The Assessment of the Paediatric Athlete
AbstractThe success of systematic early age talent development has led to the professionalisation of youth sports academies used by clubs and governing bodies alike, and sports physicians are nowadays commonly confronted with paediatric cardiological problems. Medical cardiac care of the paediatric athlete is however in its infancy, and the international guidelines that are present for adult athletes, are not yet available. Similarly, reference data for ECG and echocardiography are incomplete. The aim of this article is to provide and introduction to the cardiac care of the paediatric athlete to facilitate healthy and abov...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Prospective Pilot Study to Identify a Myocarditis Cohort who may Safely Resume Sports Activities 3  Months after Diagnosis
AbstractInternational cardiovascular society recommendations to return to sports activities following acute myocarditis are based on expert consensus in the absence of prospective studies. We prospectively enrolled 30 patients with newly diagnosed myocarditis based on clinical parameters, laboratory measurements and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with mildly reduced or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with a follow-up of 12  months. Cessation of physical activity was recommended for 3 months. The average age was 35 (19–80) years with 73% male patients. One case of non-sustained ventri...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

COVID-19, Immuno-oncology and Cardiovascular Disease: Viewpoint from the Intersection
(Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Contemporary Picture of Congestion in Heart Failure: from Dropsy Impression to Multifaceted Reality
(Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - May 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Exosomes: Cell-Free Therapy for Cardiovascular Diseases
AbstractCardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are an important cause of death and disease worldwide. Because injured cardiac tissue cannot be repaired itself, it is urgent to develop other alternate therapies. Stem cells can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells for the treatment of CVDs. Therefore, cell therapy has recently been considered a viable treatment option that can significantly improve cardiac function. Nonetheless, implanted stem cells rarely survive in the recipient heart, suggesting that the benefits of stem cell therapy may involve other mechanisms. Exosomes deri...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

High Plasma Myeloperoxidase Is Associated with Plaque Erosion in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
AbstractWe aimed to investigate the association between plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) and plaque erosion in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Two hundred and fifty-two patients with STEMI who underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) evaluation of culprit lesion were prospectively enrolled. Of them, 92 and 80 patients were identified with plaque rupture and plaque erosion, respectively. Plasma MPO levels, measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay, were significantly higher in patients with plaque erosion versus plaque rupture (median (interquartile range), 96.3  ng/mL [44.2&...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Involvement of p53 in the Responses of Cardiac Muscle Cells to Heat Shock Exposure and Heat Acclimation
In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the responses of cardiac muscle cells to acute heat exposure and heat acclimation (HA). Heat exposure increased the levels of caspase and annexin, and levels of cytosolic, nuclear, and mitochondrial p53 protein in H9c2 cells. Pifithrin- α or pifithrin-μ reduced heat-induced apoptotic response in these cells. HA reduced localization of p53 in the mitochondria and improved cell viability during heat exposure. The effects of heat exposure and HA on p53 were further verified in vivo in mouse heart tissue. These results suggest that p 53 plays a role in heat-induced apo...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy and Sports Activity
AbstractArrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetically determined heart disease characterized by progressive myocyte death and substitution by fibrofatty tissue. Life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias may occur during the course of the disease and are distinctively triggered by sports activity: for this reason, ARVC is one of the leading causes of sudden death in the athlete. Early identification of affected athletes by preparticipation screening in the pre-symptomatic phase is essential, but differential diagnosis with the athlete ’s heart may be challenging. Variants with predominant invo...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Design and Implementation of an Emergency Action Plan for Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Sport
AbstractSudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the leading cause of exercise-related fatalities in athletes. A comprehensive emergency action plan (EAP) is critical to facilitate a rapid and effective response to a cardiac emergency. SCA should be suspected in any athlete that collapses suddenly and is unresponsive. All potential responders to a collapsed athlete should be trained in the recognition of SCA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED). AEDs should be accessible on-site at sporting venues with a target collapse to first shock interval of less than 3  min. Every school, cl...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Deficient Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Promotes Lipid Accumulation in Macrophage
In conclusion, deficient CMA promotes lipid accumulation in macrophage probably by regulating enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. CMA may represent a nove l therapeutic target to facilitate lipid metabolism and alleviate atherosclerosis progression.Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Myocarditis in the Athlete: Arrhythmogenic Substrates, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Eligibility Decisions
AbstractMyocarditis is as an important cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among athletes. The incidence of SCD ascribed to myocarditis did not change after the introduction of pre-participation screening in Italy, due to the transient nature of the disease and problems in the differential diagnosis with the athlete ’s heart. The arrhythmic burden and the underlying mechanisms differ between the acute and chronic setting, depending on the relative impact of acute inflammation versus post-inflammatory myocardial fibrosis. In the acute phase, ventricular arrhythmias vary from isolated ventricular ectopic beats to compl...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Effect of Dobutamine Stress Testing on Vortex Formation Time in Patients Evaluated for Ischemia
AbstractVortex formation time (VFT) is a dimensionless index used to quantify duration of vortex ring formation during diastole. We sought to investigate the effect of pharmaceutical stress on VFT in patients evaluated for ischemia. For this purpose, a standard dobutamine stress echo (DSE) protocol was performed in 50 consecutive patients, and VFT was calculated at rest and at peak. VFT was calculated from echocardiography measurements using a previously developed mathematical equation. VFTi was calculated as the percentage of change of VFTpeak, compared with VFTrest. Mean VFTrest was 2.46 (0.73) and mean VFTpeak 1.67 (0.5...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Precision Cardio-Oncology: a Systems-Based Perspective on Cardiotoxicity of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
AbstractCancer therapies have been evolving from conventional chemotherapeutics to targeted agents. This has fulfilled the hope of greater efficacy but unfortunately  not of greater safety. In fact, a broad spectrum of toxicities can be seen with targeted therapies, including cardiovascular toxicities. Among these, cardiomyopathy and heart failure have received greatest attention, given their profound implications for continuation of cancer therapies and card iovascular morbidity and mortality. Prediction of risk has always posed a challenge and even more so with the newer targeted agents. The merits of...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of Cardiac MRI in Animal Models of Cardiotoxicity: Hopes and Challenges
AbstractAnimal models of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity have been instrumental in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disease. The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance  (NMR) imaging in preclinical models allows the non-invasive study of subclinical pathophysiological processes that influence cardiac function and establish imaging parameters that can be adopted into clinical practice to predict cardiovascular outcomes. Given the rising population of cancer surviv ors and the current lack of effective therapies for the management of cardiotoxicity, research comb...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Predictive Models for Pulmonary Artery Size in Fontan Patients
AbstractWe developed models of pulmonary artery (PA) size in Fontan patients as a function of age and body surface area (BSA) using linear regression and breakpoint analyses based on data from 43 Fontan patients divided into two groups: the extracardiac conduit (ECC) group (n = 24) and the non-ECC group (n = 19). Model predictions were compared against those of a non-Fontan control group (n = 18) and published literature. We observed strong positive correlations of the mean PA diameter with BSA (r = 0.9,p 
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Exercise Training Attenuates Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractCirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a condition where liver cirrhosis is associated with cardiac dysfunction. Triggers and blockers of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy are poorly understood, which might compromise the prognosis of chronic liver disease patients. We tested whether exercise training would reduce liver damage induced by thioacetamide and prevent liver cirrhosis-associated cardiomyopathy. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, thioacetamide (TAA), or TAA plus exercise. Thioacetamide increased liver weight and serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Also, TAA treatment was in...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Low Wall Shear Stress Is Associated with Saphenous Vein Graft Stenosis in Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
AbstractBiomechanical forces may play a key role in saphenous vein graft (SVG) disease after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of 430 post-CABG patients were evaluated and 15 patients were identified with both stenosed and healthy SVGs for paired analysis. The stenosis was virtually removed, and detailed 3D models were reconstructed to perform patient-specific computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. Models were processed to compute anatomic parameters, and hemodynamic parameters such as local and vessel-averaged wall shear stress (WSS), normalized WSS (WSS*), low shea...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - April 1, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Exendin-4 Protects Against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Upregulation of SIRT1 and SIRT3 and Activation of AMPK
In conclusion, Exendin-4 cardioprotective effect against I/R involves activa tion of SIRT1 and SIRT3.Graphical AbstractExendin-4 could scavenge free radical directly, upregulate p53, and  through upregulation of SIRT1 and stimulating SIRT1 nuclear accumulation. In addition, Exendin-4 also upregulates SIRT3 which plays an essential role in the upregulation of antioxidants, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and prevention of mitochondria damage. Accordingly, SI RT1 induces the deacetylation of PGC-1α and p53 and is able to bind p-FOXO-1. This results in inhibition of cardiomyocyte apopto...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 31, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients with Severe Calcification
AbstractOur aim was to analyze its diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with high coronary calcium score (CCS). A total of 113 patients with CCS  >  400 were included. Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as stenosis ≥ 50%. Invasive coronary angiography and major cardiovascular events were recorded. The CCS and heart rate during the acquisition were significantly lower in the diagnostic coronary computed tomography angiogra phy (CCTA) group. The cut-off value of CCS to establish the diagnostic utility of CCTA was 878. The rate of cardiovascular events was 9.3%. The positive predi...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 31, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Effects of Estrogen on Cardiac mRNA and LncRNA Expression Profiles in Hypertensive Mice
This study was to address the possible mechanisms that may explain the relationship between estradiol configuration —17β-estradiol (E2) and ventricular remodeling. Here, we show that a total of 1499 LncRNAs and 680 mRNAs significantly differently expressed were identified. This result indicates that estradiol has a global role in regulating heart gene expression profiles in female mice. Go and Pathway function al cluster analysis showed that the antagonism of E2 on cardiac remodeling and AngII-induced pathological changes in female mice may be related to physiological processes such as circadian rhythm disorder ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The CD40-CD40L Dyad as Immunotherapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractChronic inflammation drives the development of atherosclerosis. Despite optimal treatment of classical cardiovascular risk factors, a substantial portion of the population has elevated inflammatory biomarkers and develops atherosclerosis-related complications, indicating that a residual inflammatory risk drives atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in these patients. Additional anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies are therefore required. The co-stimulatory molecule CD40 and its ligand CD40L (CD154) have a central role in the regulation of the inflammatory response during the development of atherosclerosis by m...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: MGUS Predicts Worse Prognosis in Patients with CoronaryArtery Disease
The captions to Figures 1 –4 in this article as originally published were mismatched with the figures themselves. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Plasma Ceramides in Relation to Coronary Plaque Characterization Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography
This study aimed to explore the associations between Cer and culprit plaque characterizations evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT). It was found that plasma Cer are associated with culprit plaque vulnerability evaluated by OCT, providing evidence supporting proatherogenic roles and potential to act as markers for plaque vulnerability of Cer.Graphical AbstractWith increasing plasma ceramide levels, the prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) and plaque rupture (PR) is higher, that is, culprit plaques are more vulnerable. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

D-Dimer Level Predicts Angiographic No-Reflow Phenomenon After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Within 2 –7 Days of Symptom Onset in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
This study retrospectively enrolled 229 consecutive patients who had pPCI for acute STEMI within 2–7 days of symptom onset between January 2008 and December 2018. Patients were divided into no-reflow group (TIMI flow grade 0–2) and reflow group (TIMI flow grade 3). Predict ors of no-reflow were assessed by univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses. Plasma D-dimer level can independently predict no-reflow in patients with STEMI who had pPCI within 2–7 days of symptom onset (OR 2.52 per 1 mg/L increase, 95% CI 1.16–5.47,p = 0.019). This finding indica...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Association of Depression with Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis: a Systematic Review
AbstractTo assess causal association of depression with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, we performed computer-based and manual search of literature for studies which had assessed relationship of depression disorder with coronary atherosclerosis. All studies had diagnosed depression with validated tools in patients without diagnosed coronary artery disease. The Bradford Hill criteria of cause –effect association was consistently fulfilled by those studies which achieved statistical significance and further showed incremental strength of association with one or more of the following attributes: (1) prospective co...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Syncope in the Young Adult and in the Athlete: Causes and Clinical Work-up to Exclude a Life-Threatening Cardiac Disease
AbstractSyncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness due to cerebral hypoperfusion, characterized by a rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous complete recovery. It is usually a benign event, but sometimes it may represent the initial presentation of several cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac death during physical activity. A careful evaluation is essential particularly in young adults and in competitive athletes in order to exclude the presence of an underlying life-threatening cardiovascular disease. The present review analyzes the main non-cardiac and cardiac causes of syncope and the contr...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Care of Masters Athletes
AbstractMasters athletes (MA), men and woman older than 35  years who participate in competitive athletics, is a rapidly growing population that is increasingly encountered in clinical cardiovascular practice. Although the high levels of exercise typically performed by MA confer numerous health advantages, no amount of exercise confers complete immunity fr om cardiovascular disease. The review was written to cover the clinical management of MA with cardiovascular disease. Focus is dedicated to four of the most common clinical scenarios including atrial fibrillation, myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, and di...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

CircMACF1 Attenuates Acute Myocardial Infarction Through miR-500b-5p-EMP1 Axis
AbstractIt is widely accepted that circular RNA (circRNA) plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this experiment aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of circMACF1 in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). qRT-PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect the expression levels of circMACF1, miR-500b-5p, and epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1). The role of circMACF1, miR-500b-5p, and EMP1 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis was assessed using annexin V-FITC/PI. Echocardiographic assessment, serum creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), myocardial infarct size, and TUNEL staining were applied in ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Development of a Magnetic Kissing Guidewire and Animal Experiment: a Preliminary Study
AbstractEndovascular therapy has been the first option for many vascular diseases. Due to the increasing development of endovascular devices and techniques in recent decades, endovascular procedures could be applied in treating those cases with complex anatomy. Two or three vascular access routes are required to establish through-and-through access in endovascular therapy for arterial occlusive disease and complex aortic aneurysm. Guidewire snaring with a snare kit is essential but sometimes time-consuming in the establishment of through-and-through access. To simplify the procedure, we design the magnetic kissing guidewir...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Integrin-Linked Kinase Activation Prevents Ventricular Arrhythmias Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion Via Inhibition of Connexin 43 Remodeling
AbstractIschemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced arrhythmia is a serious complication in patients with cardiac infarction. Remodeling of connexin (Cx) 43, manifested as phosphorylation, contributes significantly to arrhythmogenesis. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) attenuated ventricular remodeling and improved cardiac function in rats after myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that ILK, through Cx43 phosphorylation, would be protective against I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Our study showed that I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias were attenuated by an ILK agonist LPTP and worsened by the ILK inhibitor Cpd22. I/R disrupted ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Effects of Colchicine on Atherosclerotic Plaque Stabilization: a Multimodality Imaging Study in an Animal Model
AbstractColchicine demonstrated clinical benefits in the treatment of stable coronary artery disease. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of colchicine on atherosclerotic plaque stabilization. Atherosclerosis was induced in the abdominal aorta of 20 rabbits with high-cholesterol diet and balloon endothelial denudation. Rabbits were randomized to receive either colchicine or placebo. All animals underwent MRI,18F-FDG PET/CT, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histology. Similar progression of atherosclerotic burden was observed in the two groups as relative increase of normalized wall index (NWI). Maximum18F-FDG standa...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Differential Effects of Antihypertensive Therapy on Myocardial Deformation
(Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - March 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Volume Reserve in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intravascular volume and intracardiac filling pressures in stable HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). A total of 40 HFrEF patients (LVEF 36  ± 10%) (10 subjects with a pulmonary artery catheter) underwent intravascular volume expansion with 1 L hydroxyl-ethyl-starch over 3 h with coinciding intravascular volume measurements (technetium (99 tc)-labeled red blood cell technique). Intravascular blood volume increased from 5.0 ±  1.0 L to 5.7 ± 1.0 L (p 
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 24, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

F acilitation Through A ggrastat or Cangrelor B olus and Infusion O ver Prasugre L : a M U lticenter Randomized Open-label Trial in Patient S with ST-elevation Myocardial In F arction Referred for Prim A ry Percutaneou S In TER vention (FABOLUS FASTER) Trial: Design and Rationale
This study will add new insights in the management of antiplatelet therapy in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI and might be hypothesis-generating for future clinical trials in this field. The trial is registered onclinicaltrials.gov NCT02978040, and EudraCT 2017-001065-24. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Effect of Antihypertensive Therapy on Left Ventricular Longitudinal Strain: Missing Part of the Puzzle
AbstractThere is no consensus regarding the benefit of antihypertensive therapy on left ventricular structure and function. The most of studies investigated the effect of therapy on left ventricular hypertrophy, less studies were focused on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and the minority on left ventricular mechanics. The majority of investigations showed positive effect of antihypertensive therapy on regression of left ventricular remodeling. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to distinguish the effect of antihypertensive medication from the effect of blood pressure reduction on left ventricular improvement. The o...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 20, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Therapeutic Implications in Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractPatients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer from a magnitude of excess cardiovascular risk. A paradoxical lipid pattern has been observed in rheumatoid arthritis patients where low levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This paper aims to break down the evidence explaining why patients with low to normal LDL, and total cholesterol have such excess cardiovascular risk. A component of the enhanced cardiovascular risk is systemic inflammation and the subsequent pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia patterns. Due to this “lipid paradox,&rdquo...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Human In Vitro Models for Assessing the Genomic Basis of Chemotherapy-Induced Cardiovascular Toxicity
AbstractChemotherapy-induced cardiovascular toxicity (CICT) is a well-established risk for cancer survivors and causes diseases such as heart failure, arrhythmia, vascular dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. As our knowledge of the precise cardiovascular risks of each chemotherapy agent has improved, it has become clear that genomics is one of the most influential predictors of which patients will experience cardiovascular toxicity. Most recently, GWAS-led, top-down approaches have identified novel genetic variants and their related genes that are statistically related to CICT. Importantly, the advent of human-induced plurip...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on In-Hospital Mortality and Thromboembolic Complications after Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation
AbstractThe association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and thromboembolic (TE) complications in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients is controversial, and there is paucity of large-scale data evaluating the impact of AF on early outcomes after device implantation. Using the National Inpatient Sample, we identified hospitalizations where patients underwent LVAD implantation from 2010 to 2015. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of AF on in-hospital outcomes. A total of 18,378 patients (41.7% with AF) underwent LVAD implantation. Patients with AF were older (59.9 vs. 54.0  years,p 
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Atherosclerosis: Insights into Vascular Pathobiology and Outlook to Novel Treatments
AbstractThe pathobiology of atherosclerosis and its current and potential future treatments are summarized, with a spotlight on three central cell types involved: (i) endothelial cells (ECs), (ii) macrophages, and (iii) vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (i) EC behaviour is regulated by the central transcription factors YAP/TAZ in reaction to biomechanical forces, such as hemodynamic shear stress. (ii) VSMC transdifferentiation (phenotype switching) to a macrophage-like phenotype contributes to the majority of cells positive for common cell surface macrophage markers in atherosclerotic plaques. (iii) Intra-plaque macrop...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Role of NLRP3-Inflammasome/Caspase-1/Galectin-3 Pathway on Atrial Remodeling in Diabetic Rabbits
AbstractBoth diabetes mellitus (DM) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are usually associated with enhanced inflammatory response. The effect of the “NACHT, LRR and PYD domain containing protein 3” (NLRP3)-inflammasome/caspase-1/galectin-3 pathway and the potential benefits of NLRP3-inflammasome inhibitor glibenclamide (GLB) on atrial remodeling in the DM state are still unknown. Here, we demonstrated that higher AF inducibility and conducti on inhomogeneity, slower epicardial conduction velocity, and increased amount of fibrosis in diabetic rabbits as against normal ones were markedly reduced by GLB. Atrial caspase-...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Iliocaval Venous Obstruction, Cardiac Preload Reserve and Exercise Limitation
AbstractCardiac output during exercise increases by as much as fivefold in the untrained man, and by as much as eightfold in the elite athlete. Increasing venous return is a critical but much overlooked component of the physiological response to exercise. Cardiac disorders such as constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension are recognised to impair preload and cause exercise limitation; however, the effects of peripheral venous obstruction on cardiac function have not been well described. This manuscript will discuss how obstruction of the iliocaval venous outflow can lead to impairment...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Acute In Vivo Functional Assessment of a Biodegradable Stentless Elastomeric Tricuspid Valve
AbstractDegradable heart valves based on in situ tissue regeneration have been proposed as potentially durable and non-thrombogenic prosthetic alternatives. We evaluated the acute in vivo function, microstructure, mechanics, and thromboresistance of a stentless biodegradable tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) in the tricuspid position. Biomimetic stentless tricuspid valves were fabricated with poly(carbonate urethane)urea (PCUU) by double-component deposition (DCD) processing to mimic native valve mechanics and geometry. Five swine then underwent 24-h TEHV implantation in the tricuspid position. Echocardiography demonstr...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Protein Thermodynamic Destabilization in the Assessment of Pathogenicity of a Variant of Uncertain Significance in Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C
AbstractIn the era of next generation sequencing (NGS), genetic testing for inherited disorders identifies an ever-increasing number of variants whose pathogenicity remains unclear. These variants of uncertain significance (VUS) limit the reach of genetic testing in clinical practice. The VUS for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common familial heart disease, constitute over 60% of entries for missense variants shown in ClinVar database. We have studied a novel VUS (c.1809T>G-p.I603M) in the most frequently mutated gene in HCM,MYBPC3, which codes for cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBPC). Our determinatio...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Intra-myocardial Delivery of a Novel Thermosensitive Hydrogel Inhibits Post-infarct Heart Failure After Degradation in Rat
In this study, Dex-PCL-HEMA/PNIPAAm (DPHP) hydrogel was delivered into peri-infarct myocardium of rat when coronary artery was ligated, while PBS was employed as control. Twelve weeks later, compared with control, left ventricle remodeling was attenuated and cardiac function was preserved; serum brain natriuretic peptide, cardiac aldosterone, and pulmonary congestion were suppressed in hydrogel group. Pro-fibrogenic mRNA increased in infarct area while decreased in remote zone, as well as hypertrophic mRNA. These data proves DPHP hydrogel suppresses ventricular remodeling and HF by promoting fibrotic healing in infarct are...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - February 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Myoglobin for Detection of High-Risk Patients with Acute Myocarditis
AbstractThere is an unmet need for accurate and practical screening to detect myocarditis. We sought to test the hypothesis that the extent of acute myocarditis, measured by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), can be estimated based on routine blood markers. A total of 44 patients were diagnosed with acute myocarditis and included in this study. There was strong correlation between myoglobin and LGE (rs = 0.73 [95% CI 0.51; 0.87],p 
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - January 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Heparin Administration, but Not Myocardial Ischemia or Necrosis, Leads to Midkine Elevation
This study quantified serial MK levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CA) and identified factors associated with MK. In this single-centre, parallel cohort study, forty patients undergoing CA had arterial samples collected prior, 10 and 20  min after heparin administration. Four groups were examined: 1—stable coronary artery disease (CAD) without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); 2—stable CAD for elective PCI; 3—non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) with or without PCI; 4—ST elevation myocardial infarction ( STEMI) with primary PCI. Groups 1, 2 and 4 were heparin...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

LncRNA-LUNAR1 Levels Are Closely Related to Coronary Collaterals in Patients with Chronic Total Coronary Occlusion
AbstractCoronary collaterals can effectively improve myocardial blood supply to the area of CTO (chronic total coronary occlusion) and can, thus, reduce infarct size. LUNAR1(leukemia-induced noncoding activator RNA-1) is a specific LncRNA regulated by Notch signaling that not only can enhance the expression of IGFR-1 but also can promote angiogenesis and cell survival. Here, we investigated the relationship between LncRNA-LUNAR1 levels in peripheral plasma and the formation of coronary collaterals. In total, 172 patients with CTO were enrolled and followed up for 12  months. Coronary collaterals were scored according ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - January 28, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Differences in the Interleukin-1 β/Soluble ST2 Interplay Between Acute and Chronic Heart Failure
AbstractRecently, novel findings about the interleukin 1 β (IL-1 β) axis in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) have been published. There is a positive correlation between IL-1 β and interleukin-1 receptor like 1 (sST2) in ADHF patients. Is there also a correlation between the values of IL-1 β and sST2 in chronic heart failure patients? (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - January 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Diseases
(Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - January 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Novel In-hospital Congestion Score to Risk Stratify Patients Admitted for Worsening Heart Failure (from ASCEND-HF)
AbstractPatients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) remain at high risk for early readmission. A post hoc analysis was performed of the biomarker substudy of theASCEND-HF trial. An in-hospital congestion score was derived using orthopnea, pedal edema, and NT-proBNP levels. Its added prognostic value beyond traditional risk factors was assessed by determining the net reclassification index (NRI). Study participants (n = 884) had a median age (years) of 67 (55–77), 68% were male, and the median (25th–75th) ejection fraction (%) was 26 (20–40). After adjustment, increasing congestion score was...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research - January 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research