Role of Heat Shock Protein 27 in Modulating Atherosclerotic Inflammation
AbstractAtherosclerosis is the primary cause of heart attacks, and while efforts to prevent its development or progression have historically focused largely on reducing cholesterol levels, there is now important proof-of-principle data that supports the role that inflammation plays in atherogenesis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is a novel biomarker of atherosclerosis that is also atheroprotective. Through a series of murine and in vitro experiments, an iterative narrative is emerging that demonstrates how HSP27 can act as an extracellular mediator that reduces plaque inflammation —either directly via transcriptional...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Swine Model of Filter-Assisted Caval Thrombosis for Endovascular Thrombectomy Using AngioJet
AbstractTo assess the feasibility of creating swine model of filter-assisted caval thrombosis and to evaluate the efficacy in removing clot in this model using rheolytic thrombectomy. The model was created by implanting a filter into the inferior vena cava followed by injection of autologous thrombus. Rheolytic thrombectomy was performed for all models to remove the clot. The success rate of model creation and the efficacy of clot removal were analyzed. The success rate of model creation was 100% (15/15). Following rheolytic thrombectomy, 3 of 5 pigs attained complete clot removal in a 7-day-old model, while no pigs attain...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Immunomodulation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Atherosclerosis, Coronary Artery Disease, and Acute Myocardial Infarction
AbstractCardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Atherosclerosis is responsible for the majority of cardiovascular disorders with inflammation as one of its driving processes. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, responsible for the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18), has been studied extensively and showed to play a pivotal role in the progression of atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD), and myocardial ischemia repe...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - July 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of Biomarkers in Cardio-Oncology
AbstractIn the field of cardio-oncology, it is well recognised that despite the benefits of chemotherapy in treating and possibly curing cancer, it can cause catastrophic damage to bystander tissues resulting in a range of potentially of life-threatening cardiovascular toxicities, and leading to a number of damaging side effects including heart failure and myocardial infarction. Cardiotoxicity is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the long-term in oncology patients, specifically due to left ventricular dysfunction. There is increasing emphasis on the early use of biomarkers in order to detect the cardio...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiac Rehabilitation with Targeted Intensity Improves Cardiopulmonary Functions Accompanying with Reduced Copeptin Level in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease
AbstractCardiac rehabilitation (CR) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease prevention. Understanding the key component of CR such as training intensity and biomarkers reflecting cardiopulmonary functions may help to better target the rehabilitation program. Thirty-four consecutive patients with coronary artery disease after percutaneous coronary intervention participated in the CR program. The difference between intervention group and control group was mainly the training intensity. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and blood biomarker measurements were performed before and after CR. The results demonstrat...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - July 1, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Peripheral Blood RNAs and Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Myocardial Infarction: Towards Translation into Clinical Practice
AbstractThe treatment and early outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have dramatically improved the past decades, but the incidence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction post-MI remains high. Peripheral blood RNAs reflect pathophysiological changes during acute MI and the inflammatory process. Therefore, these RNAs are promising new markers to molecularly phenotype patients and improve the early identification of patients  at risk of subsequent LV dysfunction. We here discuss the coding and long non-coding RNAs that can be measured in peripheral blood of patients with acute MI and list the advantag...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Difference in Metabolomic Response to Exercise between Patients with and without Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractIt is unclear how hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) affects cardiac metabolic pathways at rest and with exercise. This case –control study compared 15 cases with HCM to 2 control groups without HCM. Metabolomic profiling of 210 metabolites was carried out at rest and at peak exercise. The 50 most discriminant metabolites differentially regulated during exercise were selected using partial least squares discriminant ana lysis. Pathway enrichment analysis was also performed. At rest, no significant difference was observed in metabolomic profiling of HCM cases as compared to controls. By contrast, there were sig...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Targeting of Interleukin-11 Signalling Reduces Pressure Overload –Induced Cardiac Fibrosis in Mice
AbstractThere are currently no specific treatments for cardiac fibrosis. We tested the efficacy of a neutralising anti-IL11 antibody (X203) to reduce cardiac fibrosis in two preclinical models: transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and chronic angiotensin II infusion (AngII). In the first model, male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to TAC for 2  weeks. In the second model, mice received continuous angiotensin II for 4 weeks via subcutaneous pump. In both models, mice received either 20 mg/kg of X203 or isotype-control antibody twice-weekly, starting 24 h after surgery. Cardiac fibrosis and extracellular mat...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Exosomes and MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology
AbstractCardiac exosomes mediate cell-to-cell communication, stimulate or inhibit the activities of target cells, and affect myocardial hypertrophy, injury and infarction, ventricular remodeling, angiogenesis, and atherosclerosis. The exosomes that are released in the heart from cardiomyocytes, vascular cells, fibroblasts, and resident stem cells are hypoimmunogenic, are physiologically more stable than cardiac cells, can circulate in the body, and are able to cross the blood –brain barrier. Exosomes utilize three mechanisms for cellular communication: (1) internalization by cells, (2) direct fusion to the cell membr...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiac Imaging in Oncology Patients in Europe: a Model for Advancement of CV Safety and Development of Comprehensive CV Care
This article summarizes current practices and future needs in cardiac imaging to improve the cardiovascular surveillance of cancer patients. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

PCSK9 and HS-CRP Predict Progression of Aortic Stenosis in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease
AbstractIt is essential to study the factors associated with the evolution of aortic stenosis progression (ASP) to develop therapies that could reduce it. We studied 283 patients 6  months after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ASP was defined as an increase in the maximum aortic velocity of at least 0.5 m/s between the echocardiogram performed during ACS hospitalization and the last one recorded in the electronic medical registry. The median follow-up was 72.4 months. Twenty patients (7%) had ASP. A multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed showing that PCSK9 plasma levels (OR, 0.668 CI (...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Multiple Non-coding ANRIL Transcripts Are Associated with Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: a Promising Circulating Biomarker
AbstractMultiple ANRIL transcriptional isoforms, such as lncANRIL and circANRIL have been identified. We sought to explore their diagnostic value in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). First, we selected six target ANRIL isoforms and measured their expression in CAD patients and controls in the peripheral blood. Their diagnostic values were evaluated. circANRIL(exon14-4) was identified as the best potential biomarker. Afterwards, we validated its diagnostic value and evaluated its prognostic value in a larger clinical cohort. Among six tested ANRILs, lncANRIL(exon1) and lncANRIL(exon4-6) in the CAD patients were s...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 22, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Grey Zone and the Complexity of Clinical Decisions in Sports Cardiology
We present here three different clinical scenarios that illustrate the complexity of taking decisions in sports cardiology. Despite the availability of consensus documents, in clinical practice, decision-making process is most of the times in the grey zone. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Left Ventricular Electromechanical Remodeling Detected by Acoustic Cardiography in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation
This study aimed to investigate the electromechanical function detected by acoustic cardiography before and after radiofrequency ablation therapy (RFA) in paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Seventy-five symptomatic PAF patients and 69 patients without arrhythmia were enrolled. Thirty-seven PAF patients received RFA therapy. Acoustic cardiographic exam was performed to check S3 and S4 heart sound, electromechanical activation time (EMAT), LV systolic time percentage (LVST), and systolic dysfunction index (SDI) in all participants. Furthermore, 37 PAF patients also received...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Left-Ventricular Function After 3  Months of Sacubitril-Valsartan in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
AbstractThere is limited data on the effect of sacubitril-valsartan on the echocardiographic parameters in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We prospectively enrolled 68 consecutive patients with ADHF who received sacubitril-valsartan (N = 34, S/V group) or angiotensin inhibition-based therapy (N = 34, ACEi/ARB group). Two-dimensional echocardiography with speckle tracking (2D-STE) was performed at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Changes in 2D-STE parameters, including global longitudinal strain (GLS), were compared between the groups byt test and ANCOVA. Baseline characte...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Admission Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Stratified by Circulating CD14++CD16+ Monocytes and Risk for Recurrent Cardiovascular Events Following ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Lipid Paradox Revised
AbstractLower level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is paradoxically associated with increased mortality in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. In a cohort of 220 de novo STEMI patients receiving timely primary percutaneous coronary intervention, admission LDL-C was negatively associated with circulating CD14++CD16+ monocyte counts. Moreover, admission LDL-C
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of Immunomodulation in Vein Graft Remodeling and Failure
We describe the effects of immune cells and related factors in early (thrombosis), intermediate (inward remodeling and intimal hyperplasia), and late (intimal hyperplasia and accelerated atherosclerosis) failure based on both preclinical (mouse) models and clinical data. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Challenging and Amazing Field of Sports Cardiology
(Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Autonomic Influences Related to Early Repolarization in Patients Without Structural Heart Disease
AbstractThis cross-sectional study focused on the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and early repolarization pattern (ERP). It included 1236 patients categorized into three groups: ERP type 1: J-point elevation with notched/slurred QRS; ERP type 2: ST elevation without dominant J-wave; and non-ERP group. Analyzing time-domain indexes include standard deviation of NN (normal-to-normal) RR intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive difference in NN RR intervals (RMSSD), and proportion of consecutive NN intervals that differ by more than 50  ms (PNN50), there were significant differences between any ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Health Outcomes and Primary Adherence to Secondary Prevention Treatment after St-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: a Spanish Cohort Study
AbstractThis retrospective observational study aimed to establish the first prescription and its dispensation (primary adherence) in the first 30  days of the four pharmacotherapeutic classes recommended after a type 1 STEMI episode, determine the potential risk factors for lack of primary adherence, and evaluate the potential impact of primary adherence on cardiovascular outcomes. Of the 613 patients analyzed, 576 were included (64.7 ±  13.8 years, 73.8% men) between January 2008 and December 2013. Primary adherence exceeded 90% in all groups. Complete primary adherence was higher in high-dr...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correlation Between Wall Shear Stress and Acute Degradation of the Endothelial Glycocalyx During Cardiopulmonary Bypass
This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the WSS of carotid arteries and shedding of the EG during CPB in humans. The WSS level was calculated in accordance with an equation. The plasma concentrations of heparan sulfate, syndecan-1, and nitric oxide were measured to reflect shedding of the EG at six time points. A negative correlation was observed between the peak wall shear stress (PWSS) and syndecan-1 (R = − 0.5,p 
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardio-Oncology in 2020: Prime for Translation
(Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Novel Aortic Regurgitation Model from Cusp Prolapse with Hemodynamic Validation Using an Ex Vivo Left Heart Simulator
AbstractAlthough ex vivo simulation is a valuable tool for surgical optimization, a disease model that mimics human aortic regurgitation (AR) from cusp prolapse is needed to accurately examine valve biomechanics. To simulate AR, four porcine aortic valves were explanted, and the commissure between the two largest leaflets was detached and re-implanted 5  mm lower to induce cusp prolapse. Four additional valves were tested in their native state as controls. All valves were tested in a heart simulator while hemodynamics, high-speed videography, and echocardiography data were collected. Our AR model successfully reproduc...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Relationship Between Ablation Lesion Size Estimated by Ablation Index and Different Ablation Settings —an Ex Vivo Porcine Heart Study
This study aimed to verify the reliability of ablation index (AI) for ablation lesion estimating with different settings for radiofrequency (RF) parameters: power, impedance, contact angles, irrigation rate, temperature of irrigation saline, and irrigation solution. RF ablations (N = 66) were performed on ex vivo porcine left ventricle submerged in 37 °C saline. The aforementioned ablation parameters were changed to measure whether the size of the ablation lesion was consistent at a fixed AI value of 500. The maximum lesion diameter (r = − 0.631,P = 0.028), de...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - June 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Requirements for Proper Immunosuppressive Regimens to Limit Translational Failure of Cardiac Cell Therapy in Preclinical Large Animal Models
AbstractVarious cell-based therapies are currently investigated in an attempt to tackle the high morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure. The need for these therapies to move towards the clinic is pressing. Therefore, preclinical large animal studies that use non-autologous cells are needed to evaluate their potential. However, non-autologous cells are highly immunogenic and trigger immune rejection responses resulting in potential loss of efficacy. To overcome this issue, adequate immunosuppressive regimens are of imminent importance but clear guidelines are currently lacking. In this review, we assess the i...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 31, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Targeting the MicroRNA-490-3p-ATG4B-Autophagy Axis Relieves Myocardial Injury in Ischemia Reperfusion
AbstractWe investigated the potential role of miR-490-3p in ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. We first determined the expression of miR-490-3p and autophagy-related 4B cysteine (ATG4B) in IR. Then, to explore whether miR-490-3p would affect autophagy, apoptosis, and IR injury, we evaluated apoptosis, autophagy, and infarct size via gain- and loss-of-function experiments. Furthermore, we used adenovirus to enhance or inhibit the expression of ATG4B, and then measured autophagy, apoptosis, and IR injury. miR-490-3p was downregulated in the hearts during the process of IR, while ATG4B was upregulated. The inhibition of miR-49...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 31, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Clinical and Research Tools for the Study of Cardiovascular Effects of Cancer Therapy
AbstractThe expansion of cancer therapeutics has paved the way for improved cancer-related outcomes. Cardiotoxicity from cancer therapy occurs in a small but significant subset of patients, is often poorly understood, and contributes to adverse outcomes at all stages of cancer treatment. Given the often-idiopathic occurrence of cardiotoxicity, novel strategies are needed for risk-stratification and early identification of cancer patients experiencing cardiotoxicity. Clinical and research tools extending from imaging to blood-based biomarkers and pluripotent stem cells are being explored as methods to study the cardiovascul...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

NOD Mice Recapitulate the Cardiac Disturbances Observed in Type 1 Diabetes
In conclusion, NOD mice evoked cardiac electrical and calcium handling disturbances similar to the observed in T1D.Graphical Abstract. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 28, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Technology Applications of Capnography Waveform Analytics for Evaluation of Heart Failure Severity
This study aimed to elucidate the influential parameter, acquired from the analyses of nasal capnography waveforms, for the elevated plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients (n = 34) with heart failure (HF). The capnography waveforms were analyzed to evaluate changes in end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) values and expiratory and inspiratory durations. The relationship between these parameters, estimated from capnography analyses and plasma BNP, was then evaluated. Mean ETCO2 values and BNP levels showed a strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.6355,p
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 28, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Trends in the Use of Cardiac Imaging for Women with Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer
AbstractWe investigated time trends and factors associated with the use of cardiac imaging among women with early-stage breast cancer prior to the initiation of treatment. Of 11,732 women ages 24 –64, diagnosed with stage I–III breast cancer in 2006–2011, 2550 (22%) received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Baseline cardiac imaging was used in 79% of patients receiving anthracyclines and increased over time. Of 2277 (20%) women who received non-anthracycline therapy, 16% received card iac imaging. Women receiving cardiac imaging in non-anthracycline therapy group were more likely to have higher cardiovas...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-208a: a Good Diagnostic Marker and a Predictor of no-Reflow in STEMI Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneuos Coronary Intervention
AbstractMicroRNA-208a is a cardiac specific oligo-nucleotide. We aimed at investigating the ability of microRNA-208a to diagnose myocardial infarction and predict the outcome of primary percutaneuos coronary angiography (PCI). Patients (n = 75) presented by chest pain were recruited into two groups. Group 1 (n = 40) had ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and underwent primary PCI: 21 patients had sufficient reperfusion and 19 had no-reflow. Group 2 (n = 35) had negative cardiac troponins (cTns). Plasma microRNA-208a expression was assessed using quantitative polymerase chai...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Implications for Neuromodulation Therapy to Control Inflammation and Related Organ Dysfunction in COVID-19
AbstractCOVID-19 is a syndrome that includes more than just isolated respiratory disease, as severe acute respiratory syndrome –coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) also interacts with the cardiovascular, nervous, renal, and immune system at multiple levels, increasing morbidity in patients with underlying cardiometabolic conditions and inducing myocardial injury or dysfunction. Emerging evidence suggests that patients with the high est rate of morbidity and mortality following SARS-CoV2 infection have also developed a hyperinflammatory syndrome (also termed cytokine release syndrome). We lay out the potential contribution of a...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Immunomodulation in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Current State and Future Perspectives
AbstractThe heart failure (HF) epidemic is growing and approximately half of the HF patients have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF is a heterogeneous syndrome, characterized by a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≥ 50%) with diastolic dysfunction, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Underlying comorbidities of HFpEF, i.e., hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and renal failure, lead to a systemic pro-inflammatory state, thereby affecting normal cardiac function. Increased inf lammatory biomarkers predict incident HFpEF and are higher in pa...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 22, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Clinical Practice and Research in Cardio-Oncology: Finding the “Rosetta Stone” for Establishing Program Excellence in Cardio-oncology
AbstractThe burgeoning field of cardio-oncology (C-O) is now necessary for the delivery of excellent care for patients with cancer. Many factors have contributed to this increasing population of cancer survivors or those being treated with novel and targeted cancer therapies. There is a tremendous need to provide outstanding cardiovascular (CV) care for these patients; however, current medical literature actually provides a paucity of guidance. C-O therefore provides a novel opportunity for clinical, translational, and basic research to advance patient care. This review aims to be a primer for cardio-oncologists on how to ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 22, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

lncRNA-NRF is a Potential Biomarker of Heart Failure After Acute Myocardial Infarction
AbstractLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new focus in cardiovascular diseases. The necrosis-related factor (NRF) is a newly discovered lncRNA, which is increased in myocardial injury. We investigated the role of lncRNA-NRF in heart failure (HF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to find a biomarker for early HF detection. This was a cross-sectional study of 76 AMI patients with HF and 58 AMI patients without HF. lncRNA-NRF was shown to be increased in AMI patients with HF compared with AMI patients without HF and had predictive value for diagnosis of HF. It had a high diagnostic value for HF (AUC, 0.975), while th...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Practical Procedures for Improving Detection of Circulating miRNAs in Cardiovascular Diseases
In this study, clinically applicable procedures for microRNA (miRNA) detection in serum samples of acute myocardial infarction patients were established. The 89 samples from patients admitted to the coronary care unit were collected. These samples obtained from heparin-treated and untreated patients were subjected to heparinase digestion prior to miRNA measurements by multiplex RT-qPCR. The good reproducibility of miRNA detection after heparinase digestion (averageR2 = 0.97) indicated that this method can be used routinely for samples regardless of heparin medication. Additionally, the degree of hemolysis in thes...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Toolbox of Potential Immune-Related Therapies for Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy
AbstractMyocarditis is a multifactorial disorder, characterized by an inflammatory reaction in the myocardium, predominantly triggered by infectious agents, but also by antigen mimicry or autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. Unless spontaneously resolved, a chronic inflammatory course concludes with cardiac muscle dysfunction portrayed by ventricular dilatation, clinically termed inflammatory cardiomyopathy (Infl-CM). Treatment strategies aim to resolve chronic inflammation and preserve cardiac function. Beside standard heart failure treatments, which only play a supportive role in this condition, systemic immunosuppre...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance and Sport Cardiology: a Growing Role in Clinical Dilemmas
AbstractExercise training induces morphological and functional cardiovascular adaptation known as the “athlete’s heart” with changes including dilatation, hypertrophy, and increased stroke volume. These changes may overlap with pathological appearances. Distinguishing athletic cardiac remodelling from cardiomyopathy is important and is a frequent medical dilemma. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CM R) has a role in clinical care as it can refine discrimination of health from a disease where ECG and echocardiography alone have left or generated uncertainty. CMR can more precisely assess cardiac structure and fu...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 20, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Team-Based Approach to Management of Hypertension Associated with Angiogenesis Inhibitors
AbstractAngiogenesis inhibitors, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or vascular signaling pathway (VSP) inhibitors, have improved care of neoplastic diseases over the past decade. However, cardiovascular toxicities associated with these agents, such as hypertension and less commonly left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure, have often been a limiting factor for continued use. Balancing the benefits of these agents with the associated toxicities is critical to ensure these therapies do not negatively impact oncological outcomes. The care of cancer patients with cardiovascular risks is cha...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Chemokines in Myocardial Infarction
AbstractIn the infarcted myocardium, cardiomyocyte necrosis triggers an intense inflammatory reaction that not only is critical for cardiac repair, but also contributes to adverse remodeling and to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Both CC and CXC chemokines are markedly induced in the infarcted heart, bind to endothelial glycosaminoglycans, and regulate leukocyte trafficking and function. ELR+ CXC chemokines (such as CXCL8) control neutrophil infiltration, whereas CC chemokines (such as CCL2) mediate recruitment of mononuclear cells. Moreover, some members of the chemokine family (such as CXCL10 and CXCL12) may mediate l...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Differentiating Athlete ’s Heart from Left Ventricle Cardiomyopathies
AbstractImaging techniques have allowed knowing the structural adaptative changes observed in the hearts of highly trained athletes. Athletes can develop very marked structural changes and the need may rise for a differential diagnosis with real cardiomyopathy. In this chapter, authors review the physiologic and morphologic features associated with athletic training and the keys to differentiate normal adaptive athlete ’s heart from mild or initial expression forms of left-heart side cardiomyopathies such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and left ventricle non-compaction (LVNC). (So...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Impact of Filter Settings on Morphology of Unipolar Fibrillation Potentials
AbstractUsing unipolar atrial electrogram morphology as guidance for ablative therapy is regaining interest. Although standardly used in clinical practice during ablative therapy, the impact of filter settings on morphology of unipolar AF potentials is unknown. Thirty different filters were applied to 2,557,045 high-resolution epicardial AF potentials recorded from ten patients. Deflections with slope ≤ − 0.05 mV/ms and amplitude ≥ 0.3 mV were marked.High-pass filtering decreased the number of detected potentials, deflection amplitude, and percentage of fractionated potentials ( &...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Knockdown of Long Non-Coding RNA AFAP1-AS1 Promoted Viability and Suppressed Death of Cardiomyocytes in Response to I/R In Vitro and In Vivo
AbstractLong non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays a pivotal role in the development of myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lncRNA actin filament-associated protein 1 antisense RNA 1 (AFAP1-AS1) on cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression levels of AFAP1-AS1, miR-512-3p, and reticulon 3 (RTN3) in rat model of I/R. The simulated MI environment was constructed. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect changes in cardiomyocyte viability and cell cycle/apoptosis after MI by AFAP1-AS1 silencing or RTN3 silencing. The targeting relationshi...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Role of Circular RNAs in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractCircular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-strand covalently closed circular noncoding RNAs that are endogenous transcripts generated from linear precursor mRNA through a backsplicing mechanism. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, a number of circRNAs have been identified and proved to play key roles in various pathophysiological processes, such as metabolic diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases. An increasing number of studies have shown that circRNAs are widely expressed in cardiac tissues and play important roles in the development of multiple cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

3D-Printed Coronary Implants Are Effective for Percutaneous Creation of Swine Models with Focal Coronary Stenosis
AbstractReliable, closed-chest methods for creating large animal models of acute myocardial hypoperfusion are limited. We demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of using magnetic resonance (MR) –compatible 3D-printed coronary implants for establishing swine models of myocardial hypoperfusion. We designed, manufactured, and percutaneously deployed implants in 13 swine to selectively create focal coronary stenosis. To test the efficacy of the implants to cause hypoperfusion or ischemia in the perfused territory, we evaluated regional wall motion, myocardial perfusion, and infarction using MR imaging. The overall swi...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Usefulness of Hemodynamic Device-Based Optimization in Heterogeneous Patients Implanted with Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Defibrillator
AbstractOptimization of the atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) timings of the CRT is the most supposed correctable variable to improve the rate of CRT responder. The aim of the present study has been to evaluate if there is a specific subgroup of patients who can actually benefit the most from a hemodynamic optimization of AV. This is a prospective, observational single-center study that enrolled consecutive patients with clinical indication for CRT; all patients were implanted with CRT-D devices with SonR technology, able to automatically adjust AV and VV delay on a weekly basis. Among 57 patients, 39 (69%) s...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Involvement of Histamine 2 Receptor in Alpha 1 Adrenoceptor Mediated Cardiac Hypertrophy and Oxidative Stress in H9c2 Cardio Myoblasts
AbstractDespite the involvement of ɑ1adrenergic (ɑ1AR) and Histamine 2 receptors (H2R) in cardiac hypertrophy (CH), their relationship is yet to be studied. Our study investigated interrelationship between them using in vitro CH model. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to phenylephrine (ɑ1AR agonist-50 μM) in the presence, the a bsence of famotidine (H2R antagonist-10 μM) and BAY 11-7082 (NF-kB inhibitor-10 μM). The impact of ɑ1AR stimulation on H2R expression and oxidative stress was assessed. Hypertrophic indices were assessed from activities of enzymatic mediators of cardiac hypertrophy, tota...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Elevated Salt Taste Threshold Is Associated with Increased Risk of Coronary Heart Disease
In this study, the levels of salt detection threshold, recognition threshold, and taste preference were higher in CHD than in controls. The salt taste recognition threshold was significantly associated with CHD, and the significant association persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Individuals with high level of salt taste recognition threshold were at a greater risk of CHD. Coincident occurrence of high level of salt taste recognition threshold, hypertension, and diabetes increased the risk of CHD. Thus, a high level of salt taste recognition threshold increases the risk of CHD, and the concurrence of hi...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Big Data and Atrial Fibrillation: Current Understanding and New Opportunities
AbstractAtrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia with diverse etiology that remarkably relates to high morbidity and mortality. With the advancements in intensive clinical and basic research, the understanding of  electrophysiological and pathophysiological mechanism, as well as treatment of AF have made huge progress. However, many unresolved issues remain, including the core mechanisms and key intervention targets. Big data approach has produced new insights into the improvement of the situation. A large amount of data have been accumulated in the field of AF research, thus using the big data to achiev...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Acute Cardiovascular Effects of Non-Invasive Electrical Spinal Cord Stimulation: Results from a Pilot Study in Humans
AbstractWe aimed to determine if non-invasive electrical spinal cord stimulation (NIE-SCS) is associated with acute changes in systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics and cardiac electrophysiology at rest. Nine subjects without structural heart disease referred for catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmia were included. NIE-SCS was performed in each patient at vertebral levels T1, T7, and T11. Higher systolic BP (BPs) was detected during T1 NIE-SCS as compared with baseline (147.9  ± 22.5 vs 135.4 ± 17.4 mmHg;P = 0.02). Atrioventricular nodal effective refractory peri...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research