Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6303: Chemical Composition of Cinnamomum verum Leaf and Flower Essential Oils and Analysis of Their Antibacterial, Insecticidal, and Larvicidal Properties
ha Ramesh Cinnamomum verum is widely used in traditional medicines, and the different parts of the plant, such as bark, leaves, and flowers, are used for essential oil production. The present study compared the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. verum extracted from the leaves and flowers. In addition, efficacy of these essential oils against the two common pests Sitophilus oryzae and Callosobruchus maculatus was also evaluated. The results indicated the presence of cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, caryophyllene, and linalool in these essential oils, however, at different concentrations. The leaf essential oil was...
Source: Molecules - October 19, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Arunaksharan Narayanankutty Krishnaprasad Kunnath Ahmed Alfarhan Rajakrishnan Rajagopal Varsha Ramesh Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6289: Rooibos Flavonoids, Aspalathin, Isoorientin, and Orientin Ameliorate Antimycin A-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction by Improving Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Cells
ibuko-Mbeje The current study investigated the physiological effects of flavonoids found in daily consumed rooibos tea, aspalathin, isoorientin, and orientin on improving processes involved in mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes. To achieve this, C2C12 myotubes were exposed to a mitochondrial channel blocker, antimycin A (6.25 µM), for 12 h to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Thereafter, cells were treated with aspalathin, isoorientin, and orientin (10 µM) for 4 h, while metformin (1 µM) and insulin (1 µM) were used as comparators. Relevant bioassays and real-time PCR were conducted to ass...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sinenhlanhla X. H. Mthembu Christo J. F. Muller Phiwayinkosi V. Dludla Evelyn Madoroba Abidemi P. Kappo Sithandiwe E. Mazibuko-Mbeje Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6291: Metabolomics and Physiological Insights into the Ability of Exogenously Applied Chlorogenic Acid and Hesperidin to Modulate Salt Stress in Lettuce Distinctively
an Zengin Luigi Lucini Recent studies in the agronomic field indicate that the exogenous application of polyphenols can provide tolerance against various stresses in plants. However, the molecular processes underlying stress mitigation remain unclear, and little is known about the impact of exogenously applied phenolics, especially in combination with salinity. In this work, the impacts of exogenously applied chlorogenic acid (CA), hesperidin (HES), and their combination (HES + CA) have been investigated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) through untargeted metabolomics to evaluate mitigation effects against salinity. Gr...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Leilei Zhang Bego ña Miras-Moreno Evren Yildiztugay Ceyda Ozfidan-Konakci Busra Arikan Fevzi Elbasan Gunes Ak Youssef Rouphael Gokhan Zengin Luigi Lucini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6292: Changes in Antioxidant Properties and Amounts of Bioactive Compounds During Simulated In Vitro Digestion of Wheat Bread Enriched with Plant Extracts
a Z. Kucharska Cereal preparation can be an excellent source of substances with proven health-promoting properties. Unfortunately, some types of bread, such as white flour bread, are devoid of many valuable nutrients. Therefore, it is necessary to look for ways to increase its density and nutritional value. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of stabilized plant extracts on the quality of bread, its antioxidant activity and polyphenol content, and to evaluate the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during in vitro digestion. The research material was the wheat bread baked with spray...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Anna Czubaszek Anna Czaja Anna Sok ół-Łętowska Joanna Kolniak-Ostek Alicja Z. Kucharska Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6294: Lipid A-Mediated Bacterial –Host Chemical Ecology: Synthetic Research of Bacterial Lipid As and Their Development as Adjuvants
Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6294: Lipid A-Mediated Bacterial–Host Chemical Ecology: Synthetic Research of Bacterial Lipid As and Their Development as Adjuvants Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26206294 Authors: Atsushi Shimoyama Koichi Fukase Gram-negative bacterial cell surface component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its active principle, lipid A, exhibit immunostimulatory effects and have the potential to act as adjuvants. However, canonical LPS acts as an endotoxin by hyperstimulating the immune response. Therefore, LPS and lipid A must be structurally modified to minimize their toxic effects while maintaini...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Atsushi Shimoyama Koichi Fukase Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6295: Methoxy-Substituted γ-Oxa-ε-Lactones Derived from Flavanones—Comparison of Their Anti-Tumor Activity In Vitro
Conclusions: Methoxy-substituted flavanone-derived lactones effectively kill canine lymphoma/leukemia cells in vitro and, thanks to their synergistic action with glucocorticoids, may potentially be applied in the treatment of hematopoietic cancers. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Aleksandra Pawlak Marta Henklewska Beatriz Hern ández-Suárez Hernández-Suárez Monika Siepka Witold G ładkowski Czes ław Wawrzeńczyk Karolina Motykiewicz-Pers Bo żena Obmińska-Mrukowicz Obmińska-Mrukowicz Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6296: ZNF224 Protein: Multifaceted Functions Based on Its Molecular Partners
la Costanzo The transcription factor ZNF224 is a Kruppel-like zinc finger protein that consists of 707 amino acids and contains 19 tandemly repeated C2H2 zinc finger domains that mediate DNA binding and protein–protein interactions. ZNF224 was originally identified as a transcriptional repressor of genes involved in energy metabolism, and it was demonstrated that ZNF224-mediated transcriptional repression needs the interaction of its KRAB repressor domain with the co-repressor KAP1 and its zinc finger domains 1–3 with the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5. Furthermore, the protein ZNF255 was identified as an...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Elena Cesaro Angelo Lupo Roberta Rapuano Arianna Pastore Michela Grosso Paola Costanzo Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6293: Microwave Irradiation: Alternative Heating Process for the Synthesis of Biologically Applicable Chromones, Quinolones, and Their Precursors
. S. Silva Microwave irradiation has become a popular heating technique in organic synthesis, mainly due to its short reaction times, solventless reactions, and, sometimes, higher yields. Additionally, microwave irradiation lowers energy consumption and, consequently, is ideal for optimization processes. Moreover, there is evidence that microwave irradiation can improve the regioselectivity and stereoselectivity aspects of vital importance in synthesizing bioactive compounds. These crucial features of microwave irradiation contribute to its inclusion in green chemistry procedures. Since 2003, the use of microwave-assis...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: H élio M. T. Albuquerque Diana C. G. A. Pinto Artur M. S. Silva Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6297: Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activity of a Novel Series of Isoquinoline-Based CXCR4 Antagonists
Wim Dehaen An expansion of the structure–activity relationship study of CXCR4 antagonists led to the synthesis of a series of isoquinolines, bearing a tetrahydroquinoline or a 3-methylpyridinyl moiety as head group. All compounds were investigated for CXCR4 affinity and antagonism in competition binding and calcium mobilization assays, respectively. In addition, the anti-HIV activity of all analogues was determined. All compounds showed excellent activity, with compound 24c being the most promising one, since it displayed consistently low nanomolar activity in the various assays. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mastaneh Safarnejad Shad Sandra Claes Eline Goffin Tom Van Van Loy Dominique Schols Steven De De Jonghe Wim Dehaen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6298: Effect of the Gintonin-Enriched Fraction on Glucagon-Like-Protein-1 Release
Seung-Yeol Nah Ginseng-derived gintonin reportedly contains functional lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) as LPA receptor ligands. The effect of the gintonin-enriched fraction (GEF) on in vitro and in vivo glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) secretion, which is known to stimulate insulin secretion, via LPA receptor(s) remains unclear. Accordingly, we examined the effects of GEF on GLP-1 secretion using human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells. The expression of several of LPA receptor subtypes in NCI-H716 cells using qPCR and Western blotting was examined. LPA receptor subtype expression was in the following order: LPA6 &g...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rami Lee Sun-Hye Choi Han-Sung Cho Hongik Hwang Hyewhon Rhim Hyoung-Chun Kim Sung-Hee Hwang Seung-Yeol Nah Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6299: Deposition of Polymer Particles with Fibrinogen Corona at Abiotic Surfaces under Flow Conditions
amczyk The deposition kinetics of polymer particles with fibrinogen molecule coronas at bare and poly-L-lysine (PLL) modified mica was studied using the microfluid impinging-jet cell. Basic physicochemical characteristics of fibrinogen and the particles were acquired using dynamic light scattering and the electrophoretic mobility methods, whereas the zeta potential of the substrates was determined using streaming potential measurements. Subsequently, an efficient method for the preparation of the particles with coronas, characterized by a controlled fibrinogen coverage, was developed. This enabled us to carry out measu...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Paulina Żeliszewska Monika Wasilewska Micha ł Cieśla Zbigniew Adamczyk Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6300: Content and Nutritional Evaluation of Zinc in PDO and Traditional Italian Cheeses
In this study, different Italian cheeses (38 Protected Denomination of Origin and 9 Traditional) were evaluated for their zinc content. Cow cheeses generally showed the highest zinc content (1.83–7.75 mg/100 g cheese), followed by sheep cheeses (1.34–3.69 mg/100 g), and cheeses from mixed milk (0.39–4.54 mg/100 g). The only cheese from buffalo milk (Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO) showed a zinc content of 2.14 mg/100 g. The great variability in the zinc content observed among the samples is the result of the influence of several factors, such as the feeding system, the species (cow, sheep, goat, and buf...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Pamela Manzi Maria Gabriella Di Di Costanzo Mena Ritota Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6301: Monascin and Ankaflavin of Monascus purpureus Prevent Alcoholic Liver Disease through Regulating AMPK-Mediated Lipid Metabolism and Enhancing Both Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Systems
This study explored the roles of MS and AK in improving alcoholic liver injury. MS and AK were simultaneously fed to evaluate their effects and mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed the Lieber–DeCarli liquid alcohol diet for 6 weeks. The results indicated that MS and AK significantly reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity, as well as the total liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The histopathological results indicated that MS and AK prevented lipid accumulation in the liver. MS and AK effectively enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the degree of lipid ...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jhao-Ru Lai Ya-Wen Hsu Tzu-Ming Pan Chun-Lin Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6302: Effects of Curcumin Analogues DMC and EF24 in Combination with the Cytokine TRAIL against Kidney Cancer
This study aims to show the effects of DMC and EF24 in combination with TRAIL at reducing ACHN cell viability and ACHN cell migration. It also shows the changes in death receptor 4 (DR4) expression after treatment with these compounds individually and in combination with TRAIL, which can play a role in their mechanism of action. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ver ónica Ibáñez Ibáñez Gaspar Jasmin McCaul Hilary Cassidy Craig Slattery Tara McMorrow Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6286: Choline Chloride-Based DES as Solvents/Catalysts/Chemical Donors in Pharmaceutical Synthesis
llini DES are mixtures of two or more compounds, able to form liquids upon mixing, with lower freezing points when compared to the individual constituents (eutectic mixtures). This attitude is due to the specific hydrogen-bond interactions network between the components of the mixture. A notable characteristic of DES is the possibility to develop tailor-made mixtures by changing the components ratios or a limited water dilution, for special applications, making them attractive for pharmaceutical purposes. In this review, we focused our attention on application of ChCl-based DES in the synthesis of pharmaceutical compou...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rosa Amoroso Frank Hollmann Cristina Maccallini Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6287: Biological and Cytoprotective Effect of Piper kadsura Ohwi against Hydrogen-Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human SW1353 Cells
Ta Su Oxidative stress plays a role in regulating a variety of physiological functions in living organisms and in the pathogenesis of articular cartilage diseases. Piper kadsura Ohwi is a traditional Chinese medicine that is used as a treatment for rheumatic pain, and the extracts have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, there is still no study related to cell protection by P. kadsura. The P. kadsura extracts (PKE) were obtained by microwave-assisted extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, and column chromatography separation. The extracts could effectively scavenge free radicals in the antioxidant test, ...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Te-Yang Huang Chih-Chuan Wu Wen-Ta Su Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6288: Pulsed Power Applications for Protein Conformational Change and the Permeabilization of Agricultural Products
Ohshima Pulsed electric fields (PEFs), which are generated by pulsed power technologies, are being tested for their applicability in food processing through protein conformational change and the poration of cell membranes. In this article, enzyme activity change and the permeabilization of agricultural products using pulsed power technologies are reviewed as novel, nonthermal food processes. Compact pulsed power systems have been developed with repetitive operation and moderate output power for application in food processing. Firstly, the compact pulsed power systems for the enzyme activity change and permeabilization ...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Koichi Takaki Katsuyuki Takahashi Alexis Guionet Takayuki Ohshima Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6290: Natural Products and Their Derivatives against Human Herpesvirus Infection
ong-Xi Xu Herpesviruses establish long-term latent infection for the life of the host and are known to cause numerous diseases. The prevalence of viral infection is significantly increased and causes a worldwide challenge in terms of health issues due to drug resistance. Prolonged treatment with conventional antiviral drugs is more likely to develop drug-resistant strains due to mutations of thymidine nucleoside kinase or DNA polymerase. Hence, the development of alternative treatments is clearly required. Natural products and their derivatives have played a significant role in treating herpesvirus infection rather tha...
Source: Molecules - October 18, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chattarin Ruchawapol Man Yuan Si-Min Wang Wen-Wei Fu Hong-Xi Xu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6278: Conversion of Organic Dyes into Pigments: Extraction of Flavonoids from Blackberries (Rubus ulmifolius) and Stabilization
In this study, the chemical composition of an extract obtained from blackberries was defined by LC-ESI/LTQOrbitrap/MS in positive and negative ionization mode. Furthermore, we investigated the adsorption process of blackberry extract using several inorganic fillers, such as metakaolin, silica, Lipari pumice, white pozzolan and alumina. The pigments exhibit different colors as a function of their interactions with the fillers. The analysis of the absorption data allowed the estimation of the maximum adsorbing capacity of each individual filler tested. Through thermogravimetric measurements (TGA), the thermal stability and t...
Source: Molecules - October 17, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rossella G. Candela Giuseppe Lazzara Sonia Piacente Maurizio Bruno Giuseppe Cavallaro Natale Badalamenti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6281: Properties of Ozone-Oxidized Tapioca Starch and its Use in Coating of Fried Peanuts
enjakul Oxidation of tapioca via ozone oxidation was carried out under different conditions in comparison with H2O2. The impact of ozonation on physicochemical properties of tapioca was studied and fried peanuts coated with different tapioca were characterized. Different ozone oxidation times (10, 20, and 30 min) and various pH values (5, 7, and 9) were used for tapioca modification. Tapioca oxidized by ozone for 20 min at pH 7 had higher swelling power (SP), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), and viscosity than the native counterpart (P < 0.05). This coincided with the higher carbonyl...
Source: Molecules - October 17, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yudi Pranoto Brigitta Laksmi Paramita Muhammad Nur Cahyanto Soottawat Benjakul Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6279: Machine Learning Data Augmentation as a Tool to Enhance Quantitative Composition –Activity Relationships of Complex Mixtures. A New Application to Dissect the Role of Main Chemical Components in Bioactive Essential Oils
Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6279: Machine Learning Data Augmentation as a Tool to Enhance Quantitative Composition–Activity Relationships of Complex Mixtures. A New Application to Dissect the Role of Main Chemical Components in Bioactive Essential Oils Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26206279 Authors: Alessio Ragno Anna Baldisserotto Lorenzo Antonini Manuela Sabatino Filippo Sapienza Erika Baldini Raissa Buzzi Silvia Vertuani Stefano Manfredini Scientific investigation on essential oils composition and the related biological profile are continuously growing. Nevertheless, only a few studies have...
Source: Molecules - October 17, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alessio Ragno Anna Baldisserotto Lorenzo Antonini Manuela Sabatino Filippo Sapienza Erika Baldini Raissa Buzzi Silvia Vertuani Stefano Manfredini Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6285: Consumption of Sinlek Rice Drink Improved Red Cell Indices in Anemic Elderly Subjects
hairatanakool Iron fortifications are used for the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia; however, iron dosing may cause oxidative damage to the gut lumen. Thai Sinlek rice is abundant in iron and contains phytochemicals. We aimed at evaluating the effect of an iron-rice (IR) hydrolysate drink (100 mL/serving) on neurological function, red cell indices and iron status in elders. Healthy elderly subjects were divided into three non-anemic groups and one anemic group. The non-anemic groups consumed one WR (2 mg iron/serving) and two IR drinks (15 and 27 mg iron/serving) (groups A, B and D, respectively), while the anemic g...
Source: Molecules - October 17, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Peerasak Lerttrakarnnon Winthana Kusirisin Pimpisid Koonyosying Ben Flemming Niramon Utama-ang Suthat Fucharoen Somdet Srichairatanakool Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6282: Smartphone-Assisted Protein to Creatinine Ratio Determination on a Single Paper-Based Analytical Device
cki Proteinuria is a condition in which an excessive amount of protein is excreted in urine. It is, among others, an indicator of kidney disease or risk of cardiovascular disease. Rapid and reliable diagnosis and monitoring of proteinuria is of great importance for both patients and their physicians. For that reason, a paper-based sensor for proteinuria diagnosis was designed, optimized, and validated utilizing smartphone-assisted signal acquisition. In the first step, a few commonly employed protein assays were optimized and compared in terms of analytical performance on paper matrix. The tetrabromophenol blue method ...
Source: Molecules - October 17, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Izabela Lewi ńska Karolina Kurdzia łek Łukasz Tymecki Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6283: Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Vibrio alginolyticus Strains Isolated from Salt Fields
In this study, two V. alginolyticus strains, LHF01 and LHF02, isolated from water samples collected from salt fields were found to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from a variety of sugars and organic acids. Glycerol was the best carbon source and yielded the highest PHB titer in both strains. Further optimization of the NaCl concentration and culture temperature improved the PHB titer from 1.87 to 5.08 g/L in V. alginolyticus LHF01. In addition, the use of propionate as a secondary carbon source resulted in the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). V. alginolyticus LHF01 may be a promisin...
Source: Molecules - October 17, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hong-Fei Li Meng-Ru Wang Lin-Yue Tian Zheng-Jun Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6284: Hexosomal Dispersion: A Nano-Based Approach to Boost the Antifungal Potential of Citrus Essential Oils against Plant Fungal Pathogens
K. Mansour The demand for natural fungicides to replace synthetic ones has surged since toxic residues persist in soils, causing environmental contamination and posing a serious threat to worldwide public health. In the context of crop protection and enhancing the efficiency and safety of fungicides, nanotechnology is an eco-friendly strategy in managing fungal pathogens. In the present study, essential oils were isolated from the peels of four citrus fruits (Citrus lemon, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus maxima, and Citrus sinensis) and were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Monoterpene hy...
Source: Molecules - October 17, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mohamed S. Sedeek Abdulaziz M. Al-Mahallawi Rania A. A. Hussien Ahmed M. Abdelhaleem Ali Ibrahim A. Naguib Mai K. Mansour Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6280: Two Sides of Quantum-Based Modeling of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Mechanistic and Electronic Structure Aspects of the Hydrolysis by Glutamate Carboxypeptidase
We report the results of a computational study of the hydrolysis reaction mechanism of N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamate (NAAG) catalyzed by glutamate carboxypeptidase II. Analysis of both mechanistic and electronic structure aspects of this multistep reaction is in the focus of this work. In these simulations, model systems are constructed using the relevant crystal structure of the mutated inactive enzyme. After selection of reaction coordinates, the Gibbs energy profiles of elementary steps of the reaction are computed using molecular dynamics simulations with ab initio type QM/MM potentials (QM/MM MD). Energies and force...
Source: Molecules - October 17, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alexandra V. Krivitskaya Maria G. Khrenova Alexander V. Nemukhin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6272: Short and Long Time Bloodstains Age Determination by Colorimetric Analysis: A Pilot Study
Pellegrino Bloodstains found at crime scenes represent a crucial source of information for investigative purposes. However, in forensic practice, no technique is currently used to estimate the time from deposition of bloodstains. This preliminary study focuses on the age estimation of bloodstains by exploiting the color variations over time due to the oxidation of the blood. For this purpose, we used a colorimetric methodology in order to easily obtain objective, univocal and reproducible results. We developed two bloodstain age prediction algorithms: a short-term and a long-term useful model for the first 24h and 60 ...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alessandro Marrone Daniele La Russa Alberto Montesanto Vincenzo Lagani Mauro F. La Russa Daniela Pellegrino Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6273: Application of CO2-Switchable Oleic-Acid-Based Surfactant for Reducing Viscosity of Heavy Oil
In this study, a CO2-switchable “pseudo”-tetrameric surfactant oleic acid (OA)/cyclic polyamine (cyclen) was prepared by simple mixing and subsequently used to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil. The surface activity of OA/cyclen was explored by a surface tensiometer and a potential for viscosity reduction was revealed. The CO2 switchability of OA/cyclen was investigated by alternately introducing CO2 and N2, and OA/cyclen was confirmed to exhibit a reversible CO2-switching performance. The emulsification and viscosity reduction analyses elucidated that a molar ratio of OA/cyclen of 4:1 formed the “pseudo&...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Lulu Liu Shuai He Lu Tang Shu Yang Tao Ma Xin Su Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6274: Enzymatic Synthesis of Novel Vitexin Glucosides
Sheng Chang Vitexin is a C-glucoside flavone that exhibits a wide range of pharmaceutical activities. However, the poor solubility of vitexin limits its applications. To resolve this limitation, two glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and four glycosyltransferases (GTs) were assayed for glycosylation activity toward vitexin. The results showed that BtGT_16345 from the Bacillus thuringiensis GA A07 strain possessed the highest glycosylation activity, catalyzing the conversion of vitexin into new compounds, vitexin-4′-O-β-glucoside (1) and vitexin-5-O-β-glucoside (2), which showed greater aqueous solubility than v...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jiumn-Yih Wu Tzi-Yuan Wang Hsiou-Yu Ding Yun-Rong Zhang Shu-Yuan Lin Te-Sheng Chang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6275: Anti-Gastritis and Anti-Lung Injury Effects of Pine Tree Ethanol Extract Targeting Both NF-kB and AP-1 Pathways
Lee Jae Youl Cho An ethanol extract (Pd-EE) of Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc was derived from the branches of pine trees. According to the Donguibogam, pine resin has the effects of lowering the fever, reducing pain, and killing worms. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Pd-EE has anti-inflammatory effects. During in vitro trials, NO production, as well as changes in the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes and the phosphorylation levels of related proteins, were confirmed in RAW264.7 cells activated with lipopolysaccharide depending on the presence or absence of Pd-EE treatment. The activit...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Seung A Kim Jieun Oh Se Rin Choi Choong Hwan Lee Byoung-Hee Lee Mi-Nam Lee Mohammad Amjad Hossain Jong-Hoon Kim Sarah Lee Jae Youl Cho Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6276: Nano-Sized NiO Immobilized on Au/CNT for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation: Influences of Hybrid Structure and Interface
hai Liang Tiny gold nanoparticles were successfully anchored on carbon nanotubes (CNT) with NiO decoration by a two-step synthesis. Characterizations suggested that Ni species in an oxidative state preferred to be highly dispersed on CNT. During the synthesis, in situ reduction by NaBH4 and thermal treatment in oxidation atmosphere were consequently carried out, causing the formation of Au-Ni-Ox interfaces and bimetal hybrid structure depending on the Ni/Au atomic ratios. With an appropriate Ni/Au atomic ratio of 8:1, Ni atoms migrated into the sub-layers of Au particles and induced the lattice contraction of Au partic...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yixue Zhou Fengxiang Shan Sihan Yang Jingjie Luo Changhai Liang Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6277: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Bis-Indolinone Derivatives Endowed with Cytotoxic Activity
ela Fimognari A series of new Knoevenagel adducts, bearing two indolinone systems, has been synthesized and evaluated on 60 human cancer cell lines according to protocols available at the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD, USA). Some derivatives proved to be potent antiproliferative agents, showing GI50 values in the submicromolar range. Compound 5b emerged as the most active and was further studied in Jurkat cells in order to determine the effects on cell-cycle phases and the kind of cell death induced. Finally, oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by compound 5b were also analyzed. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Rita Morigi Elena Catanzaro Alessandra Locatelli Cinzia Calcabrini Valentina Pellicioni Alberto Leoni Carmela Fimognari Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6255: A Universal Cassette-Based System for the Dissolution of Solid Targets
miliano Cazzola Cyclotron-based radionuclides production by using solid targets has become important in the last years due to the growing demand of radiometals, e.g., 68Ga, 89Zr, 43/47Sc, and 52/54Mn. This shifted the focus on solid target management, where the first fundamental step of the radiochemical processing is the target dissolution. Currently, this step is generally performed with commercial or home-made modules separated from the following purification/radiolabelling modules. The aim of this work is the realization of a flexible solid target dissolution system to be easily installed on commercial cassette-bas...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Gabriele Sciacca Petra Martini Sara Cisternino Liliana Mou Jonathan Amico Juan Esposito Giancarlo Gorgoni Emiliano Cazzola Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6258: Porous 3D Scaffolds Enhance MSC Vitality and Reduce Osteoclast Activity
In this study we investigated the biocompatibility of porous poly-((D,L)-lactide-ε-caprolactone)dimethacrylate (LCM) scaffolds in contrast to compact LCM scaffolds and blank cell culture plastic. Thus, morphology, cytotoxicity and metabolic activity of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) seeded directly on the materials were analyzed after three and six days of culturing. Further, osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic activity were assessed using reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR of osteoclast-specific genes, EIA and morphologic aspects after four, eight, and twelve days. LCM scaffolds did not display cytotoxic e...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Miriam Spreda Nicole Hauptmann Veronika Lehner Christoph Biehl Klaus Liefeith Katrin Susanne Lips Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6259: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from the Leaves, Stems, and Roots of Kadsura coccinea
i Zhu The chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from the leaves, stems, and roots of Kadsura coccinea (K. coccinea) were investigated. The essential oils were extracted by hydro distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were examined with DPPH radical scavenging assay, ABTS cation radical scavenging assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and mi...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Tianming Zhao Chao Ma Guofei Zhu Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6256: Wine Storage at Cellar vs Room Conditions: Changes in the Aroma Composition of Riesling Wine
hut Rainer Jung Storage temperature is one of the most important factors affecting wine aging. Along with bottling parameters (type of stopper, SO2 level and dissolved O2 in wine), they determine how fast wine will evolve, reach its optimum and decline in sensory quality. At the same time, lowering of the SO2 level in wine has been a hot topic in recent years. In the current work, we investigated how Riesling wine evolved on the molecular level in warm (~25 °C) and cool (~15 °C) conditions depending on the SO2 level in the wine (low, medium and high), flushing of the bottle’s headspace with CO2 and thre...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Andrii Tarasov Federico Garzelli Christoph Schuessler Stefanie Fritsch Christophe Loisel Alexandre Pons Claus-Dieter Patz Doris Rauhut Rainer Jung Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6260: Changes in Physicochemical Properties and Volatile Compounds of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Calyx during Different Drying Methods
This study investigated the influence of different drying methods (oven-drying, freeze-drying, vacuum-drying, and sun-drying) on the quality of roselle calyx expressed as physicochemical properties (moisture content, water activity, soluble solids, color), volatile compounds, and microstructure. Oven-drying and freeze-drying reduced moisture content most while vacuum-drying and sun-drying were not as efficient. All drying methods except sun-drying resulted in water activities low enough to ensure safety and quality. Vacuum-drying had no impact on color of the dry calyx and only small impact on color of water extract of cal...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Nurul Hanisah Juhari Helle Jakobe Martens Mikael Agerlin Petersen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6262: The Influence of Antitumor Unsymmetrical Bisacridines on 3D Cancer Spheroids Growth and Viability
stin The culture of 3D spheroids is a promising tool in drug development and testing. Recently, we synthesized a new group of compounds, unsymmetrical bisacridines (UAs), which exhibit high cytotoxicity against various human cell lines and antitumor potency against several xenografts. Here, we describe the ability of four UAs—C-2028, C-2041, C-2045, and C-2053—to influence the growth of HCT116 and H460 spheres and the viability of HCT116 cells in 3D culture compared with that in 2D standard monolayer culture. Spheroids were generated using ultra-low-attachment plates. The morphology and diameters of the obt...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jolanta Kulesza Monika Paw łowska Ewa Augustin Tags: Communication Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6257: Safety of Medical Cannabis in Neuropathic Chronic Pain Management
l Griscti Soler Products derived from the plant Cannabis sativa are widely appreciated for their analgesic properties and are employed for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. Only nabiximols, a product composed of two extracts containing similar percentages of the two cannabinoids cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is approved by regulatory authorities for neuropathic pain and spasticity due to multiple sclerosis in many European countries and Canada. It is also included in pharmacovigilance systems monitoring the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. However, it is not the same for the great variety ...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Alessandra Bennici Carmen Mannucci Fabrizio Calapai Luigi Cardia Ilaria Ammendolia Sebastiano Gangemi Gioacchino Calapai Daniel Griscti Soler Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6263: Application of a New Dehydroascorbic Acid Reducing Agent in the Analysis of Vitamin C Content in Food
The objective of the study was to verify the applicability of unithiol and tris(hydroxypropyl)phosphine for a reducing dehydroascorbic acid in an extraction medium with pH < 2. The conducted validation of the newly developed method of determining the total content of vitamin C using tris(hydroxypropyl)phosphine indicates its applicability for food analysis. The method allows obtaining equivalent results compared to the method based on the use of tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine. The low efficiency of dehydroascorbic acid reduction with the use of unithiol does not allow its application as a new reducing agent in vi...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Artur Mazurek Marzena W łodarczyk-Stasiak Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6261: Nitrogen as a Probe Molecule for the IR Studies of the Heterogeneity of OH Groups in Zeolites
zy Datka One of the methods of IR studies of the heterogeneity of Si–OH–Al groups in zeolites is the investigation of the frequency shift of the band of free OH bands restored upon the adsorption of ammonia and subsequent desorption at increasing temperatures. We extended this method by following the shift of the band of the OH group interacting by hydrogen bonding with nitrogen. The advantage of nitrogen, compared with CO, which has been commonly used as a probe molecule in studies on hydrogen bonding, is that for nitrogen the frequency shift is smaller than for CO and therefore there is no overlapping of ...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Łukasz Kuterasiński Mariusz Gackowski Jerzy Podobi ński Dorota Rutkowska-Zbik Jerzy Datka Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6264: Synthesis of Ferulenol by Engineered Escherichia coli: Structural Elucidation by Using the In Silico Tools
ualkaew 4-Hydroxycoumarin (4HC) has been used as a lead compound for the chemical synthesis of various bioactive substances and drugs. Its prenylated derivatives exhibit potent antibacterial, antitubercular, anticoagulant, and anti-cancer activities. In doing this, E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS strain was engineered as the in vivo prenylation system to produce the farnesyl derivatives of 4HC by coexpressing the genes encoding Aspergillus terreus aromatic prenyltransferase (AtaPT) and truncated 1-deoxy-D-xylose 5-phosphate synthase of Croton stellatopilosus (CstDXS), where 4HC was the fed precursor. Based on the high-resolutio...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Anuwatchakij Klamrak Jaran Nabnueangsap Ploenthip Puthongking Natsajee Nualkaew Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6265: Clarification on the Reactivity of Diaryl Diselenides toward Hexacyclohexyldilead under Light
In this study, the reactivity of organochalcogen compounds toward a representative alkyl-lead bond compound under light was investigated in detail. Under light irradiation, the Cy-Pb bond of Cy6Pb2 (Cy = cyclohexyl) undergoes homolytic cleavage to generate a cyclohexyl radical (Cy•). This radical can be successfully captured by diphenyl diselenide, which exhibits excellent carbon-radical-capturing ability. In the case of (PhS)2 and (PhTe)2, the yields of the corresponding cyclohexyl sulfides and tellurides were lower than that of (PhSe)2. This probably occurred due to the low carbon-radical-capturing ability of (PhS)2...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Vu Thai Hung Cong Chi Tran Yuki Yamamoto Shintaro Kodama Akihiro Nomoto Akiya Ogawa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6266: Aged Brains Express Less Melanocortin Receptors, Which Correlates with Age-Related Decline of Cognitive Functions
s Minying Cai Brain G-protein coupled receptors have been hypothesized to be potential targets for maintaining or restoring cognitive function in normal aged individuals or in patients with neurodegenerative disease. A number of recent reports suggest that activation of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) in the brain can significantly improve cognitive functions of normal rodents and of different rodent models of the Alzheimer’s disease. However, the potential impact of normative aging on the expression of MCRs and their potential roles for modulating cognitive function remains to be elucidated. In the present study...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yang Zhou Monica K. Chawla Jose L. Rios-Monterrosa Lingzhi Wang Marc A. Zempare Victor J. Hruby Carol A. Barnes Minying Cai Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6267: Controlling Molecular Aggregation-Induced Emission by Controlled Polymerization
o In last twenty years, the significant development of AIE materials has been witnessed. A number of small molecules, polymers and composites with AIE activity have been synthesized, with some of these exhibiting great potential in optoelectronics and biomedical applications. Compared to AIE small molecules, macromolecular systems—especially well-defined AIE polymers—have been studied relatively less. Controlled polymerization methods provide the efficient synthesis of well-defined AIE polymers with varied monomers, tunable chain lengths and narrow dispersity. In particular, the preparation of single-fluoro...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yinyin Bao Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6268: An Automated Hydrodynamically Mediated Technique for Preparation of Calibration Solutions via Capillary Electrophoresis System as a Promising Alternative to Manual Pipetting
iak In this paper, a novel procedure for preparing calibration solutions for capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based quantitative analysis is proposed. Our approach, named the automated hydrodynamically mediated technique (AHMT), uses a capillary and a pressure system to deliver the expected amount of working solution and diluent directly to a sample vial. As a result, calibration solutions are prepared automatically inside the CE instrument, without any or with minimal manual operation. Two different modes were tested: forward and reverse, differing in the direction of hydrodynamic flow. The calibration curves obtained f...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ma łgorzata Gołąb Micha ł Woźniakiewicz Pawe ł M. Nowak Pawe ł Kościelniak Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6269: Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for Determination of Al, Ca, Cd, Fe, Mg and P in Calcium-Rich Materials by ICP OES
epaniak Four procedures based on closed-vessel microwave-assisted wet digestion with different oxidative reagents, including HNO3 (P1), HNO3 + H2O2 (P2), aqua regia (P3) and Lefort aqua regia (P4), for preparation of calcium (Ca)-rich materials prior to determination of total concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Fe, Mg and P by inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) were compared. It was found that digestion with Lefort aqua regia (P4) provided the best results for all examined elements, i.e., precision of 0.30–4.4%, trueness better than 2%, recoveries of added elements between 99.5–101.9%, an...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Anna Szymczycha-Madeja Maja Welna Monika Zab łocka-Malicka Pawel Pohl W łodzimierz Szczepaniak Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6270: Utilization of Cassava Wastewater for Low-Cost Production of Prodigiosin via Serratia marcescens TNU01 Fermentation and Its Novel Potent α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect
Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6270: Utilization of Cassava Wastewater for Low-Cost Production of Prodigiosin via Serratia marcescens TNU01 Fermentation and Its Novel Potent α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules26206270 Authors: Lan Thi Tran Kuaanan Techato Van Bon Nguyen San-Lang Wang Anh Dzung Nguyen Tu Quy Phan Manh Dung Doan Khamphe Phoungthong The purpose of this study was to reuse cassava wastewater (CW) for scaled-up production, via the fermentation of prodigiosin (PG), and to conduct an evaluation of its bioactivities. PG was produced at the yield of high 6150 mg/L ...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Lan Thi Tran Kuaanan Techato Van Bon Nguyen San-Lang Wang Anh Dzung Nguyen Tu Quy Phan Manh Dung Doan Khamphe Phoungthong Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6271: A New Dimeric Copper(II) Complex of Hexyl Bis(pyrazolyl)acetate Ligand as an Efficient Catalyst for Allylic Oxidations
Maura Pellei A new dimeric copper(II) bromide complex, [Cu(LOHex)Br(μ-Br)]2 (1), was prepared by a reaction of CuBr2 with the hexyl bis(pyrazol-1-yl)acetate ligand (LOHex) in acetonitrile solution and fully characterized in the solid state and in solution. The crystal structure of 1 was also determined: the complex is interlinked by two bridging bromide ligands and possesses terminal bromide ligands on each copper atom. The two pyrazolyl ligands in 1 coordinate with the nitrogen atoms to complete the Cu coordination sphere, resulting in a five-coordinated geometry—away from idealized trigonal bipyramidal and ...
Source: Molecules - October 16, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Luca Bagnarelli Alessandro Dolmella Carlo Santini Riccardo Vallesi Roberto Giacomantonio Serena Gabrielli Maura Pellei Tags: Article Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 6252: Phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacological Uses, Biological Activities, and Therapeutic Applications of Cassia obtusifolia L.: A Comprehensive Review
Chang Cassia obtusifolia L., of the Leguminosae family, is used as a diuretic, laxative, tonic, purgative, and natural remedy for treating headache, dizziness, constipation, tophobia, and lacrimation and for improving eyesight. It is commonly used in tea in Korea. Various anthraquinone derivatives make up its main chemical constituents: emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, obtusifolin, obtusin, au rantio-obtusin, chryso-obtusin, alaternin, questin, aloe-emodin, gluco-aurantio-obtusin, gluco-obtusifolin, naphthopyrone glycosides, toralactone-9-β-gentiobioside, toralactone gentiobioside, and cassiaside. C. obtusifolia&am...
Source: Molecules - October 15, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Md Yousof Ali Seongkyu Park Munseog Chang Tags: Review Source Type: research