Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1576: An Investigation on Glucuronidation Metabolite Identification, Isozyme Contribution, and Species Differences of GL-V9 In Vitro and In Vivo
In conclusion, 5-O-glucuronide GL-V9 is the dominant phase II metabolite of GL-V9 in vivo and in vitro, whose formation rate and efficiency are closely related to isoform-specific metabolism profiles and the distribution of UGTs in different tissues of different species. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Han Xing Dexuan Kong Chen Ning Ying Kong Chang Ren Yujie Cheng Hui Cai Jubo Wang Di Zhao Ning Li Xijing Chen Zhiyu Li Yang Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1577: Antibacterial Activity and Mechanisms of Essential Oil from Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis
o-Lei Luo In this work, antibacterial activity of finger citron essential oil (FCEO, Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis) and its mechanism against food-borne bacteria were evaluated. A total of 28 components in the oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in which limonene (45.36%), γ-terpinene (21.23%), and dodecanoic acid (7.52%) were three main components. For in vitro antibacterial tests, FCEO exhibited moderately antibacterial activity against common food-borne bacteria: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. It showed a better bacteric...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ze-Hua Li Ming Cai Yuan-Shuai Liu Pei-Long Sun Shao-Lei Luo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1579: Identification and Functional Analysis of a Flavonol Synthase Gene from Grape Hyacinth
In this study, we identified a FLS gene, MaFLS, expressed in petals of the ornamental monocot Muscari aucheri (grape hyacinth) and analyzed its spatial and temporal expression patterns. qRT-PCR analysis showed that MaFLS was predominantly expressed in the early stages of flower development. We next analyzed the in planta functions of MaFLS. Heterologous expression of MaFLS in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) resulted in a reduction in pigmentation in the petals, substantially inhibiting the expression of endogenous tobacco genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis (i.e., NtDFR, NtANS, and NtAN2) and upregulating the expression...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hongli Liu Beibei Su Han Zhang Jiaxin Gong Boxiao Zhang Yali Liu Lingjuan Du Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1580: Enoxacin and Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Act Synergistically to Inhibit the Growth of Cervical Cancer Cells in Culture
Barton Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in females worldwide. While survival rates have historically improved, there remains a continuous need to identify novel molecules that are effective against this disease. Here, we show that enoxacin, a drug most commonly used to treat a broad array of bacterial infections, is able to inhibit growth of the cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, our data show that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a plant bioactive compound abundant in green tea, and known for its antioxidant effects, similarly functions as an antiproliferative agent. Most importantly, we provide evidence th...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Anna Margaret McDonnell Holly M. Pyles Edgar S. Diaz-Cruz Christopher E. Barton Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1582: Radioprotective Effect of Walnut Oligopeptides Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Splenocyte Apoptosis and Intestinal Injury in Mice
i-Hong Xu Yong Li Walnut oligopeptides (WOPs) intake is associated with the augment of the antioxidant defense system and immune system. The chief object of this study is to evaluate the radioprotective effect of walnut oligopeptides extracted from walnut seed protein against 60Coγ-irradiation induced damage in mice. Female BALB/c mice were administered WOPs through drinking water for 14 days until a single dose of whole-body 60Coγ-irradiation. The 30-day survival test was carried out in the first group (8 Gy), and the other two groups (3.5 Gy) were sacrificed at 3 days and 14 days post-ir...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Na Zhu Rui Liu Li-Xia He Rui-Xue Mao Xin-Ran Liu Ting Zhang Yun-Tao Hao Rui Fan Mei-Hong Xu Yong Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1578: Molecular Recognition of the Hybrid-Type G-Quadruplexes in Human Telomeres
ou Yang G-quadruplex (G4) DNA secondary structures formed in human telomeres have been shown to inhibit cancer-specific telomerase and alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathways. Thus, human telomeric G-quadruplexes are considered attractive targets for anticancer drugs. Human telomeric G-quadruplexes are structurally polymorphic and predominantly form two hybrid-type G-quadruplexes, namely hybrid-1 and hybrid-2, under physiologically relevant solution conditions. To date, only a handful solution structures are available for drug complexes of human telomeric G-quadruplexes. In this review, we will describe two ...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Guanhui Wu Luying Chen Wenting Liu Danzhou Yang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1583: Oxidative Stress: A Key Modulator in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Kukreti Oxidative stress is proposed as a regulatory element in ageing and various neurological disorders. The excess of oxidants causes a reduction of antioxidants, which in turn produce an oxidation–reduction imbalance in organisms. Paucity of the antioxidant system generates oxidative-stress, characterized by elevated levels of reactive species (oxygen, hydroxyl free radical, and so on). Mitochondria play a key role in ATP supply to cells via oxidative phosphorylation, as well as synthesis of essential biological molecules. Various redox reactions catalyzed by enzymes take place in the oxidative phosph...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Anju Singh Ritushree Kukreti Luciano Saso Shrikant Kukreti Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1584: Brassinin Represses Invasive Potential of Lung Carcinoma Cells through Deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Cascade
ng Seok Ahn The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenomenon that facilitates epithelial cells to acquire invasive potential to induce the initiation the metastatic spread of tumor cells. Here, we determined if brassinin (BSN) can affect the EMT process and deciphered its anti-cancer effects. BSN attenuated the levels of EMT linked genes and suppressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-mediated regulation of diverse mesenchymal markers. Additionally, BSN did increase the expression of various epithelial marker proteins in lung cancer cells. TGF-β-induced morpholo...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Min Hee Yang Jong Hyun Lee Jeong-Hyeon Ko Sang Hoon Jung Gautam Sethi Kwang Seok Ahn Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1581: Field-Based Affinity Optimization of a Novel Azabicyclohexane Scaffold HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor
mon Cocklin Small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors are an extremely attractive therapeutic modality. We have previously demonstrated that the entry inhibitor class can be optimized by using computational means to identify and extend the chemotypes available. Here we demonstrate unique and differential effects of previously published antiviral compounds on the gross structure of the HIV-1 Env complex, with an azabicyclohexane scaffolded inhibitor having a positive effect on glycoprotein thermostability. We demonstrate that modification of the methyltriazole-azaindole headgroup of these entry inhibitors directly effects t...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Megan E. Meuser Adel A. Rashad Gabriel Ozorowski Alexej Dick Andrew B. Ward Simon Cocklin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1585: Comparative Study of the Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of the Extracts from Fruits, Leaves and Root Barks of Lycium barbarum
hua Shangguan The fruits, leaves and root barks of L. barbarum plant are widely used as functional foods and as ingredients in traditional Chinese prescriptions and patent medicines. They are considered to have different pharmacological activities and health benefits because of their diverse constituents. Here, the chemical constituents of the extracts from fruits, leaves and root barks of L. barbarum were compared by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-MS). A total of 131 compounds were identified and seven of them were quantified. Among them, 98, 28 and...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Xiao Xiao Wei Ren Nan Zhang Tao Bing Xiangjun Liu Zhenwen Zhao Dihua Shangguan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1586: Evaluation of Polyphenolic Compounds and Pharmacological Activities in Hairy Root Cultures of Ligularia fischeri Turcz. f. spiciformis (Nakai)
Thiruvengadam A considerable amount of bioactive compounds have been used for the biopharmaceutical engineering to help human health and nutrition. Hairy root culture (HRC) or transgenic root is a favourable alternative technique for phytochemical production. Ligularia fischeri is a significant source of pharmaceutically important active compounds with an enormous range of health care applications. HRC of L. fischeri was developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer and anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical activities. Hairy ro...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mohammad Azam Ansari Ill-Min Chung Govindasamy Rajakumar Mohammad A. Alzohairy Ahmad Almatroudi Venkatesan Gopiesh Khanna Muthu Thiruvengadam Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1587: Anticandidal Potential of Stem Bark Extract from Schima superba and the Identification of Its Major Anticandidal Compound
In this study, the anticandidal properties and mechanism of action of S. superba (SSE) were explored using a stem bark extract. SSE possessed high polyphenol and saponin contents of 256.6 ± 5.1 and 357.8 ± 31.5 µg/mg, respectively. A clear inhibition zone was observed for C. albicans growth through the disc diffusion method and the 50% inhibition of C. albicans by SSE was 415.2 µg/mL. Transcriptomic analysis in C. albicans treated with different doses of SSE was conducted through RNA-seq. Average values of 6068 genes and 20,842,500 clean reads were identified from e...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chun Wu Hong-Tan Wu Qing Wang Guey-Horng Wang Xue Yi Yu-Pei Chen Guang-Xiong Zhou Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1588: [1,2,5]Thiadiazolo[3,4-d]Pyridazine as an Internal Acceptor in the D-A- π-A Organic Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1588: [1,2,5]Thiadiazolo[3,4-d]Pyridazine as an Internal Acceptor in the D-A-π-A Organic Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules24081588 Authors: Chmovzh Knyazeva mlv@ioc.ac.ru Tanaka Popov Mikhalchenko Robertson Rakitin Four new D-A-π-A metal-free organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), with [1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3 ,4-d]pyridazine as internal acceptor, thiophene unit as π-spacer and cyanoacrylate as anchoring electron acceptor, have been synthesized. The donor moiety was introduced into [1,2,5...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chmovzh Knyazeva mlv at ioc.ac.ru Tanaka Popov Mikhalchenko Robertson Rakitin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1589: Could Polyphenols Help in the Control of Rheumatoid Arthritis?
m Kim Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, joint-invading, autoimmune inflammatory disease, which causes joint cartilage breakdown and bone damage, resulting in functional impairment and deformation of the joints. The percentage of RA patients has been rising and RA represents a substantial burden for patients around the world. Despite the development of many RA therapies, because of the side effects and low effectiveness of conventional drugs, patients still need and researchers are seeking new therapeutic alternatives. Polyphenols extracted from natural products are effective on several inflammatory ...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sung Kwon Um Kim Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1590: Tuscan Varieties of Sweet Cherry Are Rich Sources of Ursolic and Oleanolic Acid: Protein Modeling Coupled to Targeted Gene Expression and Metabolite Analyses
This study stresses the interest of valorizing ancient fruits as alternative sources of functional molecules with nutraceutical value. It also provides information on sweet cherry triterpene biosynthetic genes, which could be the object of follow-up functional studies. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Roberto Berni Mubasher Zahir Hoque Sylvain Legay Giampiero Cai Khawar Sohail Siddiqui Jean-Francois Hausman Christelle M. Andre Gea Guerriero Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1591: Synthesis of a Fluorous-Tagged Hexasaccharide and Interaction with Growth Factors Using Sugar-Coated Microplates
o M. Nieto Here, we report the synthesis of a sulfated, fully protected hexasaccharide as a glycosaminoglycan mimetic and the study of its interactions with different growth factors: midkine, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and nerve growth factor (NGF). Following a fluorous-assisted approach, monosaccharide building blocks were successfully assembled and the target oligosaccharide was prepared in excellent yield. The use of more acid stable 4,6-O-silylidene protected glucosamine units was crucial for the efficiency of this strategy because harsh reaction conditions were needed in the glycosylations to avoid the...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Susana Maza Jos é L. de Paz Pedro M. Nieto Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1592: Detecting Zn(II) Ions in Live Cells with Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes
ova Luck Liu Two near-infrared fluorescent probes (A and B) containing hemicyanine structures appended to dipicolylamine (DPA), and a dipicolylamine derivative where one pyridine was substituted with pyrazine, respectively, were synthesized and tested for the identification of Zn(II) ions in live cells. In both probes, an acetyl group is attached to the phenolic oxygen atom of the hemicyanine platform to decrease the probe fluorescence background. Probe A displays sensitive fluorescence responses and binds preferentially to Zn(II) ions over other metal ions such as Cd2+ ions with a low detection limit of 0.45 nM....
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Fang Xia Bi Wigstrom Valenzano Wang Tanasova Luck Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1593: High-Throughput Biochemical Fingerprinting of Oleaginous Aurantiochytrium sp. Strains by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for Lipid and Carbohydrate Productions
Wang Sun Wang The traditional biochemical methods for analyzing cellular composition of oleaginous microorganisms are time-consuming, polluting, and expensive. In the present study, an FT-IR method was used to analyze the cellular composition of the marine oleaginous protist Aurantiochytrium sp. during various research processes, such as strains screening, medium optimization, and fermentation, and was evaluated as a green, low-cost, high throughput, and accurate method compared with the traditional methods. A total of 109 Aurantiochytrium sp. strains were screened for lipid and carbohydrate production and the b...
Source: Molecules - April 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yu Huang Chen Wang Chen Li Liu Wang Sun Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1575: Spiro Indane-Based Phosphine-Oxazolines as Highly Efficient P,N Ligands for Enantioselective Pd-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation of Indoles and Allylic Etherification
ei Teng A series of indane-based phosphine-oxazoline ligands with a spirocarbon stereogenic center were examined for palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of indoles. Under optimized conditions, high yields (up to 98%) and enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee) were obtained with a broad scope of indole derivatives. The ligand was determined to be the most efficient P,N-ligand for this reaction. Moreover, the ligand was also efficient for Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic etherification with hard aliphatic alcohols as nucleophiles. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - April 21, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhongxuan Qiu Rui Sun Kun Yang Dawei Teng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1572: Analyzing Secondary Structure Patterns in DNA Aptamers Identified via CompELS
. Milam In contrast to sophisticated high-throughput sequencing tools for genomic DNA, analytical tools for comparing secondary structure features between multiple single-stranded DNA sequences are less developed. For single-stranded nucleic acid ligands called aptamers, secondary structure is widely thought to play a pivotal role in driving recognition-based binding activity between an aptamer sequence and its specific target. Here, we employ a competition-based aptamer screening platform called CompELS to identify DNA aptamers for a colloidal target. We then analyze predicted secondary structures of the aptamers and ...
Source: Molecules - April 21, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Richard Sullivan Mary Catherine Adams Rajesh R. Naik Valeria T. Milam Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1573: Antibacterial Activity of Different Blossom Honeys: New Findings
nella Canini Juraj Majtan Antibacterial activity is the most investigated biological property of honey. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 57 Slovak blossom honeys against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and investigate the role of several bioactive substances in antibacterial action of honeys. Inhibitory and bactericidal activities of honeys were studied to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. The contents of glucose oxidase (GOX) enzyme, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and total polyphenols (TP) were determined in honeys. We found that honey ...
Source: Molecules - April 21, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Marcela Bucekova Lucia Jardekova Valeria Juricova Veronika Bugarova Gabriele Di Marco Angelo Gismondi Donatella Leonardi Jarmila Farkasovska Jana Godocikova Maros Laho Jaroslav Klaudiny Viktor Majtan Antonella Canini Juraj Majtan Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1574: Ligand Selectivity in the Recognition of Protoberberine Alkaloids by Hybrid-2 Human Telomeric G-Quadruplex: Binding Free Energy Calculation, Fluorescence Binding, and NMR Experiments
Danzhou Yang The human telomeric G-quadruplex (G4) is an attractive target for developing anticancer drugs. Natural products protoberberine alkaloids are known to bind human telomeric G4 and inhibit telomerase. Among several structurally similar protoberberine alkaloids, epiberberine (EPI) shows the greatest specificity in recognizing the human telomeric G4 over duplex DNA and other G4s. Recently, NMR study revealed that EPI recognizes specifically the hybrid-2 form human telomeric G4 by inducing large rearrangements in the 5′-flanking segment and loop regions to form a highly extensive four-layered bi...
Source: Molecules - April 21, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Nanjie Deng Junchao Xia Lauren Wickstrom Clement Lin Kaibo Wang Peng He Yunting Yin Danzhou Yang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1570: Impact of Small Molecules on Intermolecular G-Quadruplex Formation
Hamza Balci We performed single molecule studies to investigate the impact of several prominent small molecules (the oxazole telomestatin derivative L2H2-6OTD, pyridostatin, and Phen-DC3) on intermolecular G-quadruplex (i-GQ) formation between two guanine-rich DNA strands that had 3-GGG repeats in one strand and 1-GGG repeat in the other (3+1 GGG), or 2-GGG repeats in each strand (2+2 GGG). Such structures are not only physiologically significant but have recently found use in various biotechnology applications, ranging from DNA-based wires to chemical sensors. Understanding the extent of stability imparted by small mo...
Source: Molecules - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Prabesh Gyawali Keshav GC Yue Ma Sanjaya Abeysirigunawardena Kazuo Nagasawa Hamza Balci Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1571: Modelling Contaminant Formation during Thermal Processing of Sea Buckthorn Pur ée
Conclusions: the found model is useful for the prediction of the best temperature/time conditions of the thermal treatment to obtain the lowest contaminates levels in the final product. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Oana Emilia Constantin Kristina Kukurov á Ľubomír Daško Nicoleta St ănciuc Zuzana Ciesarov á Constantin Croitoru Gabriela R âpeanu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1564: Development of a Green Downstream Process for the Valorization of Porphyridium cruentum Biomass
te;ñez Miguel Herrero As the interest in biorefinery approaches is continuously increasing, new alternatives for the downstream valorization of biomasses are sought. Porphyridium cruentum microalga is a good natural source for a variety of interesting bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, phycoerythrin, and sulfated polysaccharides. In the present contribution, the use of compressed fluids-based techniques is explored towards the efficient and green extraction of bioactive compounds to valorize microalgal biomass. The extraction of carotenoids was first optimized using pressurized ethanol. The best extra...
Source: Molecules - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Roc ío Gallego Marina Mart ínez Alejandro Cifuentes Elena Ib áñez Miguel Herrero Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1565: Effect of Protein Conformation and AMP Protonation State on Fireflies ’ Bioluminescent Emission
This study gets partial insight into the possible origin of the emitted color modulation by changes of the pH or luciferase conformations. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Cristina Garcia-Iriepa Isabelle Navizet Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1566: Probing the Effect of Bulky Lesion-Induced Replication Fork Conformational Heterogeneity Using 4-Aminobiphenyl-Modified DNA
ongsup P. Cho Bulky organic carcinogens are activated in vivo and subsequently react with nucleobases of cellular DNA to produce adducts. Some of these DNA adducts exist in multiple conformations that are slowly interconverted to one another. Different conformations have been implicated in different mutagenic and repair outcomes. However, studies on the conformation-specific inhibition of replication, which is more relevant to cell survival, are scarce, presumably due to the structural dynamics of DNA lesions at the replication fork. It is difficult to capture the exact nature of replication inhibition by existing end-...
Source: Molecules - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ang Cai Ke Bian Fangyi Chen Qi Tang Rachel Carley Deyu Li Bongsup P. Cho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1567: A Stapled Peptide Mimic of the Pseudosubstrate Inhibitor PKI Inhibits Protein Kinase A
J. Kennedy Kinases regulate multiple and diverse signaling pathways and misregulation is implicated in a multitude of diseases. Although significant efforts have been put forth to develop kinase-specific inhibitors, specificity remains a challenge. As an alternative to catalytic inhibition, allosteric inhibitors can target areas on the surface of an enzyme, thereby providing additional target diversity. Using cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) as a model system, we sought to develop a hydrocarbon-stapled peptide targeting the pseudosubstrate domain of the kinase. A library of peptides was designed from a Protein Ki...
Source: Molecules - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jascha T. Manschwetus George N. Bendzunas Ameya J. Limaye Matthias J. Knape Friedrich W. Herberg Eileen J. Kennedy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1568: Beer Molecules and Its Sensory and Biological Properties: A Review
cine Ferreira Padilha The production and consumption of beer plays a significant role in the social, political, and economic activities of many societies. During brewing fermentation step, many volatile and phenolic compounds are produced. They bring several organoleptic characteristics to beer and also provide an identity for regional producers. In this review, the beer compounds synthesis, and their role in the chemical and sensory properties of craft beers, and potential health benefits are described. This review also describes the importance of fermentation for the brewing process, since alcohol and many volatile e...
Source: Molecules - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Bruno Vieira Humia Klebson Silva Santos Andriele Mendon ça Barbosa Monize Sawata Marcelo da Costa Mendon ça Francine Ferreira Padilha Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1569: Copper-Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of (E)- β-Fluorovinyl Sulfones
Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1569: Copper-Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of (E)-β-Fluorovinyl Sulfones Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules24081569 Authors: Raquel Román Pablo Barrio Natalia Mateu Daniel M. Sedgwick Santos Fustero Organofluorine compounds are finding increasing application in a variety of fields such as pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and material sciences. However, given the scarcity of fluorine-containing natural products, advancement in this area depends almost entirely on the development of new synthetic methodologies. In this article, we present the synthesis of a series of prev...
Source: Molecules - April 20, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Raquel Rom án Pablo Barrio Natalia Mateu Daniel M. Sedgwick Santos Fustero Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1543: Antioxidant Properties of Four Commonly Consumed Popular Italian Dishes
This study provides their antioxidant properties evaluating the contribution of extractable and non-extractable bioactive compounds, and identifying the assessment of interactions between their natural active compounds and the food matrix. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values in aqueous-organic extract ranged from the highest antioxidant activity in torta di mele (10.72 µmol/g d.m.) to that in besciamella (2.47 µmol/g d.m.); in residue, pasta alla carbonara reached the highest value (73.83 µmol/g d.m.) following by that in pasta alla amatriciana (68.64 µmol...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alessandra Durazzo Massimo Lucarini Antonello Santini Emanuela Camilli Paolo Gabrielli Stefania Marconi Silvia Lisciani Altero Aguzzi Loretta Gambelli Ettore Novellino Luisa Marletta Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1544: Propolis Induces AQP3 Expression: A Possible Way of Action in Wound Healing
Ranzato Propolis is the generic name of a complex of resinous compound collected by honeybees and it has been utilized for many years in folk medicine. As other products generated by honeybees (such as royal jelly, pollen, honey), propolis has great therapeutic properties, but very little scientific information is available. Therefore, this study was aimed at exploring the potential wound healing properties of propolis. To that end, we utilized an in vitro scratch wound healing model consisting of human immortalized keratinocytes. Our scratch wound data clearly demonstrated that propolis induced a pronounced increase i...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Simona Martinotti Giorgia Pellavio Umberto Laforenza Elia Ranzato Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1545: How Humic Acids Affect the Rheological and Transport Properties of Hydrogels
lacek Humic acids are often regarded as substances with a supramolecular structure which plays an important role in Nature. Their addition into hydrogels can affect their behavior and functioning in different applications. This work is focused on the properties of widely-used hydrogel based on agarose after addition of humic acids–the protonated H-form of humic acids and humic acids with methylated carboxylic groups. Hydrogels enriched by humic acids were studied in terms of their viscoelastic and transport properties. Rotational rheometry and methods employing diffusion cells were used in order to descri...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Martina Klucakova Jiri Smilek Petr Sedlacek Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1546: The Anti-Inflammatory Role of Mannich Curcuminoids; Special Focus on Colitis
cute; Hackler Iván Kanizsai Anikó Pósa Csaba Varga László G. Puskás The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) increases gradually in Western countries with high need for novel therapeutic interventions. Mannich curcuminoids, C142 or C150 synthetized in our laboratory, have been tested for anti-inflammatory activity in a rat model of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid) induced colitis. Treatment with C142 or C150 reduced leukocyte infiltration to the submucosa and muscular propria of the inflamed gut. C142 or C150 rescued the loss of body weight and C150 d...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: G ábor J. Szebeni Lajos I. Nagy Anik ó Berkó Alexandra Hoffmann Lili ána Z. Fehér M ária Bagyánszki Be áta Kari J ózsef A. Balog L ászló Hackler Iv án Kanizsai Anik ó Pósa Csaba Varga L ászló G. Puskás Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1547: A Water-Soluble Microencapsulated Milk Thistle Extract as Active Ingredient for Dermal Formulations
sa Mencherini The choice of formulation is often of crucial importance in order to obtain a pharmaceutical product for the administration of poorly soluble drugs. Recently, a new water-soluble microparticulate powder form (MTE-mp) for the oral administration of a high functionality/low solubility silymarin rich milk thistle extract (MTE) has been developed. Findings showed that extract-loaded microparticles by spray-drying were produced with high and reproducible yields and encapsulation efficiency. The in vitro dissolution and permeation rates of silymarin were dramatically improved with respect to the raw material, a...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Tiziana Esposito Francesca Sansone Paola Russo Patrizia Picerno Rita Patrizia Aquino Franco Gasparri Teresa Mencherini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1549: Diamond Nanoparticles Downregulate Expression of CycD and CycE in Glioma Cells
cka Andre Chwalibog Our previous studies have shown that diamond nanoparticles (NDs) exhibited antiangiogenic and proapoptotic properties in vitro in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors in vivo. Moreover, NDs inhibited adhesion, leading to the suppression of migration and invasion of GBM. In the present study, we hypothesized that the NDs might also inhibit proliferation and cell cycle in glioma cells. Experiments were performed in vitro with the U87 and U118 lines of GBM cells, and for comparison, the Hs5 line of stromal cells (normal cells) after 24 h and 72 h of treatment. The analyses included cell ...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Marta Grodzik Jaroslaw Szczepaniak Barbara Strojny-Cieslak Anna Hotowy Mateusz Wierzbicki Slawomir Jaworski Marta Kutwin Emilia Soltan Tomasz Mandat Aneta Lewicka Andre Chwalibog Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1550: Discrimination of Trichosanthis Fructus from Different Geographical Origins Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometric Techniques
imao Chao Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with chemometric techniques was applied to discriminate the geographical origins of crude drugs (i.e., dried ripe fruits of Trichosanthes kirilowii) and prepared slices of Trichosanthis Fructus in this work. The crude drug samples (120 batches) from four growing regions (i.e., Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, and Henan Provinces) were collected, dried, and used and the prepared slice samples (30 batches) were purchased from different drug stores. The raw NIR spectra were acquired and preprocessed with multiplicative scatter correction (MSC). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Liang Xu Wen Sun Cui Wu Yucui Ma Zhimao Chao Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1548: Silibinin Downregulates the NF- κB Pathway and NLRP1/NLRP3 Inflammasomes in Monocytes from Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia
Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1548: Silibinin Downregulates the NF-κB Pathway and NLRP1/NLRP3 Inflammasomes in Monocytes from Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules24081548 Authors: Mariana Leticia Matias Virginia Juliani Gomes Mariana Romao-Veiga Vanessa Rocha Ribeiro Priscila Rezeck Nunes Graziela Gorete Romagnoli Jose Carlos Peracoli Maria Terezinha Serrao Peracoli Preeclampsia (PE) is a human pregnancy-specific syndrome with abnormal activation of cells from the innate immune system. The present study evaluated whether silibinin (SB) treatment of monocytes from preecla...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mariana Leticia Matias Virginia Juliani Gomes Mariana Romao-Veiga Vanessa Rocha Ribeiro Priscila Rezeck Nunes Graziela Gorete Romagnoli Jose Carlos Peracoli Maria Terezinha Serrao Peracoli Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1551: Comparative Study of Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities in Different Vegetative Parts of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.)
In this study, the phenolics profile as well as cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were investigated in free and bound fractions of six different vegetative parts from Boehmeria nivea L. The highest total phenolic content was observed in bud (4585 ± 320 mg GAE/100 g DW), whereas root and petiole had the lowest total phenolic contents, 442.8 ± 9.8 and 630.9 ± 27.0 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. Likewise, phloem had the most abundant total flavonoids (2755 ± 184 mg CE/100 g DW), whereas the lowest flavonoid contents was found in root and petiole, ...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hong Wang Caisheng Qiu Ling Chen Arshad Mehmood Abbasi Xinbo Guo Rui Hai Liu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1552: Antiviral Activities of Silymarin and Derivatives
ung Lin Silymarin flavonolignans are well-known agents that typically possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective functions. Recent studies have also documented the antiviral activities of silymarin and its derivatives against several viruses, including the flaviviruses (hepatitis C virus and dengue virus), togaviruses (Chikungunya virus and Mayaro virus), influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis B virus. This review will describe some of the latest preclinical and clinical studies detailing the antiviral profiles of silymarin and its derivatives, and discuss their relevance for a...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ching-Hsuan Liu Alagie Jassey Hsin-Ya Hsu Liang-Tzung Lin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1553: Synthesis and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Quaternized 10-Methoxycanthin-6-one Derivatives
Conclusions: This work provides two new effective quaternized canthin-6-one derivatives as candidate bactericide, promoting the development of natural-sourced bactericides and preservatives. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Na Li Dan Liu Jiang-Kun Dai Jin-Yi Wang Jun-Ru Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1542: Activation and Disproportionation of Zr2Fe Alloy as Hydrogen Storage Material
umao Wang As a hydrogen storage material, Zr2Fe alloy has many advantages such as fast hydrogen absorption speed, high tritium recovery efficiency, strong anti-pulverization ability, and difficulty self-igniting in air. Zr2Fe alloy has lower hydrogen absorption pressure at room temperature than LaNi5 alloy. Compared with the ZrVFe alloy, the hydrogen release temperature of Zr2Fe is lower so that the material can recover hydrogen isotopes at lower hydrogen concentration efficiently. Unfortunately, the main problem of Zr2Fe alloy in application is that a disproportionation reaction is easy to occur after hydrogen absorpt...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jiangfeng Song Jingchuan Wang Xiaoyu Hu Daqiao Meng Shumao Wang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1554: Extraction, Purification, Structural Characteristics, Biological Activities and Pharmacological Applications of Acemannan, a Polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A Review
In conclusion, this review summarizes the extraction, purification, structural characteristics, biological activities and pharmacological applications of acemannan, and provides information for the industrial production and possible applications in dentistry and wound healing in the future. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chang Liu Yan Cui Fuwei Pi Yuliang Cheng Yahui Guo He Qian Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1555: Using Extra Virgin Olive Oil to Cook Vegetables Enhances Polyphenol and Carotenoid Extractability: A Study Applying the sofrito Technique
Lamuela-Raventós Olive oil is the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet and the most frequently used ingredient in Mediterranean cuisine. Cooking with olive oil has been attracting attention because it can act as a food excipient, thereby increasing the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of ingested bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of cooking with olive oil on the bioactive components in other ingredients (tomato, onion, and garlic) of sofrito sauce, a representative model of Mediterranean cuisine. After the cooking process, polyphenols from tomato, onion, and garl...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jos é Fernando Rinaldi de Alvarenga Paola Quifer-Rada Fernanda Francetto Juliano Sara Hurtado-Barroso Montserrat Illan Xavier Torrado-Prat Rosa Maria Lamuela-Ravent ós Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1556: Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) Hull Extract and Active Compounds Inhibit Proliferation of Primary Human Leiomyoma Cells and Protect against Sexual Hormone-Induced Mice Smooth Muscle Hyperproliferation
In this study, the anti-proliferation effects of each fraction of adlay seeds were evaluated in uterine leiomyomas, and we identified the potential phytochemical compounds. We found that the ethyl acetate fraction of adlay hull (AHE-ea) appeared to be highly efficient in the anti-proliferation of rat uterine leiomyoma ELT3 cells and primary human uterine leiomyoma (hUL) cells. The proliferation of primary human normal uterine smooth muscle (UtSMC) and normal uterine myometrial (hUM) cells were also suppressed by AHE-ea. Two phytosterols, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol, were identified from AHE-ea fraction. Mice...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Lin Shih Yen Chiang Hsia Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1557: Future Prospects in the Treatment of Parasitic Diseases: 2-Amino-1,3,4-Thiadiazoles in Leishmaniasis
an Neglected tropical diseases affect the lives of a billion people worldwide. Among them, the parasitic infections caused by protozoan parasites of the Trypanosomatidae family have a huge impact on human health. Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania spp., is an endemic parasitic disease in over 88 countries and is closely associated with poverty. Although significant advances have been made in the treatment of leishmaniasis over the last decade, currently available chemotherapy is far from satisfactory. The lack of an approved vaccine, effective medication and significant drug resistance worldwide had led to considerabl...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Serban Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1558: The Effects of Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (MEHP) on Human Estrogen Receptor (hER) and Androgen Receptor (hAR) by YES/YAS In Vitro Assay
This study aimed to detect the (anti-)estrogenic and (anti-)androgenic activities of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) by yeast estrogen/androgen bioassay (YES/YAS). In addition, the mechanism and uptake of MEHP to receptors during agonistic and antagonistic activities were investigated through the activation signal recovery test and chromatographic analysis using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Estrogenic and androgenic activities of MEHP were not observed. However, MEHP exhibited anti-estrogenic (IC50 = 125 μM) and anti-androgenic effects (IC50 = 736 μM). It was con...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Kim Park Kim Kim Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1559: Studies Towards Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs of PARP Inhibitors
P. Hay Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) have recently been approved for the treatment of breast and ovarian tumors with defects in homologous recombination repair (HRR). Although it has been demonstrated that PARPi also sensitize HRR competent tumors to cytotoxic chemotherapies or radiotherapy, normal cell toxicity has remained an obstacle to their use in this context. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) provide a means to limit exposure of normal cells to active drug, thus adding a layer of tumor selectivity. We have investigated potential HAPs of model PARPi in which we attach a bioreducible &a...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Benjamin D. Dickson Way Wua Wong William R. Wilson Michael P. Hay Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1560: DNA Damaging Effects, Oxidative Stress Responses and Cholinesterase Activity in Blood and Brain of Wistar Rats Exposed to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol
Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1560: DNA Damaging Effects, Oxidative Stress Responses and Cholinesterase Activity in Blood and Brain of Wistar Rats Exposed to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules24081560 Authors: Nevenka Kopjar Nino Fuchs Suzana Žunec Anja Mikolić Vedran Micek Goran Kozina Ana Lucić Vrdoljak Irena Brčić Karačonji Currently we are faced with an ever-growing use of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) preparations, often used as supportive therapies for various malignancies and neurological disorders. As some of illegally distributed forms of such prepa...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Nevenka Kopjar Nino Fuchs Suzana Žunec Anja Mikoli ć Vedran Micek Goran Kozina Ana Luci ć Vrdoljak Irena Br čić Karačonji Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1562: The Physical Vapor Transport Method for Bulk AlN Crystal Growth
In this report, the development of physical vapor transport (PVT) methods for bulk aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal growth is reviewed. Three modified PVT methods with different features including selected growth at a conical zone, freestanding growth on a perforated sheet, and nucleation control with an inverse temperature gradient are discussed and compared in terms of the size and quality of the bulk AlN crystals they can produce as well as the process complexity. The PVT method with an inverse temperature gradient is able to significantly reduce the nucleation rate and realize the dominant growth of only one bulk AlN sin...
Source: Molecules - April 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wen-Hao Chen Zuo-Yan Qin Xu-Yong Tian Xu-Hui Zhong Zhen-Hua Sun Bai-Kui Li Rui-Sheng Zheng Yuan Guo Hong-Lei Wu Tags: Article Source Type: research