Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1181: Metabolite Differences of Polyphenols in Different Litchi Cultivars (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Based on Extensive Targeted Metabonomics
In this study we used widely targeted metabolome based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to analyze the polyphenol metabolites of five different genotypes of mature litchi fruit. A total of 126 polyphenol metabolites in eight categories were identified to reveal the composition and differences of polyphenol; 15 common differential metabolites and 20 specific differential metabolites to each cultivar were found for the first time. The results infer that flavonoids, flavonols, hydroxycinnamoyls and catechins are the main polyphenol metabolites of litchi pulp. Cluster analy...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Nonghui Jiang Huili Zhu Wei Liu Chao Fan Feng Jin Xu Xiang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1182: Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacities of Antarctic Macroalgae and Their Use for Nanoparticles Production
M. Lastra-Valdor Macroalgae are sources of bioactive compounds that are interesting from both a chemical and a medical point of view. Although their use in biomedicine has increased significantly in recent years, tests conducted to date have been mostly related to species from temperate latitudes, with the potential application of Antarctic biodiversity being minor. The wide variety of algae species present on Antarctic coastal areas can be a source of new antioxidants. Bearing this in mind, the brown macroalgae Desmarestia antarctica (DA) and the red Iridaea cordata (IC) were selected for the preparation of aqueous...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: N. Gonz ález-Ballesteros M. C. Rodr íguez-Argüelles M. Lastra-Valdor Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1183: 5-ALA Attenuates the Palmitic Acid-Induced ER Stress and Apoptosis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells
Yonekura The conservation of mammary gland physiology by maintaining the maximum number of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) is of the utmost importance for the optimum amount of milk production. In a state of negative energy balance, palmitic acid (PA) reduces the number of bovine MECs. However, there is no effective strategy against PA-induced apoptosis of MECs. In the present study, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was established as a remedial agent against PA-induced apoptosis of MAC-T cells (an established line of bovine MECs). In PA-treated cells, the apoptosis-related genes BCL2 and BAX were down- and upregulated, ...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mst Mamuna Sharmin Md Aminul Islam Itsuki Yamamoto Shin Taniguchi Shinichi Yonekura Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1184: Nutritional Value and Biological Activity of Gluten-Free Bread Enriched with Cricket Powder
Dominik Kmiecik Cricket powder, described in the literature as a source of nutrients, can be a valuable ingredient to supplement deficiencies in various food products. Work continues on the implementation of cricket powder in products that are widely consumed. The aim of this study was to obtain gluten-free bread with a superior nutritional profile by means of insect powder addition. Gluten-free breads enriched with 2%, 6%, and 10% of cricket (Acheta domesticus) powder were formulated and extensively characterized. The nutritional value, as well as antioxidant and β-glucuronidase activities, were assessed after s...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Przemys ław Łukasz Kowalczewski Ma łgorzata Gumienna Iga Rybicka Barbara G órna Paulina Sarbak Krzysztof Dziedzic Dominik Kmiecik Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1186: Constructing an Efficient Bacillus subtilis Spore Display by Using Cohesin −Dockerin Interactions
In this study, five different pairs of cohesins and dockerins, selected from four cellulolytic microbes, were examined for their capabilities in displaying a tetrameric enzyme β-galactosidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM11001 on the surface of B. subtilis WB600 spores. Immunofluorescence microscopy, western blotting, dot blotting, and enzyme assay was applied to confirm its surface expression. All the resultant five Coh–Doc based spore display can hydrolyze o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside. Further, the optimized Coh–Doc based spore display exhibited the highest display efficiency. Overall,...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: He Wang Xiaomin Jiang Yongchang Qian Lianghong Yin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1187: Impact of In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on the Bioaccessibility of Phytochemical Compounds from Eight Fruit Juices
In conclusion, fruit juices are a rich source of biologically active substances, but a more detailed analysis of food transformation during digestion is needed. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Dasha Mihaylova Ivelina Desseva Magdalena Stoyanova Nadezhda Petkova Margarita Terzyiska Anna Lante Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1185: Algae and Microalgae and Their Bioactive Molecules for Human Health
eacute;nais The algae and microalgae are an extremely diverse group of organisms that contain many bioactive molecules, including pigments, polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, polyphenol, etc [...] (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Beno ît Chénais Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1191: Therapeutic Intervention of COVID-19 by Natural Products: A Population-Specific Survey Directed Approach
lias Muhammad To date very few promising leads from natural products (NP) secondary metabolites with antiviral and immunomodulatory properties have been identified for promising/potential intervention for COVID-19. Using in-silico docking studies and genome based various molecular targets, and their in vitro anti-SARS CoV-2 activities against whole cell and/or selected protein targets, we select a few compounds of interest, which can be used as potential leads to counteract effects of uncontrolled innate immune responses, in particular those related to the cytokine storm. A critical factor for prevention and treatment ...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Christian R. Gomez Ingrid Espinoza Fazlay S. Faruke Md. Mahbub Hasan Khondaker Miraz Rahman Larry A. Walker Ilias Muhammad Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1190: Slow Relaxation of the Magnetization in Anilato-Based Dy(III) 2D Lattices
rlos J. Gómez-García The search for two- and three-dimensional materials with slow relaxation of the magnetization (single-ion magnets, SIM and single-molecule magnets, SMM) has become a very active area in recent years. Here we show how it is possible to prepare two-dimensional SIMs by combining Dy(III) with two different anilato-type ligands (dianions of the 3,6-disubstituted-2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone: C6O4X22−, with X = H and Cl) in dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso). The two compounds prepared, formulated as: [Dy2(C6O4H2)3(dmso)2(H2O)2]·2dmso·18H2O (1) and [Dy2(C6O4Cl2)3(dmso)4]·...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Samia Benmansour Antonio Hern ández-Paredes Mar ía Bayona-Andrés Carlos J. G ómez-García Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1189: Natural and Artificial Photoprotective Agents
o Sunlight has a long list of positive effects on living beings [...] (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Diego Sampedro Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1188: Combined Therapy of A1AR Agonists and A2AAR Antagonists in Neuroinflammation
Michela Buccioni Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and multiple sclerosis are neurodegenerative diseases relatedby neuronal degeneration and death in specific areas of the central nervous system. These pathologiesare associated with neuroinflammation, which is involved in disease progression, and haltingthis process represents a potential therapeutic strategy. Evidence suggests that microglia functionis regulated by A1 and A2A adenosine receptors (AR), which are considered as neuroprotective andneurodegenerative receptors, respectively. The manuscript’s aim is to elucidate the role of thesereceptors in neur...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Gabriella Marucci Diego Dal Ben Catia Lambertucci Aleix Mart í Navia Andrea Spinaci Rosaria Volpini Michela Buccioni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1192: Induction of Low Temperature Tolerance in Wheat by Pre-Soaking and Parental Treatment with Melatonin
In this study, the effects of seed pre-soaking and parental treatment with melatonin on seed germination and low temperature tolerance during the early growing stage in wheat were studied. The results showed that pre-soaking with melatonin increased the germination rate, improved antioxidant capacity and accelerated starch degradation under low temperature, which alleviated low temperature-induced damage to the chloroplasts in coleoptiles of wheat seedlings. Parental melatonin treatment during grain filling stage significantly decreased the grain weight. Seeds from parental melatonin-treated plants showed higher germinatio...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hua Zhang Lei Liu Zongshuai Wang Guozhong Feng Qiang Gao Xiangnan Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1193: Effect of Power Ultrasound Treatment on Free and Glycosidically-Bound Volatile Compounds and the Sensorial Profile of Red Wines
This study presents the effect of the application of high-power ultrasound to crushed grapes, at a winery-scale, on the content of varietal volatile compounds (free and glycosidically-bound) in musts and on the overall aroma of wines. Two different frequencies (20 kHz and 28 kHz) were tested and the combination of grape sonication and different maceration times on wine aroma was also evaluated. The volatile compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, carrying out a sensory evaluation of wines by quantitative descriptive analysis. Sonication produced an increase in...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rodrigo Oliver Simancas Mar ía Consuelo Díaz-Maroto Mar ía Elena Alañón Pardo Paula P érez Porras Ana Bel én Bautista-Ortín Encarna G ómez-Plaza Mar ía Soledad Pérez-Coello Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1194: Chromatin Accessibility Is Associated with Artemisinin Biosynthesis Regulation in Artemisia annua
ing Guo Glandular trichome (GT) is the dominant site for artemisinin production in Artemisia annua. Several critical genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis are specifically expressed in GT. However, the molecular mechanism of differential gene expression between GT and other tissue types remains elusive. Chromatin accessibility, defined as the degree to which nuclear molecules are able to interact with chromatin DNA, reflects gene expression capacity to a certain extent. Here, we investigated and compared the landscape of chromatin accessibility in Artemisia annua leaf and GT using the Assay for Transposase-Accessi...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Limeng Zhou Yingzhang Huang Qi Wang Dianjing Guo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1196: Microwaves as “Co-Catalysts” or as Substitute for Catalysts in Organophosphorus Chemistry
Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1196: Microwaves as “Co-Catalysts” or as Substitute for Catalysts in Organophosphorus Chemistry Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26041196 Authors: Keglevich The purpose of this review is to summarize the importance of microwave (MW) irradiation as a kind of catalyst in organophosphorus chemistry. Slow or reluctant reactions, such as the Diels-Alder cycloaddition or an inverse-Wittig type reaction, may be performed efficiently under MW irradiation. The direct esterification of phosphinic and phosphonic acids, which is practically impossible on conventional heating, may be realiz...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Keglevich Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1195: Versatile Use of Chitosan and Hyaluronan in Medicine
islav Šoltés Chitosan is industrially acquired by the alkaline N-deacetylation of chitin. Chitin belongs to the β-N-acetyl-glucosamine polymers, providing structure, contrary to α-polymers, which supply food with energy. Another β-polymer providing structure is hyaluronan. A lot of studies have been performed on chitosan to explore its industrial use. Since chitosan is biodegradable, non-toxic, bacteriostatic, and fungistatic, it has numerous applications in medicine. Hyaluronan, one of the major structural components of the extracellular matrix in vertebrate tissues, is broadly exploited ...
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Katar ína Valachová Ladislav Šoltés Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1197: Sunflower-Like Nanostructure with Built-in Hotspots for Alpha-Fetoprotein Detection
This study demonstrates the design of a plasmonic structure with strong electromagnetic coupling, which can be used for the rapid detection of AFP concentration in clinical medicine. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - February 23, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Xiaoyu Zhao Aonan Zhu Yaxin Wang Yongjun Zhang Xiaolong Zhang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1166: Ferroelectric Particles in Nematic Liquid Crystals with Soft Anchoring
e A theoretical evaluation of the electric Freedericksz transition threshold and saturation field is proposed for a liquid crystals composite with ferroelectric particles. Existing models consider a strong anchoring of nematic molecules on the glass support of the cell, but in this paper a soft molecular anchoring of molecules on the glass support and also on the ferroelectric nanoparticle’s surface is assumed. Thus, a finite saturation field was obtained in agreement with real systems. Calculations are made for planar configuration of positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystals. The results are compared with ...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Cristina Cirtoaje Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1167: Replacement of the Common Chromium Source CrCl3(thf)3 with Well-Defined [CrCl2( μ-Cl)(thf)2]2
Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1167: Replacement of the Common Chromium Source CrCl3(thf)3 with Well-Defined [CrCl2(μ-Cl)(thf)2]2 Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26041167 Authors: Dong Geun Lee Jun Won Baek Jung Hyun Lee Hyun Ju Lee Yeong Hyun Seo Junseong Lee Chong Gu Lee Bun Yeoul Lee CrCl3(thf)3 is a common starting material in the synthesis of organometallic and coordination compounds of Cr. Deposited as an irregular solid with no possibility of recrystallization, it is not a purity guaranteed chemical, causing problems in some cases. In this work, we disclose a well-defined form of the THF adduct o...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Dong Geun Lee Jun Won Baek Jung Hyun Lee Hyun Ju Lee Yeong Hyun Seo Junseong Lee Chong Gu Lee Bun Yeoul Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1168: The Wound Healing Peptide, AES16-2M, Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis In Vivo
Daeho Cho Peptide materials have recently been considered for use in various industrial fields. Because of their efficacy, safety, and low cost, therapeutic peptides are studied for various diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD). AD is a common inflammatory skin disease impairing the patient’s quality of life. Various therapies, such as treatments with corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and antibody drugs, have been applied, but numerous side effects have been reported, including skin atrophy, burning, and infection. In the case of antibody drugs, immunogenicity against the drugs can be a problem. To ...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Myun Soo Kim Jisun Song Sunyoung Park Tae Sung Kim Hyun Jeong Park Daeho Cho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1169: Challenges and Perspectives of Standard Therapy and Drug Development in High-Grade Gliomas
Parhar Despite their low incidence rate globally, high-grade gliomas (HGG) remain a fatal primary brain tumor. The recommended therapy often is incapable of resecting the tumor entirely and exclusively targeting the tumor leads to tumor recurrence and dismal prognosis. Additionally, many HGG patients are not well suited for standard therapy and instead, subjected to a palliative approach. HGG tumors are highly infiltrative and the complex tumor microenvironment as well as high tumor heterogeneity often poses the main challenges towards the standard treatment. Therefore, a one-fit-approach may not be suitable for HGG m...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Shalini Sundramurthi Chelliah Ervin Ashley Lourdes Paul Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin Ishwar Parhar Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1170: The Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effect of a Novel Synthesized S-Triazine Dipeptide Series, and Toxicity Screening in Zebrafish Embryos
Ayman El-Faham Several derivatives containing morpholine/piperidine, anilines, and dipeptides as pending moieties were prepared using s-triazine as a scaffold. These compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activity against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), a colon cancer cell line (HCT-116), and a non-tumorigenic cell line (HEK 293). Tamoxifen was used as a reference. Animal toxicity tests were carried out in zebrafish embryos. Most of these compounds showed a higher activity against breast cancer than colon cancer. Compound 3a—which contains morpholine, aniline, and glycylglycin...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Azizah M. Malebari Rakia Abd Alhameed Zainab Almarhoon Muhammad Farooq Mohammad A. M. Wadaan Anamika Sharma Beatriz G. de la Torre Fernando Albericio Ayman El-Faham Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1173: Synthesis of New Brassinosteroid 24-Norcholane Type Analogs Conjugated in C-3 with Benzoate Groups
ellar Luis Espinoza The metabolism of brassinosteroid leads to structural modifications in the ring skeleton or the side alkyl chain. The esterification and glycosylation at C-3 are the most common metabolic pathways, and it has been suggested that conjugate brassinosteroids are less active or inactive. In this way, plants regulate the content of active brassinosteroids. In this work, the synthesis of brassinosteroid 24-norcholane type analogs conjugated at C-3 with benzoate groups, carrying electron donor and electron attractant substituents on the aromatic ring, is described. Additionally, their growth-promoting ac...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Karoll Ferrer Katy D íaz Miroslav Kvasnica Andr és F. Olea Mauricio Cuellar Luis Espinoza Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1171: Preliminary Investigation of the Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Enteromorpha intestinalis Extracts
Ragusa Jena Marine algae are a promising source of potent bioactive agents against oxidative stress, diabetes, and inflammation. However, the possible therapeutic effects of many algal metabolites have not been exploited yet. In this regard, we explored the therapeutic potential of Enteromorpha intestinalis extracts obtained from methanol, ethanol, and hexane, in contrasting oxidative stress. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) content were quantified in all extracts, with ethanol yielding the best values (about 60 and 625 mg of gallic acid and rutin equivalents per gram of extract, respectively). Their an...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Pradhan Patra Behera Nayak Jit Ragusa Jena Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1172: Role of Gut Microbiota, Probiotics and Prebiotics in the Cardiovascular Diseases
mańska In recent years, there has been a growing interest in identifying and applying new, naturally occurring molecules that promote health. Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host”. Quite a few fermented products serve as the source of probiotic strains, with many factors influencing the effectiveness of probiotics, including interactions of probiotic bacteria with the host’s microbiome. Prebiotics contain no microorganisms, only substances which stimulate their growth. Prebiotics can be obtained from various so...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Oniszczuk Oniszczuk Gancarz Szyma ńska Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1174: A Preliminary Study of FTIR Spectroscopy as a Potential Non-Invasive Screening Tool for Pediatric Precursor B Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Józef Cebulski Early detection of the most common pediatric neoplasm, B-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), is challenging and requires invasive bone marrow biopsies. The purpose of this study was to establish new biomarkers for early screening to detect pediatric leukemia. In this small cohort study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from blood sera of 10 patients with BCP-ALL and were compared with the control samples from 10 children with some conditions other than neoplasm. Using various analytical approaches, including a new physical model, some significant differences we...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rados ław Chaber Aneta Kowal Pawe ł Jakubczyk Christopher Arthur Kornelia Łach Renata Wojnarowska-Nowak Krzysztof Kusz Izabela Zawlik Sylwia Paszek J ózef Cebulski Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1175: Identification of Three Small Molecules That Can Selectively Influence Cellular Manganese Levels in a Mouse Striatal Cell Model
Bowman Manganese (Mn) is a biologically essential metal, critical as a cofactor for numerous enzymes such a glutamine synthetase and kinases such as ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Similar to other essential metals such as iron and zinc, proper levels of Mn need to be achieved while simultaneously being careful to avoid excess levels of Mn that can be neurotoxic. A lifetime of occupational exposure to Mn can often lead to a Parkinsonian condition, also known as “manganism”, characterized by impaired gait, muscle spasms, and tremors. Despite the importance of its regulation, the mechanisms underlyin...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Horning Tang Thomas Aschner Bowman Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1177: Simultaneous Quantification of 3 ′- and 6′-Sialyllactose in Rat Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study
Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1177: Simultaneous Quantification of 3′- and 6′-Sialyllactose in Rat Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26041177 Authors: Seok-In Jang Han Young Eom Jeong Ho Hwang Lila Kim Jong-Hwa Lee Sialyllactose (SL), an acidic oligosaccharide, has immune-protective effects against pathogens and helps with the development of the immune system and intestinal microorganisms. To elucidate the pharmacokinetic characterization after oral administration to rats, the simultaneous ...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Seok-In Jang Han Young Eom Jeong Ho Hwang Lila Kim Jong-Hwa Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1176: Validation of a Rapid Multiresidue Method for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Vine Leaves. Comparison of the Results According to the Different Conservation Methods
troni The QuEChERS method was applied to the determination of pesticide residues in vine (Vitis vinifera) leaves by LC-MSMS. The method was validated in-house for 33 pesticides representing 17 different chemical groups, that are most commonly used in grape production. Recoveries for the pesticides tested ranged from 75 to 104%, and repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDr% and RSDRw%) were less than 20%. The method was applied to the analysis of pesticide residues in 17 market brands of vine leaves processed according to three different preservation methods and sampled from the Lebanese mark...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Salem Hayar Rawan Zeitoun Britt Marianna Maestroni Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1178: Enhancing the Potentiality of Trichoderma harzianum against Pythium Pathogen of Beans Using Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, L.) Flower Extract
In conclusion, the application of both T. harzianum and/or M. chamomilla extracts in the control of bean Pythium pathogen showed significant results. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Abeer Abdulkhalek Ghoniem Kamar M. Abd El-Hai Ayman Y. El-khateeb Noha M. Eldadamony Samy F. Mahmoud Ashraf Elsayed Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1179: Quantification and Metabolite Identification of Sulfasalazine in Mouse Brain and Plasma Using Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Young G. Shin Sulfasalazine (SAS), an anti-inflammatory drug with potent cysteine/glutamate antiporter system xc- (SXC) inhibition has recently shown beneficial effects in brain-related diseases. Despite many reports related to central nervous system (CNS) effect of SAS, pharmacokinetics (PK) and metabolite identification studies in the brain for SAS were quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and metabolite identification of SAS and their distributions in mouse brain. Using in vivo brain exposure studies (neuro PK), the PK parameters of SAS was calculated for plasma as well as bra...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jangmi Choi Min-Ho Park Seok-Ho Shin Jin-Ju Byeon Byeong ill Lee Yuri Park Young G. Shin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1180: Chemical Fingerprinting of Cryptic Species and Genetic Lineages of Aneura pinguis (L.) Dumort. (Marchantiophyta, Metzgeriidae)
The objective of this work was to develop an efficient method for the characterisation of plant material using marker compounds. The volatile chemical constituents of cryptic species within the liverwort A. pinguis were analysed by GC-MS. The compounds were isolated from plant material using the HS-SPME technique. Of the 66 compounds examined, 40 were identified. Of these 40 compounds, nine were selected for use as marker compounds of individual cryptic species of A. pinguis. A guide was then developed that clarified how these markers could be used for the rapid identification of the genetic lineages of A. pinguis. Multiva...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rafa ł Wawrzyniak Wies ław Wasiak Beata Jasiewicz Alina B ączkiewicz Katarzyna Buczkowska Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1156: Influence of Genistein on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism in an In Vitro Model of Hepatic Steatosis
er Georg Damm Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is among the leading causes of end-stage liver disease. The impaired hepatic lipid metabolism in NAFLD is exhibited by dysregulated PPARα and SREBP-1c signaling pathways, which are central transcription factors associated with lipid degradation and de novo lipogenesis. Despite the growing prevalence of this disease, current pharmacological treatment options are unsatisfactory. Genistein, a soy isoflavone, has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and may be a candidate for NAFLD treatment. In an in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, primary human hepatocyte...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Lena Seidemann Anne Kr üger Victoria Kegel-H übner Daniel Seehofer Georg Damm Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1157: Electronic Properties of Triangle Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) Clusters with Different Sizes and Edges
ongyuan Jiang The electronic structures and transition properties of three types of triangle MoS2 clusters, A (Mo edge passivated with two S atoms), B (Mo edge passivated with one S atom), and C (S edge) have been explored using quantum chemistry methods. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap of B and C is larger than that of A, due to the absence of the dangling of edge S atoms. The frontier orbitals (FMOs) of A can be divided into two categories, edge states from S3p at the edge and hybrid states of Mo4d and S3p covering the whole cluster. Due to edge/corne...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Songsong Wang Changliang Han Liuqi Ye Guiling Zhang Yangyang Hu Weiqi Li Yongyuan Jiang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1158: The Effects of New Zealand Grown Ginseng Fractions on Cytokine Production from Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells
ovich Pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators that regulate the inflammatory response in inflammation-related diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate different New Zealand (NZ)-grown ginseng fractions on the productions of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Four NZ-grown ginseng fractions, including total ginseng extract (TGE), non-ginsenoside fraction extract (NGE), high-polar ginsenoside fraction extract (HPG), and less-polar ginsenoside fraction extract (LPG), were prepared and the ginsenoside compositions of extracts wer...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Wei Chen Prabhu Balan David G. Popovich Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1159: Recoverable Phospha-Michael Additions Catalyzed by a 4-N,N-Dimethylaminopyridinium Saccharinate Salt or a Fluorous Long-Chained Pyridine: Two Types of Reusable Base Catalysts
ang Norman Lu Phospha-Michael addition, which is the addition reaction of a phosphorus-based nucleophile to an acceptor-substituted unsaturated bond, certainly represents one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the formation of P-C bonds, since many different electrophiles and P nucleophiles can be combined with each other. This offers the possibility to access many diversely functionalized products. In this work, two kinds of basic pyridine-based organo-catalysts were used to efficiently catalyze phospha-Michael addition reactions, the 4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium saccharinate (DMAP·Hsac) salt and a...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Eskedar Tessema Vijayanath Elakkat Chiao-Fan Chiu Jing-Hung Zheng Ka Long Chan Chia-Rui Shen Peng Zhang Norman Lu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1160: Synthesis and Applications of Selected Fluorine-Containing Fluorophores
This report will cover the most significant applications and improvements that fluorine has contributed to in various dye scaffolds such as BODIPY, rhodamine, phthalocyanine, and cyanine in the recent decade. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Stefanie Casa Maged Henary Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1161: Antioxidant and Antisteatotic Activities of a New Fucoidan Extracted from Ferula hermonis Roots Harvested on Lebanese Mountains
Ilaria Demori Fucoidan is a fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide with attractive therapeutic potential due to a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant action. Fucoidan is typically found in the cell wall of marine brown algae, but extra-algal sources have also been discovered. In the present work, for the first time we extracted a water soluble fucoidan fraction from the roots of the terrestrial shrub Ferula hermonis. This fucoidan fraction was termed FUFe, and contained fucose, glucose, sulfate, smaller amounts of monosaccharides such as galactose and mannose, and a minor quantity of proteins. FUFe str...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zeinab El Rashed Giulio Lupidi Hussein Kanaan Elena Grasselli Laura Canesi Hala Khalifeh Ilaria Demori Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1162: Synthesis, Characterization and In vitro Evaluation of Novel 5-Ene-thiazolo[3,2-b][1,2,4]triazole-6(5H)-ones as Possible Anticancer Agents
Roman Lesyk The present paper is devoted to the search for drug-like molecules with anticancer properties using the thiazolo[3,2-b][1,2,4]triazole-6-one scaffold. A series of 24 novel thiazolo-[3,2-b][1,2,4]triazole-6-ones with 5-aryl(heteryl)idene- and 5-aminomethylidene-moieties has been synthesized employing three-component and three-stage synthetic protocols. A mixture of Z/E-isomers was obtained in solution for the synthesized 5-aminomethylidene-thiazolo[3,2-b]-[1,2,4]triazole-6-ones. The compounds have been studied for their antitumor activity in the NCI 60 lines screen. Some compounds present excellent anticance...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Serhii Holota Sergiy Komykhov Stepan Sysak Andrzej Gzella Andriy Cherkas Roman Lesyk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1163: Green Synthetic Approach: An Efficient Eco-Friendly Tool for Synthesis of Biologically Active Oxadiazole Derivatives
tismita Borah Green synthetic protocol refers to the development of processes for the sustainable production of chemicals and materials. For the synthesis of various biologically active compounds, energy-efficient and environmentally benign processes are applied, such as microwave irradiation technology, ultrasound-mediated synthesis, photo-catalysis (ultraviolet, visible and infrared irradiation), molecular sieving, grinding and milling techniques, etc. Thesemethods are considered sustainable technology and become valuable green protocol to synthesize new drug molecules as theyprovidenumerous benefits over conventiona...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Bimal Krishna Banik Biswa Mohan Sahoo Bera Venkata Varaha Ravi Kumar Krishna Chandra Panda Jasma Jena Manoj Kumar Mahapatra Preetismita Borah Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1164: Organic Contaminants and Interactions with Micro- and Nano-Plastics in the Aqueous Environment: Review of Analytical Methods
Thomas Letzel Micro- and nanoplastic particles are increasingly seen not only as contaminants themselves, but also as potential vectors for trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) that might sorb onto these particles. An analysis of the sorbed TOrCs can either be performed directly from the particle or TOrCs can be extracted from the particle with a solvent. Another possibility is to analyze the remaining concentration in the aqueous phase by a differential approach. In this review, the focus is on analytical methods that are suitable for identifying and quantifying sorbed TOrCs on micro- and nano-plastics. Specific gas chr...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Julia Reichel Johanna Gra ßmann Oliver Knoop J örg E. Drewes Thomas Letzel Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1165: New Bifunctional Bis(azairidacycle) with Axial Chirality via Double Cyclometalation of 2,2 ′-Bis(aminomethyl)-1,1′-Binaphthyl
Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1165: New Bifunctional Bis(azairidacycle) with Axial Chirality via Double Cyclometalation of 2,2′-Bis(aminomethyl)-1,1′-Binaphthyl Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26041165 Authors: Yasuhiro Sato Yuichi Kawata Shungo Yasui Yoshihito Kayaki Takao Ikariya As a candidate for bifunctional asymmetric catalysts containing a half-sandwich C–N chelating Ir(III) framework (azairidacycle), a dinuclear Ir complex with an axially chiral linkage is newly designed. An expedient synthesis of chiral 2,2′-bis(aminomethyl)-1,1′-binaphthyl (1) from 1,1-bi-2-naphthol (BINO...
Source: Molecules - February 22, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yasuhiro Sato Yuichi Kawata Shungo Yasui Yoshihito Kayaki Takao Ikariya Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1149: The Effect of the Reducing Sugars in the Synthesis of Visible-Light-Active Copper(I) Oxide Photocatalyst
te;cs Zsolt Pap Klara Hernadi In the present work, shape tailored Cu2O microparticles were synthesized by changing the nature of the reducing agent and studied subsequently. d-(+)-glucose, d-(+)-fructose, d-(+)xylose, d-(+)-galactose, and d-(+)-arabinose were chosen as reducing agents due to their different reducing abilities. The morpho-structural characteristics were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), while their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by methyl orange degradation under visible light (120 min). The results show that th...
Source: Molecules - February 21, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Szilvia Fodor Lucian Baia Korn élia Baán G ábor Kovács Zsolt Pap Klara Hernadi Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1150: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 4-(4-Formamidophenylamino)-N-methylpicolinamide Derivatives as Potential Antitumor Agents
Luoting Yu A novel series of 4-(4-formamidophenylamino)-N-methylpicolinamide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against different tumor cell lines. Experiments in vitro showed that these derivatives could inhibit the proliferation of two kinds of human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT116) at low micromolar concentrations and the most potent analog 5q possessed broad-spectrum antiproliferative activity. Experiments in vivo demonstrated that 5q could effectively prolong the longevity of colon carcinoma-burdened mice and slow down the progression of cancer cells by suppression of angiogenesis and the induction of ...
Source: Molecules - February 21, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Nana Meng Shuyan Zhou Min Hu Youzhi Xu Yong Xia Xiuxiu Zeng Luoting Yu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1151: Suramin Targets the Conserved Ligand-Binding Pocket of Human Raf1 Kinase Inhibitory Protein
Donghai Lin Suramin was initially used to treat African sleeping sickness and has been clinically tested to treat human cancers and HIV infection in the recent years. However, the therapeutic index is low with numerous clinical side-effects, attributed to its diverse interactions with multiple biological macromolecules. Here, we report a novel binding target of suramin, human Raf1 kinase inhibitory protein (hRKIP), which is an important regulatory protein involved in the Ras/Raf1/MEK/ERK (MAPK) signal pathway. Biolayer interference technology showed that suramin had an intermediate affinity for binding hRKIP with a d...
Source: Molecules - February 21, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chenyun Guo Zhihua Wu Weiliang Lin Hao Xu Ting Chang Yazhuang Dai Donghai Lin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1152: Bacterial Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to Dental Material Surfaces
Klemen Bohinc The aim of this study was to investigate and understand bacterial adhesion to different dental material surfaces like amalgam, Chromasit, an Co-Cr alloy, an IPS InLine ceramic, yttrium stabilized tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia (TPZ), a resin-based composite, an Au-Pt alloy, and a tooth. For all materials, the surface roughness was assessed by profilometry, the surface hydrophobicity was determined by tensiometry, and the zeta potential was measured by electrokinetic phenomena. The arithmetic average roughness was the lowest for the TPZ ceramic (Ra = 0.23 µm ± 0.02 µm), while the h...
Source: Molecules - February 21, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mirjam Kozmos Petra Virant Franc Rojko An že Abram Rebeka Rudolf Peter Raspor Anamarija Zore Klemen Bohinc Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1153: Simultaneous Determination of Polyamines and Steroids in Human Serum from Breast Cancer Patients Using Liquid Chromatography –Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1153: Simultaneous Determination of Polyamines and Steroids in Human Serum from Breast Cancer Patients Using Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26041153 Authors: Yu Ra Lee Ji Won Lee Jongki Hong Bong Chul Chung A simultaneous quantitative profiling method for polyamines and steroids using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. We applied this method to human serum samples to simultaneously evaluate polyamine and steroid levels. Chemical derivatization was performed using isobutyl chloroformat...
Source: Molecules - February 21, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yu Ra Lee Ji Won Lee Jongki Hong Bong Chul Chung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1154: Calcium Sulfite Solids Activated by Iron for Enhancing As(III) Oxidation in Water
s Mailhot Desulfurized gypsum (DG) as a soil modifier imparts it with bulk solid sulfite. The Fe(III)–sulfite process in the liquid phase has shown great potential for the rapid removal of As(III), but the performance and mechanism of this process using DG as a sulfite source in aqueous solution remains unclear. In this work, employing solid CaSO3 as a source of SO32−, we have studied the effects of different conditions (e.g., pH, Fe dosage, sulfite dosage) on As(III) oxidation in the Fe(III)–CaSO3 system. The results show that 72.1% of As(III) was removed from solution by centrifugal treatment for 60...
Source: Molecules - February 21, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Minjuan Cai Sen Quan Jinjun Li Feng Wu Gilles Mailhot Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1155: Circular RNAs in Sudden Cardiac Death Related Diseases: Novel Biomarker for Clinical and Forensic Diagnosis
Pang The prevention and diagnosis of sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the most important keystones and challenges in clinical and forensic practice. However, the diagnostic value of the current biomarkers remains unresolved issues. Therefore, novel diagnostic biomarkers are urgently required to identify patients with early-stage cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and to assist in the postmortem diagnosis of SCD cases without typical cardiac damage. An increasing number of studies show that circular RNAs (circRNAs) have stable expressions in myocardial tissue, and their time- and tissue-specific expression levels migh...
Source: Molecules - February 21, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Tian Cao Pang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 1145: Chiral Recognition for Chromatography and Membrane-Based Separations: Recent Developments and Future Prospects
aoguo Sun With the rapid development of global industry and increasingly frequent product circulation, the separation and detection of chiral drugs/pesticides are becoming increasingly important. The chiral nature of substances can result in harm to the human body, and the selective endocrine-disrupting effect of drug enantiomers is caused by differential enantiospecific binding to receptors. This review is devoted to the specific recognition and resolution of chiral molecules by chromatography and membrane-based enantioseparation techniques. Chromatographic enantiomer separations with chiral stationary phase (CSP)-bas...
Source: Molecules - February 21, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yuan Zhao Xuecheng Zhu Wei Jiang Huilin Liu Baoguo Sun Tags: Review Source Type: research