“Why and when hierarchy impacts team effectiveness: A meta-analytic integration”: Correction to Greer et al. (2018).
Reports an error in "Why and when hierarchy impacts team effectiveness: A meta-analytic integration" by Lindred L. Greer, Bart A. de Jong, Maartje E. Schouten and Jennifer E. Dannals (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2018[Jun], Vol 103[6], 591-613). In this article, the hierarchical form value for the study by Cantimur et al. (2015a) was incorrectly coded as representing ‘acyclicity’ rather than ‘steepness’. Updating the coding for this study means that there is just one acyclicity study in our dataset (Bunderson et al., 2016) rather than two, and resulted in some changes to the coefficients...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - March 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using practice employment tests to improve recruitment and personnel selection outcomes for organizations and job seekers.
This study introduces the use of practice employment tests during recruitment as a tool with the potential to improve outcomes for both an organization and its (potential) applicants during personnel selection. Synthesizing research on recruitment, selection, job search, adverse impact, signaling theory, and human capital theory, we propose that practice tests reduce information asymmetry regarding the nature of an organization’s assessment procedures, thereby acting as short-term human capital investment opportunities. Using a large sample of potential applicants and applicants who later decided to apply for jobs wi...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - March 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Ethical leadership as a substitute for justice enactment: An information-processing perspective.
Why do employees perceive that they have been treated fairly by their supervisor? Theory and research on justice generally presumes a straightforward answer to this question: Because the supervisor adhered to justice rules. We propose the answer is not so straightforward and that employee justice perceptions are not merely “justice-laden.” Drawing from theory on information processing that distinguishes between automatic and systematic modes, we suggest that employee justice perceptions are also “ethics-laden.” Specifically, we posit that employees with more ethical supervisors form justice percepti...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - March 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

On the importance of a motivational agency variable: Being a formal business in developing countries is only helpful for growth if business owners show a high degree of personal initiative.
This article advances the understanding of when and how formal status of small-scale entrepreneurs can contribute to higher growth in comparison to their informal counterparts. Our integrative framework suggests that both formal status and personal initiative (PI) behavior have a common pathway to predict firm growth. More importantly, formal firms improve their growth perspectives only if the entrepreneurs show a high degree of PI. The integrative framework was tested using longitudinal data with 2 measurement points with a total of 190 formal and informal entrepreneurs in the Sub-Saharan African country of Zimbabwe. Resu...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - March 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Turning frowns (and smiles) upside down: A multilevel examination of surface acting positive and negative emotions on well-being.
In this study, we take a hedonic approach to well-being and challenge the consensus that surface acting is bad for employees by examining its effects on changes in emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction, through changes in positive and negative affect, for both positive and negative emotional displays. Using a within-person approach, we focus on managers, whose occupation calls for displays of both positive and negative emotions. Our 3-week, experience-sampling study of 79 managers revealed that faking positive emotions decreases positive affect, which harms well-being more than authentically displaying such emotions. I...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - March 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The restorative effect of work after unemployment: An intraindividual analysis of subjective well-being recovery through reemployment.
This study examines the extent to which reemployment restores individuals’ subjective well-being following a period of unemployment. Applying fixed effects models to the large-scale longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey, we find that recovery of subjective well-being upon reemployment is fast, complete and enduring, even when individuals take less favorable employment options to return to work. By contrast, transitions into economic inactivity following unemployment are accompanied by persistent scars on subsequent well-being trajectories. This study advances our understanding of well-being develo...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - February 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When and why does employee creativity fuel deviance? Key psychological mechanisms.
This study thus illustrates that, within individuals, creativity and deviance are related through perceived creative credit and different psychological motives (i.e., serial mediation). However, the strength of this serial mediation relationship varies depending on the availability of formal rewards for creativity (i.e., moderated serial mediation). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Journal of Applied Psychology)
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An eye for an eye? A meta-analysis of negative reciprocity in organizations.
Most models of negative workplace behaviors (NWB) are individual in nature, focusing on individual attitudes (e.g., satisfaction) and general workplace perceptions (e.g., procedural justice) that motivate NWB. Less commonly considered are explorations of relationally based negative workplace behaviors—how NWB from Party A is related to reciprocation of NWB from Party B. Based on 2 competing conceptualizations in the literature, that behavior is reciprocated “in-kind” in an eye for an eye exchange or that behavior tends to escalate or spiral over time, we develop a framework for negative reciprocity that c...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gender and the evaluation of humor at work.
Although research has added to our understanding of the positive and negative effects of the use of humor at work, scholars have paid little attention to characteristics of the humor source. We argue that this is an important oversight, particularly in terms of gender. Guided by parallel-constraint-satisfaction theory (PCST), we propose that gender plays an important role in understanding when using humor at work can have costs for the humor source. Humor has the potential to be interpreted as either a functional or disruptive work behavior. Based on PCST, we argue that gender stereotypes constrain the interpretation of ob...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - February 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is the employee–organization relationship dying or thriving? A temporal meta-analysis.
There is controversy concerning whether, in recent years, organizational failures to act benevolently toward employees have lessened employees’ social-exchange relationship (SER) with their work organization or whether, on the contrary, organizations’ more favorable treatment of employees has strengthened the SER. With samples of U.S. employees, we examined changes over the past 3 decades in three key elements of the SER: perceived organizational support (POS: 317 samples, including 121,469 individuals), leader–member exchange (LMX: 191 samples, including 216,975 individuals), and affective organizational...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - February 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Enjoy your evening, be proactive tomorrow: How off-job experiences shape daily proactivity.
Drawing on conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) and the model of proactive motivation (Parker, Bindl, & Strauss, 2010), this research employs experience sampling methods to examine how employees’ off-job experiences during the evening relate to their proactive behavior at work the next day. A multilevel path analysis of data from 183 employees across 10 workdays indicated that various types of off-job experiences in the evening had differential effects on daily proactive behavior during the subsequent workday, and the psychological mechanisms underlying these varied relationships were distinct. Specif...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - February 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The money or the morals? When moral language is more effective for selling social issues.
We examine the effectiveness of economic and moral language used by employees when selling social issues to management. In contrast to prior work finding that employees believe it is best to use economic language to influence management to address social issues, we draw on the issue selling, persuasion, and behavioral ethics literatures to demonstrate that moral language is actually most influential—especially when the language is framed to align with the organization’s values and/or mission. The results from a combination of 3 field survey studies and 1 experimental vignette study provide support for this hypo...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - February 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Doing good, feeling good? The roles of helping motivation and citizenship pressure.
Drawing on self-determination theory, this research investigates whether the motivation behind employees’ helping behaviors is associated with their positive affect and their subsequent help provision, and whether citizenship pressure moderates these relationships. A recall-based experiment and an experience-sampling study capturing helping episodes among fulltime employees found that when employees helped coworkers because of higher autonomous (controlled) motivation in a helping episode, they experienced higher (lower) positive affect, and they had stronger (weaker) helping intentions and helped coworkers more (les...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - February 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Pushed out or opting out? Integrating perspectives on gender differences in withdrawal attitudes during pregnancy.
In light of recent research suggesting mothers are more likely to withdraw from work than fathers are, we assess the relative contributions of popular “pushed-out” and “opting-out” perspectives over the course of their pregnancies. As pregnancy is a pivotal time for the reevaluation of work and life roles, we investigate the degree to which gender differences in changes in turnover intentions and intentions to return to the workforce are explained by changes in perceived career encouragement from organizational members (a pushed-out factor), as well as changes in the employees’ own career moti...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Evaluating the effectiveness of performance management: A 30-year integrative conceptual review.
This integrative conceptual review is based on a critical need in the area of performance management (PM), where there remain important unanswered questions about the effectiveness of PM that affect both research and practice. In response, we create a theoretically grounded, comprehensive, and integrative model for understanding and measuring PM effectiveness, comprising multiple categories of evaluative criteria and the underlying mechanisms that link them. We then review more than 30 years (1984–2018) of empirical PM research vis-à-vis this model, leading to conclusions about what the literature has studied ...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion regulation in the context of customer mistreatment and felt affect: An event-based profile approach.
Variable-centered views of emotional labor suggest that high customer incivility and employee-felt negative affect should co-occur with high employee emotion regulation. Similarly, low customer incivility and employee positive affect should be accompanied by low emotion regulation. We theorize that these theory-based configurations of emotional labor variables represent only a subset of the possible ways that emotional labor events unfold. We propose that there are distinct subpopulations of emotional labor events, some of which conform to this standard view of emotional labor and some of which deviate from this model and ...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How leaders perceive employee deviance: Blaming victims while excusing favorites.
Drawing from theories of attribution and perception, we posit that employees who are victims of rudeness are themselves (inappropriately) evaluated by leaders as being interpersonally deviant. We further theorize that employees who are themselves rude to others at work are evaluated negatively, but not when they have high-quality relationships with leaders or are seen as high performers. We tested our predictions across 4 studies. Our first study included 372 leader–follower pairs. Our second study extended to dyadic interactions among employees by using an employee roster method, resulting in paired data from 149 em...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Head above the parapet: How minority subordinates influence group outcomes and the consequences they face for doing so.
Research on power often treats the recipients of powerholders’ decisions (i.e., subordinates) as an undifferentiated group, overlooking how their responses to powerholders’ decisions might vary and how those responses might affect powerholders’ later decisions. In this article, we examine the role of lone dissenting subordinates (individuals whose feedback differs from that expressed by other group members) in shaping powerholders’ allocation decisions, and explore the consequences those subordinates face for their dissent. In 3 experimental studies, we show that even as a lone voice, the feedback o...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Poor work design begets poor work design: Capacity and willingness antecedents of individual work design behavior.
This article opens up a new area of inquiry: how and why individuals design work for others in the way they do. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Journal of Applied Psychology)
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Influencing how one is seen by potential talent: Organizational impression management among recruiting firms.
This paper investigates how employers influence the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of potential talent as part of a process of Organizational Impression Management (OIM) during the recruitment process. Several studies were conducted seeking to address the lack of empirical research on what recruiters do to manage organizational images. Study 1 developed and validated an empirical measure of OIM. Study 2 demonstrated that OIM tactics were distinct from other phenomena encountered by job seekers as part of the recruitment process. Study 3 established predictive validity by investigating the impact of OIM on organizational...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of range restriction and criterion contamination on differential validity of the SAT by race/ethnicity and sex.
We illustrate the effects of range restriction and a form of criterion contamination (individual differences in course-taking patterns) on the validity of SAT scores for predicting college academic performance. College data facilitate exploration of differential validity’s determinants because they (a) permit the use multivariate range-restriction corrections to more accurately account for differential range restriction across subgroups and (b) allow for separate examinations of composite performance and specific performance episodes, the latter of which controls for ecological contamination of composite performance ...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The virtuous cycle of daily motivation: Effects of daily strivings on work behaviors, need satisfaction, and next-day strivings.
We extend the theory of purposeful work behavior (TPWB, Barrick, Mount, & Li, 2013) by conceptualizing three key motivational strivings (communion striving, accomplishment striving, and status striving) as dynamic constructs that have implications for how employees act and feel each day at work. Building on TPWB, we propose that morning communion striving, accomplishment striving, and status striving will motivate unique behaviors at work that day—specifically helping, task-performance, and enacted power, respectively. Considering the implications of these striving-induced behaviors on basic psychological needs, ...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

What predicts within-person variance in applied psychology constructs? An empirical examination.
The attention paid to intraindividual phenomena in applied psychology has rapidly increased during the last two decades. However, the design characteristics of studies using daily experience sampling methods and the proportion of within-person variance in the measures employed in these studies vary substantially. This raises a critical question yet to be addressed: are differences in the proportion of variance attributable to within- versus between-person factors dependent on construct-, measure-, design-, and/or sample-related characteristics? A multilevel analysis based on 1,051,808 within-person observations reported in...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A meta-analytic test of organizational culture’s association with elements of an organization’s system and its relative predictive validity on organizational outcomes.
Organizational culture is an important predictor of organizational effectiveness, but it is also part of an organizational system that consists of highly interdependent elements such as strategy, structure, leadership, and high performance work practices (HPWPs). As such, accounting for the effect of culture’s system correlates is important to specify more precisely organizational culture’s predictive value for organizational outcomes. To date, however, efforts to connect culture with its system correlates have proceeded independently without integration. This trend is problematic because it raises questions ab...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

General mental ability and goal type as antecedents of recurrent adaptive task performance.
Even though considerable work has demonstrated a robust positive relationship between general mental ability (GMA) and task performance, recent work indicates that the expected relationship may not hold in the context of adaptive performance. By integrating the concept of choking, or performing worse than expected, with goal theory, the present work advances a theoretical framework aimed at furthering our understanding of how and when GMA is most likely to meaningfully impact performance. Drawing on this perspective, we propose that the relationship between GMA and adaptive performance is uniquely dependent on the type of ...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - January 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

I can be happy for you, but not all the time: A contingency model of envy and positive empathy in the workplace.
Although individuals are capable of feeling happiness for others’ positive experiences, management scholars have thus far considered envy to be the sole emotional reaction of employees in response to coworkers’ positive outcomes. In this article, we introduce the concept of positive empathy—the experience of happiness in response to a coworker’s positive experience and the real or imagined happiness in the coworker—as an alternative response to envy and distinguish it from related concepts in the organizational literature. We develop a theoretical framework to explain the psychological process...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - December 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Toward a dimensional model of vocational interests.
Growing evidence on the predictive validity of vocational interests for job performance calls for greater consideration of interest assessment in organizations. However, a consensus on the fundamental dimensions of interests that are aligned with the contemporary world of work is still lacking. In the current research, we developed an organizing framework of vocational interests and empirically validated an 8-dimension model (SETPOINT: Health Science, Creative Expression, Technology, People, Organization, Influence, Nature, and Things). We propose that interests are structured hierarchically, with preferences for specific ...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - December 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A self-regulation perspective on how and when regulatory focus differentially relates to citizenship behaviors.
Although previous research suggests that regulatory focus matters for organizational citizenship behaviors, it is unclear how promotion and prevention focus relate to such behaviors. Integrating regulatory focus theory with theories of self-regulation, we propose a conceptual model that links trait promotion and prevention foci with specific citizenship behaviors through an emotion-related self-regulation mechanism. Using a sample of 227 nurses working in a hospital context, we observed that trait promotion focus and trait prevention focus predict helping and voice via differential effects on emotional exhaustion. Specific...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - December 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

On-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness differentially influence relationships between informal job search and turnover.
In this study, we propose that on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness play distinct roles in strengthening or weakening the positive relationship between informal job search and turnover intentions and behavior. We assert that on-the-job embeddedness reduces the likelihood that informal job search translates into turnover decisions, whereas off-the-job embeddedness strengthens the positive association between informal job search and turnover decisions. We tested these hypotheses across two samples of employed nurses. Although results were mixed, we found evidence that on-the-job embeddedness dampened the positive relation...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - December 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Lay theories of effortful honesty: Does the honesty–effort association justify making a dishonest decision?
Are our moral decisions and actions influenced by our beliefs about how much effort it takes to do the right thing? We hypothesized that the belief that honesty is effortful predicts subsequent dishonest behavior because it facilitates one’s ability to justify such actions. In Study 1 (N = 210), we developed an implicit measure of people’s beliefs about whether honesty is effortful, and we found that this lay theory predicts dishonesty. In Study 2 (N = 339), we experimentally manipulated individuals’ lay theories about honesty and effort and found that an individual’s lay theory that honesty is effo...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - November 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Give and take: An episodic perspective on leader-member exchange.
Research on leader-member exchange (LMX) has predominantly taken a dyadic relationship perspective to understand the differences in overall exchanges across leader-member dyads, while neglecting the within-dyad exchange dynamics across a series of episodic resource transactions. Drawing from the literature on equity and reciprocity principles of social exchange, we develop and test a model of leader-member episodic resource transactions that delineates the momentary psychological mechanism and the boundary condition under which episodic resource contribution surplus generates member subsequent reciprocations. Multilevel po...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - November 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Constructed response formats and their effects on minority–majority differences and validity.
The inflow of immigrants challenges organizations to consider alternative selection procedures that reduce potential minority (immigrants)–majority (natives) differences, while maintaining valid predictions of performance. To deal with this challenge, this paper proposes response format as a practically and theoretically relevant factor for situational judgment tests (SJTs). We examine a range of response format categories (from traditional multiple-choice formats to more innovative constructed response formats) and conceptually link these response formats to mechanisms underlying minority–majority differences....
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - November 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Say it as it is: Consequences of voice directness, voice politeness, and voicer credibility on voice endorsement.
To gain endorsement from their managers, should employees be direct with explicit change suggestions, or should they be indirect with questions and hints? We draw on psychological threat and communication clarity theories to offer competing hypotheses with respect to the association between voice directness and managerial endorsement. We then further draw from social judgment research to theorize whether the relationship between voice directness and managerial endorsement might be modified by voicer politeness and voicer credibility. The results of an experimental study and two field studies show that being direct about ch...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - November 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Job crafting revisited: Implications of an extended framework for active changes at work.
Employees often self-initiate changes to their jobs, a process referred to as job crafting, yet we know little about why and how they initiate such changes. In this paper, we introduce and test an extended framework for job crafting, incorporating individuals’ needs and regulatory focus. Our theoretical model posits that individual needs provide employees with the motivation to engage in distinct job-crafting strategies—task, relationship, skill, and cognitive crafting—and that work-related regulatory focus will be associated with promotion- or prevention-oriented forms of these strategies. Across three i...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - November 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The pay transparency dilemma: Development and validation of the Pay Information Exchange Preferences Scale.
Although calls for pay transparency in the workplace are growing, it remains unclear which factors determine when and why employees exchange pay information. We use a social comparison theory lens to identify the pay transparency dilemma, wherein pay information exchange can create benefits by reducing uncertainty and verifying equitable pay, but simultaneously risks straining interpersonal relationships and damaging reputations. To examine individual differences in employee sensitivity to the risks and benefits presented in this dilemma, our research develops a measure of pay information exchange preferences with two face...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Geneva Emotional Competence Test (GECo): An ability measure of workplace emotional intelligence.
Emotional intelligence (EI) has been frequently studied as a predictor of work criteria, but disparate approaches to defining and measuring EI have produced rather inconsistent findings. The conceptualization of EI as an ability to be measured with performance-based tests is by many considered the most appropriate approach, but only few tests developed in this tradition exist, and none of them is designed to specifically assess EI in the workplace. The present research introduces the Geneva Emotional Competence test (GECo)—a new ability EI test measuring emotion recognition (assessed using video clips of actors), emo...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Bargaining while Black: The role of race in salary negotiations.
The influence of race in negotiations has remained relatively underexplored. Across three studies, we theorize and find that Black job seekers are expected to negotiate less than their White counterparts and are penalized in negotiations with lower salary outcomes when this expectation is violated; especially when they negotiate with an evaluator who is more racially biased (i.e., higher in social dominance orientation). Specifically, on the basis of the prescriptive stereotype held by those higher in racial bias—that Black (as compared to White) negotiators deserve lower salaries—we predicted that Black negoti...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How do instrumental and expressive network positions relate to turnover? A meta-analytic investigation.
Although social network methods have proven valuable for predicting employee turnover, an informed use of network methods for turnover management requires an integration and extension of extant networks-turnover research. To that end, this article addresses two relatively neglected issues in the networks-turnover literature: the lack of integration of turnover process models into networks-turnover research and the differential influence of “network content” (i.e., instrumental vs. expressive network resources) on turnover processes. To address these issues, we draw from social capital and turnover theories as a...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The accuracy of dominance analysis as a metric to assess relative importance: The joint impact of sampling error variance and measurement unreliability.
This article examines the joint impact of two common and pervasive artifacts—sampling error variance and measurement unreliability—on the accuracy of DA. We present Monte Carlo simulations that detail the decrease in the accuracy of DA in the presence of these artifacts, highlighting the practical extent of the inferential mistakes that can be made. Then, we detail and provide a user-friendly program in R (R Core Team, 2017) for estimating the effects of sampling error variance and unreliability on DA. Finally, by way of a detailed example, we provide specific recommendations for how researchers and practitione...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Why sabotage customers who mistreat you? Activated hostility and subsequent devaluation of targets as a moral disengagement mechanism.
We utilize the social intuitionist approach to moral judgment and moral disengagement theory to understand why and when employees sabotage customers. We contend that when customers mistreat employees (i.e., customer mistreatment), employees experience intuitive emotional reactions in the form of hostility, which automatically activates devaluation of targets, a specific facet of moral disengagement. In turn, employees become unencumbered by moral self-regulation and sabotage customers who mistreat them (i.e., customer-directed sabotage). We further argue that our serially mediated model is moderated by employees’ per...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Shall we serve the dark lords? A meta-analytic review of psychopathy and leadership.
Both scholars and the popular press have expressed concern regarding the potential prevalence of individuals with psychopathic tendencies in corporate leadership positions and the negative effects they may have on both individual workers and their organizations as a whole. However, research to date has been inconclusive as to whether such individuals are more likely to emerge as leaders or whether they are (in)effective leaders. To clarify the state of the literature, we conducted a meta-analysis on the association between psychopathic personality characteristics and leadership emergence, leadership effectiveness, and tran...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Breaking the cycle of abusive supervision: How disidentification and moral identity help the trickle-down change course.
Studies show that abusive leader behaviors “trickle down” to lower organizational levels, but this research ignores that many abused supervisors do not perpetuate abuse by harming their own subordinates. Drawing on social-cognitive theory and related research, we suggest abused supervisors might defy rather than emulate their managers’ abusive behavior. Specifically, we predicted that some abused supervisors—namely, those with strong moral identities—might in effect “change course” by engaging in less abuse or demonstrating ethical leadership with their subordinates to the extent t...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Energizing leaders via self-reflection: A within-person field experiment.
In this study, we present theory and an intervention focused on improving leader energy. Integrating cognitive energetics theory (Kruglanski et al., 2012) with leader identity theory and expressive writing research, we develop and test a positive leader self-reflection intervention, which asks leaders to reflect on aspects of their selves that make them good leaders. We expected that this intervention would improve leaders’ access to and application of their energy in ways that would make them more influential at work. We tested these theoretical expectations in an experimental experience sampling study where, as exp...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The impact of leader moral humility on follower moral self-efficacy and behavior.
This study utilizes social–cognitive theory, humble leadership theory, and the behavioral ethics literature to theoretically develop the concept of leader moral humility and its effects on followers. Specifically, we propose a theoretical model wherein leader moral humility and follower implicit theories about morality interact to predict follower moral efficacy, which in turn increases follower prosocial behavior and decreases follower unethical behavior. We furthermore suggest that these effects are strongest when followers hold an incremental implicit theory of morality (i.e., believing that one’s morality i...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - October 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Meta-analytic and primary investigations of the role of followers in ratings of leadership behavior in organizations.
Leader-centric views of leadership tend to regard followers as passive recipients of leaders’ influences. As such, researchers often control for follower characteristics (e.g., age, gender, organizational tenure) when examining relations between leadership behaviors and other variables. However, reversing-the-lens theory suggests that followers’ characteristics represent substantive factors that may affect how they perceive their leaders or how leaders behave toward different followers. We conducted two studies to investigate this possibility. In Study 1, we meta-analyzed data from 479 primary studies (N = 172,...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Supervisor support training effects on veteran health and work outcomes in the civilian workplace.
This study affirms and adds to the literature on the positive effects of organizational programs that train supervisors to provide social support, thereby improving health and work outcomes of employees who receive more support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Journal of Applied Psychology)
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The impact of organizational performance on the emergence of Asian American leaders.
Despite remarkably high levels of education and income, Asian Americans remain underrepresented at the top of the organizational hierarchy. Existing work suggests that a mismatch between the prototypical characteristics of business leaders (e.g., dominance) and stereotypes associated with Asian Americans (e.g., submissiveness) lowers the likelihood that Asian Americans will emerge as leaders. We predict that this reluctance to appoint Asian Americans will be attenuated when organizations experience performance decline because decision makers believe Asian Americans are inclined to sacrifice their self-interest to improve t...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - September 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Leaders matter morally: The role of ethical leadership in shaping employee moral cognition and misconduct.
There has long been interest in how leaders influence the unethical behavior of those who they lead. However, research in this area has tended to focus on leaders’ direct influence over subordinate behavior, such as through role modeling or eliciting positive social exchange. We extend this research by examining how ethical leaders affect how employees construe morally problematic decisions, ultimately influencing their behavior. Across four studies, diverse in methods (lab and field) and national context (the United States and China), we find that ethical leadership decreases employees’ propensity to morally d...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - September 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Boxed in by your inbox: Implications of daily e-mail demands for managers’ leadership behaviors.
Over the past 30 years, the nature of communication at work has changed. Leaders in particular rely increasingly on e-mail to communicate with their superiors and subordinates. However, researchers and practitioners alike suggest that people frequently report feeling overloaded by the e-mail demands they experience at work. In the current study, we develop a self-regulatory framework that articulates how leaders’ day-to-day e-mail demands relate to a perceived lack of goal progress, which has a negative impact on their subsequent enactment of routine (i.e., initiating structure) and exemplary (i.e., transformational)...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - September 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Blend in or stand out? Interpersonal outcomes of managing concealable stigmas at work.
In the workplace, employees must choose what personal information they share with others. Employees with concealable stigmas (e.g., sexual orientation, mental illness, and certain religious beliefs) face the added pressure of having to carefully manage information about a potential social liability. Yet it remains unclear how managing a concealable stigma may influence colleagues’ perceptions and reactions. Using theory about impression management and social cognition, we investigated how employees strategically manage information about their concealable stigmas and the impact of these behaviors on colleague reaction...
Source: Journal of Applied Psychology - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research