Non-invasive MRI quantification of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients
ConclusionWhile our sample size limits statistical confidence about the differences observed in this study, it was possible to measure and quantify inter-individual and cohort variability in a non-invasive manner. Our study also shows the potential for MRI based measurements of CSF geometry and flow to provide information about   the hydrodynamic environment of the spinal subarachnoid space. These dynamics may be studied further to understand the behavior of CSF solute transport in healthy and diseased states. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - January 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Extracranial versus intracranial hydro-hemodynamics during aging: a PC-MRI pilot cross-sectional study
ConclusionThe study demonstrates that aging changes blood flow but preserves blood and CSF interactions. We also showed that many parameters related to blood and CSF flows differ between young and elderly adults. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - January 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genetic disruption of slc4a10 alters the capacity for cellular metabolism and vectorial ion transport in the choroid plexus epithelium
ConclusionOur findings suggest that the lack of effective Na+-entry into the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus leads to a profound change in the cellular phenotype, shifting from a high-rate secretory function towards a more dormant state; similar to what is observed during ageing or Alzheimer ’s disease. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - January 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Can pulsatile CSF flow across the cerebral aqueduct cause ventriculomegaly? A prospective study of patients with communicating hydrocephalus
ConclusionsThe results supported the hypothesis with respect to the direction of ΔPnet, although the magnitude was low. Thus, although the pulsations may generate a pressure difference across the CA it is likely too small to explain the ventriculomegaly in communicating hydrocephalus. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The legacy of Malcolm Beverley Segal (1937 –2019) on the science and fields concerned with choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid physiology
This article highlights the scientific achievements, professional career, and personal interactions of Malcolm B. Segal who passed away in July this year. Born in 1937 in Goodmayes, Essex, UK, Segal rose to the Chairman position in the Division of Physiology at United Medical and Dental School of Guy ’s and St. Thomas’ Hospitals, retiring in 2006 after his long professional career in biomedical science. Being trained in Hugh Davson’s laboratory, Segal became one of the pioneers in research on cerebrospinal fluid physiology and the choroid plexus. During the course of his career, Segal hims elf trained a n...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathological mitochondria in neurons and perivascular astrocytic endfeet of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients
ConclusionOur results provide evidence of mitochondrial pathology and signs of impaired cellular clearance in iNPH patients. The results indicate that iNPH is a neurodegenerative disease with close similarity to Alzheimer ’s disease. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Region-specific blood –brain barrier transporter changes leads to increased sensitivity to amisulpride in Alzheimer’s disease
ConclusionsTogether our research indicates that the increased sensitivity of individuals with Alzheimer ’s to amisulpride is related to previously unreported changes in function and expression of SLC transporters at the BBB (in particular PMAT and MATE1). Dose adjustments may be required for drugs that are substrates of these transporters when prescribing for individuals with AD. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repeated lumbar punctures within 3  days may affect CSF biomarker levels
AbstractLumbar puncture (LP) is a common way of collecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) both in the clinic and in research. In this extension of a study on the relationship between sleep deprivation and CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer ’s disease, we investigated CSF biomarker dynamics in relation to rebound sleep after sleep deprivation. Two LPs were performed within 3 days in 13 healthy volunteers. We noticed an unexpected sharp rise in biomarker concentrations in the second sample and therefore repeated the experiment, but w ithout sleep intervention, in four additional individuals. The findings were similar in thes...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abstracts from Hydrocephalus 2019: The Eleventh Meeting of the International Society for Hydrocephalus and Cerebrospinal Fluid Disorders
(Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preclinical update on regulation of intracranial pressure in relation to idiopathic intracranial hypertension
ConclusionsICP monitoring in rodents is challenging and different methods have been applied. Some of these methods are invasive, depend on use of anesthesia and only allow short-term monitoring. Long-term ICP recordings are needed to study IIH but existing methods are hampered by several limitations. As obesity is one of the most common risk factors for IIH, a rodent obese model has been developed that mimics some key aspects of IIH. The most commonly used drugs for IIH have been evaluated in vivo for their efficacy at lowering ICP in the existing animal models. These studies suggest these drugs, including acetazolamide, m...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - November 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid on amino acids, biogenic amines, pterins and vitamins
ConclusionsCSF-targeted metabolomic analysis is feasible even when substantial RBC contamination of CSF has occurred since CSF centrifugation to remove RBC prior to freezing eliminated most of the interferences observed. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - November 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

B waves: a systematic review of terminology, characteristics, and analysis methods
ConclusionsTwo future lines of action are available for automating macro-pattern identification in ICP signals: achieving strict agreement on morphological characteristics of “traditional” B waveforms, or starting a new with a fresh computerized approach for recognition of new clinically relevant patterns. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - October 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Uncertainty quantification of parenchymal tracer distribution using random diffusion and convective velocity fields
ConclusionEven when uncertainties are taken into account, we find that diffusion alone is not sufficient to explain transport of tracer deep into the white matter as seen in experimental data. A glymphatic velocity field may increase transport if a large-scale directional structure is included in the glymphatic circulation. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - September 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Claudin-12 is not required for blood –brain barrier tight junction function
ConclusionsOur present study thus shows that claudin-12 is not essential in establishing or maintaining BBB TJs integrity. Claudin-12 is rather expressed in cells that typically lack TJs suggesting that claudin-12 plays a role other than forming classical TJs. At the same time, in depth phenotypic screening of clinically relevant organ functions of claudin-12lacZ/lacZ C57BL/6J mice suggested the involvement of claudin-12 in some neurological but, more prominently, in cardiovascular functions. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - September 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abstracts from the 22nd International Symposium on Signal Transduction at the Blood –Brain Barriers
(Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - September 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: An isogenic neurovascular unit model comprised of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons
Following publication of the original article [1], the author has reported that in Figure  1 (b and c) the y-axis TEER (© x cm2) should be replaced with TEER ( Ω x cm2). (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - September 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tau-protein concentrations are not elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
AbstractProgressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by infection with John Cunningham polyoma virus (JCPyV) in immune-compromised patients, is a serious demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. This disease often leads to major neurological impairments and consecutive disability. No effective treatment for PML has been found as yet. As JCPyV-PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be negative in some cases, a reliable diagnosis might prove to be difficult as well. So far, two case reports suggested CSF-tau to be a promising biomarker for PML. Our study included 10 patients with assured diagnosis o...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enhanced xeno-free differentiation of hiPSC-derived astroglia applied in a blood –brain barrier model
ConclusionOur results suggest that astroglia differentiated on LN521 display an improved phenotype and are suitable for coculture in a hiPSC-derived BBB model. This provides a starting point for a more defined and robust derivation of astroglia for use in BBB coculture models. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - August 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Streptococcus agalactiae disrupts P-glycoprotein function in brain endothelial cells
AbstractBacterial meningitis is a serious life threatening infection of the CNS. To cause meningitis, blood –borne bacteria need to interact with and penetrate brain endothelial cells (BECs) that comprise the blood–brain barrier. BECs help maintain brain homeostasis and they possess an array of efflux transporters, such asP-glycoprotein (P-gp), that function to efflux potentially harmful compounds from the CNS back into the circulation. Oftentimes, efflux also serves to limit the brain uptake of therapeutic drugs, representing a major hurdle for CNS drug delivery. During meningitis, BEC barrier integrity is com...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - August 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An isogenic neurovascular unit model comprised of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons
ConclusionsImportantly, each cell type in the NVU model was differentiated from the same donor iPSC source, yielding an isogenic model that could prove enabling for enhanced personalized modeling of the NVU in human health and disease. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - August 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Kuopio idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus protocol: initial outcome of 175 patients
ConclusionsOur results emphasize the importance of a systematic diagnostic and prognostic workup especially in cases with an atypical presentation of iNPH. Additional diagnostic testing may be required, but should not delay adequate care. Active surgical treatment is recommended in patients with a high clinical probability of iNPH. Other neurological conditions contributed to most of the non iNPH diagnoses. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - July 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of mutations associated with familial neurodegenerative disorders on blood –brain barrier function in an iPSC model
ConclusionsThese results suggest that the accumulation of defects in brain microvascular endothelial cells may ultimately lead to impairment of the BBB. Small changes in barrier function over time could lead to accumulated defects that result in positive feedback to unrelated central nervous system diseases. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - July 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

In response to “Is solute movement within the extracellular spaces of brain gray matter brought about primarily by diffusion or flow?”
Discussion section, we calculate a value for perfusion rate, or volumetric flow rate per unit mass of tissue, from these fundamental results of superficial velocity. Drs. Hladky and Barrand have proposed an alternative method for choosing the surface area per volume used to calculate perfusion rate from superficial velocity, using our model domain. Their method seems reasonable to us, as does ours. Upon reflection, a range of volumetric flow per unit mass values should have been reported in our paper, 1 –40 μL/min-g. The value calculated using Drs. Hladky and Barrand surface area is a likely upper-bound on this ra...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - July 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Is solute movement within the extracellular spaces of brain gray matter brought about primarily by diffusion or flow? A commentary on “Analysis of convective and diffusive transport in the brain interstitium” Fluids and Barriers of the CNS (2019) 16:6 by L. Ray, J.J. Iliff and J.J. Heys
AbstractSolutes can enter and leave gray matter in the brain by perivascular routes. The glymphatic hypothesis supposes that these movements are a consequence of inward flow along periarterial spaces and an equal outward flow along perivenous spaces. The flow through the parenchyma between periarterial and perivenous spaces is the same as the inflow and the outflow. Ray et al. (Fluids Barriers CNS 16:6,2019) have investigated how this flow could interact with diffusion using numerical simulations of real-time iontophoresis experiments that monitor the concentrations of tetramethylammonium ions (TMA+) injected into the pare...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - July 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: A26 Cerebrospinal fluid outflow resistance is increased following small-moderate ischaemic stroke
After publication of this supplement [1], it was brought to our attention that in the results the line “(0.3 ± 0.04 mmHg/μl/min, and 0.54 ± 0.04 mmHg/μl/min, respectively)” should actually read “(0.54 ± 0.04 mmHg/μl/min and 0.3 ± 0.04 mmHg/μl/min, respectively)”. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - July 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Human ES-derived MSCs correct TNF- α-mediated alterations in a blood–brain barrier model
ConclusionshES-MSCs and/or products derived from them could potentially serve as novel therapeutics to repair BBB disturbances in MS. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abstracts from the 13th International Conference on Cerebral Vascular Biology (CVB 2019)
(Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hydraulic resistance of periarterial spaces in the brain
ConclusionsThe concentric circular annulus assumed in recent studies is not a good model of the shape of actual PASs observed in vivo, and it greatly overestimates the hydraulic resistance of the PAS. Our parameterization can be used to incorporate more realistic resistances into hydraulic network models of flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. Our results demonstrate that actual shapes observed in vivo are nearly optimal, in the sense of offering the least hydraulic resistance. This optimization may well represent an evolutionary adaptation that maximizes clearance of metabolic waste from the brain. (Source: Fluids an...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A perfusion bioreactor-based 3D model of the subarachnoid space based on a meningeal tissue construct
ConclusionsAlterations of these biological processes may not only interfere with critical MEC functions impacting CSF and hence optic nerve homeostasis, but may likely alter SAS structure, thereby further impeding cerebrospinal fluid flow. Future studies based on the established 3D model will lead to new insights into the role of MECs in the pathogenesis of optic nerve but also brain degenerative diseases. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - June 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of iPSC-derived pericytes on barrier function of iPSC-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells in 2D and 3D
ConclusionsWe demonstrated that monocultured BMECs do not require co-culture to achieve physiological TEER, but that suboptimal TEER in stressed monolayers can be increased through co-culture with hiPSC-derived pericytes or conditioned media. We also developed the first BBB microvessel model using exclusively hiPSC-derived BMECs and pericytes, which could be used to examine vascular dysfunction in the human CNS. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - June 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The endo-lysosomal system of bEnd.3 and hCMEC/D3 brain endothelial cells
ConclusionsTaken together our data identify differences in the trafficking network of brain endothelial cells, essentially mapping the endo-lysosomal system of in vitro blood –brain barrier models. This knowledge is valuable for planning the optimal route across the blood–brain barrier and advancing drug delivery to the brain. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - May 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The need for mathematical modelling of spatial drug distribution within the brain
AbstractThe blood brain barrier (BBB) is the main barrier that separates the blood from the brain. Because of the BBB, the drug concentration-time profile in the brain may be substantially different from that in the blood. Within the brain, the drug is subject to distributional and elimination processes: diffusion, bulk flow of the brain extracellular fluid (ECF), extra-intracellular exchange, bulk flow of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), binding and metabolism. Drug effects are driven by the concentration of a drug at the site of its target and by drug-target interactions. Therefore, a quantitative understanding is needed o...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - May 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dispersion in porous media in oscillatory flow between flat plates: applications to intrathecal, periarterial and paraarterial solute transport in the central nervous system
Discussion/conclusionsIn the basement membranes, flow and dispersion are both quasi-steady and enhancement of dispersion is small even if lateral dispersion is reduced by the porous media to achieve maximum enhancement. In the paraarterial space, maximum enhancementRmax = 73,200 has the potential to be significant. In the SSS, the dispersion is unsteady and the flow is in the transition zone between porous and unsteady. Enhancement is 5.8 times that of molecular diffusion, and grows to a maximum of 1.6E+6 when lateral dispersion is increased. The maximum enhan cement produces rostral transport time in agreeme...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - May 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enhanced in vitro model of the CSF dynamics
ConclusionsThe in vitro pressure values were in the physiological range. The amplitudes of the flow results were in good agreement with PC-MRI data of young and healthy volunteers. However, the maximum cranial flow in the in vitro model occurred earlier than in the PC-MRI data, which might be due to a lack of an in vitro dynamic compliance. Implementing dynamic compliances and related sensitivity analyses are major aspects of our ongoing research. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - April 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and intracranial pressure elevation in neurological diseases
AbstractThe fine balance between the secretion, composition, volume and turnover of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is strictly regulated. However, during certain neurological diseases, this balance can be disrupted. A significant disruption to the normal CSF circulation can be life threatening, leading to increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and is implicated in hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, brain trauma, brain tumours and stroke. Yet, the exact cellular, molecular and physiological mechanisms that contribute to altered hydrodynamic pathways in these diseases are poorly defined or hotly debated. The tra...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - April 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spinal CSF flow in response to forced thoracic and abdominal respiration
ConclusionsSpinal CSF dynamics are sensitive to varying respiratory performances. The different CSF flow volumes in response to deep thoracic versus abdominal breathing reflect instantaneous adjustments of intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressure, respectively. Real-time MRI access to CSF flow in response to defined respiration patterns will be of clinical importance for patients with disturbed CSF circulation like hydrocephalus, pseudotumor cerebri and others. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The human central nervous system discharges carbon dioxide and lactic acid into the cerebrospinal fluid
AbstractBackgroundThe central nervous system was previously thought to draw oxygen and nutrition from the arteries and discharge carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes into the venous system. At present, the functional role of cerebrospinal fluid in brain metabolism is not fully known.MethodsIn this prospective observational study, we performed gas analysis on venous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simultaneously acquired from 16 consecutive preoperative patients without any known neurological disorders.ResultsThe carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) (p  
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - March 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of extradural constriction on CSF flow in rat spinal cord
ConclusionsThe presence of a subarachnoid space obstruction may lead to an increase in fluid flow within the spinal cord tissue, presenting as increased flow in the perivascular spaces of arterioles and venules, and the basement membranes of capillaries. Increased fluid retention in the spinal cord in the presence of an obstructed subarachnoid space may be a critical step in the development of post-traumatic syringomyelia. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - March 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Analysis of convective and diffusive transport in the brain interstitium
ConclusionsFor the large molecules of interest in neuropathology, bulk flow may be an important mechanism of interstitial transport. Further work is warranted to investigate the potential for bulk flow. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - March 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comorbidity of diabetes mellitus in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a systematic literature review
AbstractIdiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a subtype of hydrocephalus that occurs more often in the elderly population. It is usually characterized by gait disturbance, dementia and urinary incontinence. Epidemiological studies indicate that 15.7 –17.8% of iNPH patients present with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A review of the primary literature shows that these occurrence rates are higher than age- and cohort-matched non-iNPH controls. This suggests that this already vulnerable patient group has an increased risk for presenting with DM compared to their non-iNPH counterparts. Postoperative outcome ...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The year in review: progress in brain barriers and brain fluid research in 2018
AbstractThis editorial focuses on the progress made in brain barrier and brain fluid research in 2018. It highlights some recent advances in knowledge and techniques, as well as prevalent themes and controversies. Areas covered include: modeling, the brain endothelium, the neurovascular unit, the blood –CSF barrier and CSF, drug delivery, fluid movement within the brain, the impact of disease states, and heterogeneity. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - February 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Claudin-5: gatekeeper of neurological function
AbstractTight junction proteins of the blood –brain barrier are vital for maintaining integrity of endothelial cells lining brain blood vessels. The presence of these protein complexes in the space between endothelial cells creates a dynamic, highly regulated and restrictive microenvironment that is vital for neural homeostasis. By limiting paracellular diffusion of material between blood and brain, tight junction proteins provide a protective barrier preventing the passage of unwanted and potentially damaging material. Simultaneously, this protective barrier hinders the therapeutic effectiveness of central nervous s...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - January 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Opposing CSF hydrodynamic trends found in the cerebral aqueduct and prepontine cistern following shunt treatment in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus
ConclusionsAlthough several studies have quantified the changes in aqueductal flow between hydrocephalic groups and controls, few studies have investigated prepontine cistern flow. Our study was the first to investigate both regions in the same patients for NPH pre- and post- treatment. Following shunt treatment, the aqueductal CSF metrics decreased toward control values, while the prepontine cistern metrics trended up (not significantly) from the normal values established in this study. The opposing trend of the two locations suggests a redistribution of CSF pulsatility in NPH patients. Furthermore, the significantly decr...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - January 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Disruption of the hippocampal and hypothalamic blood –brain barrier in a diet-induced obese model of type II diabetes: prevention and treatment by the mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, topiramate
ConclusionsBlood –brain barrier and blood–retinal barrier dysfunction were examined in a mouse model of diet-induced obese type II diabetes. These studies demonstrate that there are spatial and temporal differences in14C-sucrose and99mTc-albumin permeability in the brain and retina of diet-induced obese type II diabetic mice. Topiramate, a mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, is efficacious at both preventing and treating BBB disruption in this diet-induced obese type II diabetic mouse model. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - January 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abstracts from hydrocephalus 2018: the tenth meeting of the International Society for Hydrocephalus and Cerebrospinal Fluid Disorders
(Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebellar tonsil ectopia measurement in type I Chiari malformation patients show poor inter-operator reliability
ConclusionThe results demonstrated a large average range (7.7  mm) of measurements among the seven expert operators and support that, if economically feasible, two radiologists should make independent measurements before radiologic diagnosis of CM-I and surgery is contemplated. In the future, an objective diagnostic parameter for CM-I that utilizes automated algorithms and results in smaller inter-operator variation may improve patient selection. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Choroid plexus genes for CSF production and brain homeostasis are altered in Alzheimer ’s disease
ConclusionsBecause the altered expression of numerous transcripts in AD-CP help explain decreased CSF production in AD, these findings represent a first step towards identifying novel therapeutic targets in AD. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Benchmarking in vitro tissue-engineered blood –brain barrier models
AbstractThe blood –brain barrier (BBB) plays a key role in regulating transport into and out of the brain. With increasing interest in the role of the BBB in health and disease, there have been significant advances in the development of in vitro models. The value of these models to the research community is critica lly dependent on recapitulating characteristics of the BBB in humans or animal models. However, benchmarking in vitro models is surprisingly difficult since much of our knowledge of the structure and function of the BBB comes from in vitro studies. Here we describe a set of parameters that we consid er a s...
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - December 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Patient-specific cranio-spinal compliance distribution using lumped-parameter model: its relation with ICP over a wide age range
ConclusionsThis paper describes MRI-based non-invasive way to determine the cranio-spinal compliance distribution in the brain and spinal canal sub-compartments. The proposed mathematics makes the model always stable and within the physiological range. The model-derived cranial compliance was strongly negatively correlated to non-invasive MR-ICP data from 104 patients, indicating that compliance distribution plays a major role in modulating ICP. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - November 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Erythrophages do not develop when lumbar CSF and blood samples are mixed in vitro
ConclusionsWe did not find evidence for an in vitro erythrophagocytosis after a mimicked traumatic lumbar puncture. Therefore, the occurrence of erythrophages in CSF cytology can be regarded as a reliable sign of an autochthonous bleeding in the subarachnoid space. Our results support the crucial role of CSF analysis in clinical practice in case of a suspected SAH but negative cerebral imaging. (Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS)
Source: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS - November 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research