Zanirati G, Teribele Venturin G, Garcia Schu G, Elena Durán-Carabali L, Kawa Odorcyk F, Vinicius Soares A, de Oliveira Laguna G, Alexandre Netto C, Rigon Zimmer E, Costa da Costa J, Greggio S Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Habituation in high-throughput genetic model organisms as a tool to investigate the mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Abstract Alterations in habituation, a highly conserved form of non-associative learning, are suspected to contribute to a range of the complex behavioural phenotypes present in multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. While progress has been made in understanding the genetics of these disorders through the application of next-generation sequencing and related technologies, the pathogenicity of genetic variants and causes of learning and memory impairments can be difficult to determine from sequencing data alone. High-throughput genetic model organisms such as the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, fruit fly Drosophi...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kepler LD, McDiarmid TA, Rankin CH Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Age-related emotional bias in associative memory consolidation: The role of sleep.
Abstract Sleep plays a crucial role in memory consolidation. However, the influence of sleep on emotional memory consolidation in older adults, especially in the context of associative memory, which is more cognitively demanding than item memory, remains elusive. For this study we recruited young and older adults, and randomly assigned them into the sleep or wake condition. They were administrated a visual-spatial associative memory task, which required them to remember a picture and its location. We measured memory performance for positive, neutral, and negative stimuli before and after a 12-hour interval of bein...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Huan SY, Liu KP, Lei X, Yu J Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Neurophysiological indices of the transfer of cognitive training gains to untrained tasks.
Abstract Targeted training of working memory (WM) may improve performance and modulate brain function in untrained cognitive modalities. Demanding cognitive training protocols that do not target WM may also improve performance on untrained cognitive tests, but the delineation between transfer effects that are unique to WM training and effects that are shared among different cognitive training modalities has not been well-established. To address this, we examined the effects of twenty sessions of either WM training (visual n-back task with letter stimuli) or selective attention training (visual search task with let...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang X, Covey TJ Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Classical Music, Educational Learning, and Slow Wave Sleep: A Targeted Memory Reactivation Experiment.
Abstract Poor sleep in college students compromises the memory consolidation processes necessary to retain course materials. A solution may lie in targeting reactivation of memories during sleep (TMR). Fifty undergraduate students completed a college-level microeconomics lecture (mathematics-based) while listening to distinctive classical music (Chopin, Beethoven, and Vivaldi). After they fell asleep, we re-played the classical music songs (TMR) or a control noise during slow wave sleep. Relative to the control condition, the TMR condition showed an 18% improvement for knowledge transfer items that measured concep...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao C, Fillmore P, Scullin MK Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

IQGAP1/ERK Regulates Fear Memory Formation via Histone Posttranslational Modifications Induced by HDAC2.
Abstract Epigenetic mechanisms of learning and memory are particularly interesting topics in neuroscience that have recently been investigated. As shown in our previous study, IQGAP1, a scaffolding protein of MAPK, is involved in fear memory through interactions with GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors and the ERK1/2 cascade. However, researchers have not determined whether histone posttranslational modifications are regulated by the IQGAP1/ERK signaling pathway. We performed in vivo studies using IQGAP1-/- and IQGAP1+/+ mice to provide insights into the specific functions of IQGAP1 in memory processes and the precis...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - March 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu XY, Yao B, Hao JR, Jin L, Gao Y, Yang X, Liu L, Sun XY, Sun N, Gao C Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Did Proust predict the existence of episodic memory?
Abstract Cognitive psychologists have often discussed the idea that when Proust used in his books the concept of involuntary memories, which could be retrieved by an odor or a taste, he was in fact predating the notion of modern episodic memory. Since the publication of his famous "In Search of Lost Time", considerable progress has been made on our understanding of various types of memory and of the mechanisms involved in different brain circuits and synapses responsible for their long-term storage. This review will focus on the role of hippocampus in episodic memory, including its role in encoding time ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Baudry M Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Irradiation Increases Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Precursor signaling in the mouse hippocampus.
PMID: 32084558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Z, Lin Zhong X, Xu Y, He J, Hai Liu Z, Tao Nai A, Niu L, Shi Luo S, Yang H, Yu Zeng J, Ya He S, Chen X, Wan W, Yu Cao W Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Inactivation of the Prelimbic Cortex Attenuates Operant Responding in Both Physical and Behavioral Contexts.
Abstract The present experiments aimed to expand our understanding of the role of the prelimbic cortex (PL) in the contextual control of instrumental behavior. Research has previously shown that the PL is involved when the "physical context," or chamber in which an instrumental behavior is trained, facilitates performance of the instrumental response (Trask, Shipman, Green, & Bouton, 2017). Recently, evidence has suggested that when a sequence of two instrumental behaviors is required to earn a reinforcing outcome, the first response (rather than the physical chamber) can be the "behavioral cont...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - February 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Thomas CMP, Thrailkill EA, Bouton ME, Green JT Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Extinction of cognitive associations is preserved in patients with cerebellar disease.
mmann D Abstract In the present study extinction and renewal of cognitive associations were assessed in two experiments in participants with focal and degenerative cerebellar disease. Using a predictive learning task, participants had to learn by trial and error the relationships between food items and the occurrence of stomach trouble in a hypothetical patient. In the first experiment, focus was on renewal effects. Participants with chronic cerebellar stroke (n = 14; mean age 50.9 ± 12 years), participants with degenerative cerebellar disease (n = 16; mean age 58 ± 12 years), age-, sex-, and educati...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - February 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Steiner KM, Jansen S, Adeishvili N, Hulst T, Ernst TM, Müller O, Wondzinski E, Göricke SL, Siebler M, Uengoer M, Timmann D Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Orexin-1 receptor blockade differentially affects spatial and visual discrimination memory facilitation by intracranial self-stimulation.
, Segura-Torres P Abstract Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle is an effective treatment to facilitate memory. Performance in both explicit and implicit memory tasks has been improved by ICSS, and this treatment has even been capable of recovering loss of memory function due to lesions or old age. Several neurochemical systems have been studied in regard to their role in ICSS effects on memory, however the possible involvement of the orexinergic system in this facilitation has yet to be explored. The present study aims to examine the relationship between the OX1R and the facilitativ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - February 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: García-Brito S, Aldavert-Vera L, Huguet G, Kádár E, Segura-Torres P Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Memory decline correlates with increased plasma cytokines in amyloid-beta (1-42) rat model of alzheimer's disease.
In conclusion, this study most importantly demonstrated an association between progressive decline in spatial memory and increased plasma cytokine level induced by the infusion of Aβ(1-42). PMID: 32059978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - February 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shallie OF, Dalle E, Mabandla MV Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Effects on goal directed behavior and habit in two animal models of parkinson's disease.
Vargas J, Díaz E Abstract Instrumental conditioning involves two different processes: Goal-directed behavior, characterized by its dependence on the causal relationship between action and outcome and the sensitivity of actions to changes in the value of the outcome; and habits, characterized for its persistence and insensitivity to changes after conditioning. It is known that the dopaminergic system is involved in both kind of learning. The present experiments analyzed two animal models of Parkinson's disease. The 6-OHDA model causes selective damage of the catecholaminergic neurons, specifically affecting ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - February 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Márquez I, Muñoz MF, Ayala A, Carlos López J, Pedro Vargas J, Díaz E Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Mnemonic discrimination in patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy relates to similarity and number of events stored in memory.
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that these difficulties stem on mnemonic discrimination impairment due to a reduced ability to make similar representations more distinct, leading to an increased susceptibility to interference. With this aim, we used a visual mnemonic discrimination task and evaluated the ability of a group of patients with unilateral mTLE, relative to controls, to discriminate between a studied item and a new foil item, as a function of the similarity between them, and of the number of exemplars from a category stored in memory. We found that patients performed worse than controls when the studied ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Poch C, Toledano R, García-Morales I, Prieto A, García-Barragán N, Aledo-Serrano Á, Gil-Nagel A, Campo P Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Distinct neural networks for detecting violations of adjacent versus nonadjacent sequential dependencies: An fMRI study.
Abstract The ability to learn and process sequential dependencies is essential for language acquisition and other cognitive domains. Recent studies suggest that the learning of adjacent (e.g., "A-B") versus nonadjacent (e.g., "A-X-B") dependencies have different cognitive demands, but the neural correlates accompanying such processing are currently underspecified. We developed a sequential learning task in which sequences of printed nonsense syllables containing both adjacent and nonadjacent dependencies were presented. After incidentally learning these grammatical sequences, twenty-one healthy...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - February 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Conway CM, Eghbalzad L, Deocampo JA, Smith GNL, Na S, King TZ Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Perturbing the activity of the superior temporal gyrus during pain encoding prevents the exaggeration of pain memories: a virtual lesion study using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first evidence that the STG and/or the PHG, and possibly the PHG, are causally involved in the formation of biased memories of pain unpleasantness. PMID: 32001336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Houde F, Martel M, Coulombe-Lévêque A, Harvey MP, Auclair V, Mathieu D, Whittingstall K, Goffaux P, Léonard G Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

The neurocognitive basis of metamemory: Using the N400 to study the contribution of fluency to judgments of learning.
This study demonstrates the utility of ERPs in gaining new insights into the neurocognitive mechanisms of metamemory. PMID: 32001337 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Undorf M, Obioma Amaefule C, Kamp SM Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Frustrative nonreward: Chemogenetic inactivation of the central amygdala abolishes the effect of reward downshift without affecting alcohol intake.
Abstract The role of the central amygdala (CeA) in the adjustment to a 32-to-2% sucrose downshift in the consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) task and in a free-choice 10% alcohol-water preference task (PT) was studied using chemogenetic inactivation. cSNC is a model of frustrative nonreward that enhances alcohol consumption. In Experiment 1, sessions 1-10 involved 5-min access to 32% sucrose and sessions 11-12 involved access to 2% sucrose. Vehicle or clozapine N-oxide (CNO; 1 or 3 mg/kg, ip), used later to activate the inhibitory designer receptor, was administered 30 min before sessions 11-12. There...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Guarino S, Conrad SE, Papini MR Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Opposing effects of cortisol on learning and memory in children using spatial versus response-dependent navigation strategies.
Abstract Previous studies showed that healthy young adults who spontaneously use caudate nucleus-dependent strategies on a virtual navigation task, have significantly lower basal levels of cortisol compared with adults who use hippocampus-dependent spatial navigation strategies. In the current paper, we assessed the relation between basal cortisol levels and learning using a virtual navigation task in children. We show that basal cortisol level has a differential effect on learning and memory between children using spatial and response navigation strategies. Specifically, cortisol was found to be beneficial for le...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Blanchette CA, Kurdi V, Fouquet C, Schachar R, Boivin M, Hastings P, Robaey P, West GL, Bohbot VD Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Activation of medial orbitofrontal cortex abolishes fear extinction and interferes with fear expression in rats.
Abstract Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction procedures have long been used to study the regulation of learned fear. The amygdala is vital for the association of cues and fear expression, whereas the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critical for fear regulation after extinction. The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) has an extensive connection with the fear circuit. In human studies, emotional regulation disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, are often linked to an abnormality in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Therefore, in a series of experiments, we examin...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hsieh HT, Chang CH Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Transient cAMP elevation during systems consolidation enhances remote contextual fear memory.
In this study, we aimed to understand the molecular mechanism of systems consolidation of memory and to investigate the brain regions that contribute to this regulation. We first carried out a contextual fear memory test using a transgenic mouse line, which expressed exogenously-derived Aplysia octopamine receptors in the forebrain region, such that, in response to octopamine treatment, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels could be transiently elevated. From this experiment, we revealed that transient elevation of cAMP levels in the forebrain during systems consolidation led to an enhancement in remote fear memory ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee J, Lee HR, Kim JI, Baek J, Jang EH, Lee J, Kim M, Un Lee R, Kim S, Park P, Kaang BK Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Chemogenetic inhibition in the dorsal striatum reveals regional specificity of direct and indirect pathway control of action sequencing.
Abstract Animals engage in intricate action sequences that are constructed during instrumental learning. There is broad consensus that the basal ganglia play a crucial role in the formation and fluid performance of action sequences. To investigate the role of the basal ganglia direct and indirect pathways in action sequencing, we virally expressed Cre-dependent Gi-DREADDs in either the dorsomedial (DMS) or dorsolateral (DLS) striatum during and/or after action sequence learning in D1 and D2 Cre rats. Action sequence performance in D1 Cre rats was slowed down early in training when DREADDs were activated in the DMS...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Garr E, Delamater AR Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Rolipram treatment during consolidation ameliorates long-term object location memory in aged male mice.
Abstract Normal aging is accompanied by cognitive and memory impairments that negatively impact quality of life for the growing elderly population. Hippocampal function is most vulnerable to the deleterious effects of aging, and deficits in hippocampus-dependent memories are common amongst aged individuals. Moreover, signaling networks such as the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway, which are critical for memory consolidation, are dampened in healthy aged subjects. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes that break down cAMP are also affected by aging, and increased break down of cAMP by PDEs may contribute to reduced activity of the ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wimmer ME, Blackwell J, Abel T Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Differential effects of corticotropin-releasing factor and acute stress on different forms of risk/reward decision-making.
Abstract Acute stress and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) have been show to perturb cost/benefit decision making involving effort costs. However, previous studies on how stress manipulations affect decisions involving reward uncertainty have yielded variable results. To provide additional insight into this issue, the current study investigated how central CRF infusion and acute restraint stress alter different forms of risk/reward decision-making guided by internal representations of risk/reward contingencies or external informative cues. Male rats were well-trained on one of two tasks that required choice be...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bryce CA, Adalbert AJ, Claes MM, van Holstein M, Floresco SB Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Sleep deprivation directly following eyeblink-conditioning impairs memory consolidation.
Abstract The relation between sleep and different forms of memory formation continues to be a relevant topic in our daily life. Sleep has been found to affect cerebellum-dependent procedural memory formation, but it remains to be elucidated to what extent the level of sleep deprivation directly after motor training also influences our ability to store and retrieve memories. Here, we studied the effect of disturbed sleep in mice during two different time-windows, one covering the first four hours following eyeblink conditioning (EBC) and another window following the next period of four hours. Compared to control mi...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: De Zeeuw CI, Canto CB Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

The search for the engram: Should we look for plastic synapses or information-storing molecules?
Abstract Karl Lashley began the search for the engram nearly seventy years ago. In the time since, much has been learned but divisions remain. In the contemporary neurobiology of learning and memory, two profoundly different conceptions contend: the associative/connectionist (A/C) conception and the computational/representational (C/R) conception. Both theories ground themselves in the belief that the mind is emergent from the properties and processes of a material brain. Where these theories differ is in their description of what the neurobiological substrate of memory is and where it resides in the brain. The A/...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: James Langille J, Randy Gallistel C Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Some Factors that Restore Goal-Direction to a Habitual Behavior.
Abstract Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that an extensively-practiced instrumental behavior can appear to be a goal-directed action (rather than a habit) when a second behavior is added and reinforced during intermixed final sessions (Shipman, Trask, Bouton, & Green, 2018). The present experiments were designed to explore and understand this finding. All used the taste aversion method of devaluing the reinforcer to distinguish between goal-directed actions and habits. Experiment 1 confirmed that reinforcing a second response in a separate context (but not mere exposure to that context) can return ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Trask S, Shipman ML, Green JT, Bouton ME Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Unexpected food outcomes can return a habit to goal-directed action.
Abstract Three experiments examined the return of a habitual instrumental response to the status of goal-directed action. In all experiments, rats received extensive training in which lever pressing was reinforced with food pellets on a random-interval schedule of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, the extensively-trained response was not affected by conditioning a taste aversion to the reinforcer, and was therefore considered a habit. However, if the response had earned a new and unexpected food pellet during the final training session, the response was affected by taste aversion conditioning to the (first) reinforc...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bouton ME, Broomer MC, Rey CN, Thrailkill EA Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Instrumental learning in a mouse model for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Impaired habit formation in Sapap3 mutants.
We report a diminished propensity to form habits in these mice, which albeit inconsistent with the predominant idea of excessive habit formation in OCD, nonetheless points at dysregulation of behavioral automation in the context of compulsivity. Thus, the habit hypothesis of compulsivity should be updated to state that an imbalance of habitual and goal-directed responding in either direction can contribute to the development of compulsive behavior. PMID: 31927083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory)
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ehmer I, Feenstra M, Willuhn I, Denys D Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Motor learning and COMT Val158met polymorphism: analyses of oculomotor behavior and corticocortical communication.
, Menezes Lage G Abstract Differences in motor learning can be partially explained by differences in genotype. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism regulates the dopamine (DA) availability in the prefrontal cortex modulating motor learning and performance. Given the differences in tonic and phasic DA transmission, this study aimed to investigate whether the greater cognitive flexibility associated with the Val allele would favor the learning of movement parametrization, while the greater cognitive stability associated with the Met allele favors the acquisition of the movement pattern. Fur...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gardênia de Holanda Marinho Nogueira N, Marques de Miranda D, Rodrigues Albuquerque M, de Paula Ferreira B, Túlio Silva Batista M, Otoni Parma J, Apolinário-Souza T, Eduardo Antunes Bicalho L, Ugrinowitsch H, Menezes Lage G Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Threat-induced modulation of hippocampal and striatal memory systems during navigation of a virtual environment.
Abstract The brain is composed of multiple memory systems that mediate distinct types of navigation. The hippocampus is important for encoding and retrieving allocentric spatial cognitive maps, while the dorsal striatum mediates procedural memories based on stimulus-response (S-R) associations. These memory systems are differentially affected by emotional arousal. In particular, rodent studies show that stress typically impairs hippocampal spatial memory while it spares or sometimes enhances striatal S-R memory. The influence of emotional arousal on these separate navigational memory systems has received less atte...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Goodman J, McClay M, Dunsmoor JE Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Blocking under stress: Sustained attention to stimuli without predictive value?
Abstract Learning is blocked when a stimulus is followed by an outcome that is identical to what was expected and thus contains no new information. This classic 'blocking' effect exemplifies that learning is driven by the predictive value of stimuli, which in turn should guide the allocation of attentional resources. Stress is known to be a powerful modulator of learning and memory. However, whether stress may affect attentional processing during predictive learning is largely unknown. Here, we combined electroencephalography and eye-tracking with an experimental stress manipulation and a fear conditioning paradig...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Magdalena Kausche F, Schwabe L Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

The D2-family receptor agonist bromocriptine but, not nicotine, reverses NMDA receptor antagonist-induced working memory deficits in the radial arm maze in mice.
Abstract Hypofunction of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) may underlie cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric conditions including working memory (WM) impairments. Given that these deficits link closely to functional outcome, treatments remediating such deficits require identification. NMDAr hypofunction can be modeled via treatment with the antagonist MK-801. Hence, the present study determined whether cholinergic or dopaminergic agonists attenuate MK-801-induced WM deficits in mice. WM was assessed in male C57BL/6 mice trained on an automated 12-arm radial arm maze (RAM) paradigm, wherei...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: MacQueen DA, Young JW Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Modulation of the MAPKs pathways affects A β-induced cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease via activation of α7nAChR.
In this study, we investigated whether the effects of α7nAChR and MAPKs on Y maze test is reproducible with a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory test such as Morris water maze. We also assessed the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent recognition memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test and an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent recognition memory test such as the novel place recognition. Besides, previous research from our lab has shown that MAPKs pathways regulate Aβ internalization through mediating α7nAChR. In our study, whether MAPKs pathways exert their fun...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chang KW, Zong HF, Yasir Rizvi M, Ma KG, Zhai W, Wang M, Yang WN, Ji SF, Qian YH Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Chronic ghrelin administration suppresses IKK/NF- κB/BACE1 mediated Aβ production in primary neurons and improves cognitive function via upregulation of PP1 in STZ-diabetic rats.
In this study, we investigated the role of ghrelin on cognition and NF-κB mediated Aβ production in diabetic rats. A diabetic rat model was established with streptozotocin (STZ) injection, and diabetic rats were intracerebroventricularly administered with ghrelin or (D-lys3)-GHRP-6 (DG). Our results showed that diabetic rats had cognition impairment in the Morris water maze test, accompanied by the higher expression of Aβ in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis showed that diabetic rats exhibited significantly decreased levels of GHSR-1a and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in the hippocampus and increased act...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ma LY, Liu SF, Du JH, Niu Y, Hou PF, Shu Q, Ma RR, Wu SD, Qu QM, Lv YL Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Temporal dynamics of Arc/Arg3.1 expression in the dorsal striatum during acquisition and consolidation of a motor skill in mice.
Abstract Region- and pathway-specific plasticity within striatal circuits is critically involved in the acquisition and long-term retention of a new motor skill as it becomes automatized. However, the molecular substrates contributing to this plasticity remain unclear. Here, we examined the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in the associative or dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and the sensorimotor or dorsolateral striatum (DLS), as well as in striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, during different skill learning phases in the accelerating rotarod task. We found that Arc was ...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gong WK, Ni J, Yu LF, Wang L, Huang ZL Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Differential effects of L- and D- lactate on memory encoding and consolidation: Potential role of HCAR1 signaling.
Abstract The process of memory consolidation is energy-demanding and brain energy deficits result in memory impairments. Indeed, L-lactate, a preferred neuronal energy substrate, enhances the formation of memory, while blockade of the neuronal uptake of L-lactate by either pharmacological means or using its enantiomer D-lactate, impairs memory. Beyond metabolism, both enantiomers of lactate also have signaling properties through the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCAR1). Thus far, paradigms testing for an effect of lactate on memory modulation have ignored HCAR1 signaling while also mainly performing manipulat...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - December 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Scavuzzo CJ, Rakotovao I, Dickson CT Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Stimulus modality influences the acquisition and use of the rule-based strategy and the similarity-based strategy in category learning.
This study aimed to investigate whether stimulus modality influenced the acquisition and use of the rule-based strategy and the similarity-based strategy in category learning and whether the use of the two strategies was supported by shared or separate neural substrates. To address these issues, we combined behavioral and fNIRS methods in a modified prototype distortion task in which each category member has one rule feature and ten similarity features, and each type of feature can be presented in either the visual modality or the auditory modality. The results in Experiment 1 revealed that the learning effect in the "...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - December 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu J, Fu Q, Rose M Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Involvement of medial prefrontal cortex NMDA and AMPA/kainate glutamate receptors in social recognition memory consolidation.
Abstract Social recognition memory (SRM) enables the distinction between familiar and strange conspecifics, a fundamental ability for sociable species, such as rodents and humans. There is mounting evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex plays a prominent role both in shaping social behavior and in recognition memory. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and activity of its ionotropic receptors is known to mediate both synaptic plasticity and consolidation of various types of memories. However, whether these receptors are required in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for SRM consol...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - December 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Aschidamini Marcondes L, Godfried Nachtigall E, Zanluchi A, de Carvalho Myskiw J, Izquierdo I, Regina Guerino Furini C Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

More dynamic, more quantitative, unexpectedly intricate: advanced understanding on synaptic RNA localization in learning and memory.
Abstract Synaptic signaling exhibits great diversity, complexity, and plasticity which necessitates maintenance and rapid modification of a local proteome. One solution neurons actively exploit to meet such demands is the strategic deposition of mRNAs encoding both proteins for basal activities and experience-driven activities into ribonucleoprotein complexes at the synapse. Transcripts localized in this manner can be rapidly accessed for translation in response to a diverse range of stimuli in a temporal- and spatially-restricted manner. Here we review recent findings on localized RNAs and RNA binding proteins in...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - December 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Roy R, Shiina N, Wang DO Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Multiple extinction contexts modulate the neural correlates of context-dependent extinction learning and retrieval.
CJ Abstract Exposure therapy is a successful treatment for patients with anxiety and fear-related disorders. Extinction of conditioned fear comprises one important mechanism underlying the effects of exposure therapy. Yet, relapses frequently occur in the long-term, probably related to difficulties in generalizing the extinction of conditioned fear to new contexts, leading to renewal of conditioned fear. Extinction training in multiple extinction contexts depicts a promising opportunity to reduce this renewal of conditioned fear. However, the underlying neural correlates are unknown yet. In this functional magnet...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - December 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hermann A, Stark R, Müller EA, Kruse O, Wolf OT, Merz CJ Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Effects of Circadian Rhythm Disorder on the Hippocampus of SHR and WKY Rats.
Abstract The present study investigated the effects of circadian rhythm disorder (CRD) on the hippocampus of SHR and WKY rats. Male SHR rats (n = 27) and WKY rats (n = 27) were randomly divided into six groups: SHR and WKY normal (N)CR, SHR and WKY CRD 16/8 (CRD16/8), and SHR and WKY CRD 12/12 (CRD12/12). Activity patterns were adjusted using different photoperiods over 90 days and any changes were recorded. Rats were tested in the Morris water maze and in a novel object recognition experiment; serologic analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion tensor imaging + arterial spin labeling), hippocampal Nissl sta...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - December 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Y, Zhang Y, Wang W, Liu X, Chi Y, Lei J, Zhang B, Zhang T Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Effects of parietal exogenous oscillatory field potentials on subjectively perceived memory confidence.
Abstract Previous research has suggested involvement of parietal theta (3-7 Hz) power in subjectively perceived memory confidence during retrieval. To obtain further insights into the role of parietal theta activity during retrieval in processes associated with performance and confidence, fifty-four healthy volunteers performed a recognition memory task in a within-subject transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) study. Participants encoded a subset of words at specific on-screen locations. During the retrieval phase accuracy and subjectively perceived confidence on item and source memory were evaluated...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - December 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wynn SC, Kessels RPC, Schutter DJLG Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Evidence that a defined population of neurons in lateral amygdala is directly involved in auditory fear learning and memory.
Abstract Memory is thought to be encoded within networks of neurons within the brain, but the identity of the neurons involved and circuits they form have not been described for any memory. Previously, we used fos-tau-lacZ (FTL) transgenic mice to identify discrete populations of neurons in different regions of the brain which were specifically activated following fear conditioning. This suggested that these populations of neurons form nodes in a network that encodes fear memory. In particular, one population of learning activated neurons was found within a discrete region of the lateral amygdala (LA), a key nucle...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - December 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Butler CW, Wilson YM, Mills SA, Gunnersen JM, Murphy M Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research