Interventions for treating nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials.
CONCLUSION: Present evidence is conclusive on the therapeutic benefits of ginger in treating nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Although favourable results were obtained for several other interventions, the strength of evidence is very low. The results of this network meta-analysis should be interpreted with extreme caution as it might change with the advent of data from future head-to-head clinical trials. PMID: 30261764 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The use of biologics and small molecules in pregnant patients with rheumatic diseases.
Authors: Gerosa M, Argolini LM, Artusi C, Beatrice Chighizola C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biological agents have radically changed the prognosis of rheumatic patients. Current evidence demonstrates that tight disease control during pregnancy is mandatory to minimize adverse outcome risk. As the new therapeutic tools are pivotal to maintain appropriate disease activity, it is timely to review available evidence about the safety of biologics and small molecules in pregnancy. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature review has been performed, reporting available data about the passage into breast milk, rate of pregnancy...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Development of a clinical decision rule for diagnosing sinus infections - to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing.
Authors: Mainz JG, Jaudszus A, Pletz MW PMID: 30215540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

LDL-C Does Not Cause Cardiovascular Disease: a comprehensive review of current literature.
Authors: Ravnskov U, de Lorgeril M, Diamond DM, Hama R, Hamazaki T, Hammarskjöld B, Hynes N, Kendrick M, Langsjoen PH, Mascitelli L, McCully KS, Okuyama H, Rosch PJ, Schersten T, Sultan S, Sundberg R Abstract Introduction For half a century, a high level of total cholesterol (TC) or low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been considered to be the major cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and statin treatment has been widely promoted for cardiovascular prevention. However, there is an increasing understanding that the mechanisms are more complicated, and that statin treatment, in...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The pharmacological interactions between direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of chronic hepatitis c and psychotropic drugs.
Authors: Roncero C, Villegas JL, Martínez-Rebollar M, Buti M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Most direct-acting antivirals (DAA) and psychotropic drugs are metabolized by or induct/inhibit CYP enzymes and drug transporters. Although they are frequently co-administered, the drug-drug interactions (DDI) have been little studied. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the interactions between the approved DAA or combination regimens and the main psychoactive substances, including legal and illegal drugs of abuse. Areas covered: We performed a literature search on PubMed database on drug interactions with the c...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Selecting immuno-oncology based drug combinations - what should we be considering?
Authors: Festino L, Vanella V, Trojaniello C, Ascierto PA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of many advanced stage cancers. Preexisting immunity is necessary for a response to these agents, which are most effective in inflamed tumors since they principally act by reinforcing pre-existing antitumor T-cell responses. An important goal of therapy is to convert the tumor environment from non-inflamed to inflamed in order to facilitate subsequent response to checkpoint inhibitors. Clinical trials are underway to identify checkpoint inhibitor-based combination appr...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Unconventional therapies for hidradenitis suppurativa.
Authors: Marasca C, Annunziata MC, Napolitano M, Fabbrocini G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory, and debilitating skin disease, which usually occurs after puberty with painful, deep-seated, inflammatory lesions in the apocrine gland-bearing areas of the body. Several pharmacologic agents have been described to reduce lesion activity and inflammation in HS. However, conventional treatment may not always get the desired results. Therefore, unconventional therapies must be taken into account. Areas covered: Recently, the better understanding of HS pathogenesis has been use...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Opioids in Ontario: The current state of affairs and a path forward.
Authors: Tadrous M PMID: 30139277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

NSAID induced gastrointestinal damage and designing GI-sparing NSAIDs.
Authors: García-Rayado G, Navarro M, Lanas A Abstract NSAIDs are widely used to treat pain and rheumatic conditions, but they induce adverse events in different body systems, although the major, most frequent events occur in the upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. Areas covered: This review is focused on damage caused by NSAIDs in the upper and lower GI tracts, the different mechanisms of damage and the GI-sparing NSAIDs designed to minimize adverse events based on understanding of these mechanisms. Expert commentary: Among the new NSAIDs, COX-2 selective inhibitors have been extensively investigat...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical and pharmacological profile of benznidazole for treatment of Chagas disease.
Authors: Kratz JM, Garcia Bournissen F, Forsyth CJ, Sosa-Estani S Abstract Introduction Chagas disease (CD) is one of the most neglected public health problems in the Americas, where
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Olaparib tablets for the treatment of germline BRCA-mutated metastatic breast cancer.
Authors: Le D, Gelmon KA Abstract Introduction Germline BRCA mutations (gBRCAm) are diagnosed in approximately 5% of unselected breast cancer patients. Olaparib is a new treatment option for patients with a gBRCAm who have metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer. Areas Covered Olaparib is an oral poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that has been shown in phase I-III clinical trials to have single-agent efficacy in breast cancer patients with gBRCAm. The recent phase III OlympiAD study demonstrated a statistically significant progression free survival benefit compared to the chemotherapy control arm, although an o...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Role of Racial/ethnic Factors in Global Clinical Trials.
Authors: Ferdinand KC, Igari M PMID: 30099916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of serotonergic psychedelics for the management of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders: a systematic review of systematic reviews.
Authors: Dos Santos RG, Bouso JC, Alcázar-Córcoles MÁ, Hallak JEC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the population. Although several pharmacological treatments are available, they are not effective for a significant proportion of patients and are associated with several adverse reactions. Therefore, new treatments should be explored. Recent with serotonergic hallucinogens/psychedelics including ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) suggest that these drugs have anxiolytic, antidepressive, ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Impact of CYP2A6 gene polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine for premedication.
CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese patients pretreated with dexmedetomidine, T1/2β was consistent with that published, but T1/2α, V and Cl were lower. It was unnecessary to consider the mutation when developing the precision regimen of dexmedetomidine. PMID: 30092666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Overview of Precision Oncology Trials: Challenges and Opportunities.
Authors: Fountzilas E, Tsimberidou AM Abstract Introduction In recent years, the therapeutic management of selected patients with cancer has shifted towards the 'Precision Medicine" approach based on patient's mechanisms of tumorigenesis, and their baseline characteristics and comorbidities. Complete tumor and cell-free DNA profiling using next-generation sequencing, proteomic and RNA analysis, and immune mechanisms should to be taken into consideration and accurate bioinformatic analysis is essential to optimize patient's treatment. Areas covered The challenges and opportunities of conducting clinical trials ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

A viewpoint on rational and irrational fixed-drug combinations.
Authors: Błaszczyk B, Miziak B, Czuczwar P, Wierzchowska-Cioch E, Pluta R, Czuczwar SJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Considering that there are around 30% of patients with epilepsy resistant to monotherapy, the use of synergistic combinations of antiepileptic drugs is of particular importance. This review shows most beneficial as well as irrational combined treatments both from an experimental and clinical point of view. Areas covered: Preferably, experimental data derived from studies evaluating synergy, additivity or antagonism by relevant methods, in terms of anticonvulsant or neurotoxic effects and pharmacokinetic da...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Use of quantitative clinical pharmacology to improve early clinical development success in neurodegenerative diseases.
Authors: Geerts H, Gieschke R, Peck R Abstract INTRODUCTION: The success rate of pharmaceutical Research & Development (R&D) is much lower compared to other industries such as micro-electronics or aeronautics with the probability of a successful clinical development to approval In Central Nervous Systems (CNS) disorders hovering in the single digits (7%). Areas Covered. Inspired by adjacent engineering-based industries, we argue that quantitative modeling in CNS R&D might improve success rates. We will focus on quantitative techniques in early clinical development, such as PharmacoKinetic-PharmacoDynami...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Rivaroxaban: searching the integral vascular protection.
Authors: Barrios V, Almendro Delia M, Fácila L, García Moll X, Mazón P, Camafort M, Cepeda Rodrigo JM, Mediavilla Garcia JD, Pose Reino A, Suarez C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Residual cardiovascular risk remains high in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease despite current antithrombotic therapy. On the other hand, patients with atrial fibrillation have an increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. As a result, a new antithrombotic approach appears necessary to reduce this risk. Areas covered: in this article, the role of rivaroxaban on vascular protection in p...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Triptorelin depot for the treatment of children 2 years and older with central precocious puberty.
Authors: Bertelloni S, Mucaria C, Baroncelli GI, Peroni D Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triptorelin depot is largely used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP) in children. Areas covered: This review updates triptorelin depot treatment of CPP, focusing on trials that compared 3.75 mg/28 day treated and untreated children till the adult height (AH). Efficacy of the new 11.25 mg/90 days or 22.5 mg/6 month formulations in suppressing pituitary-gonadal axis in short-term trials is also addressed. Short- and long-term safety was summarized. Expert Commentary: Long experience on triptorelin depot use in children with CPP is...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Chronic abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome- current and future therapies.
Authors: Zielińska A, Sałaga M, Włodarczyk M, Fichna J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gut disorder that typically manifests in early adult years. One of the two major symptoms of the disease is chronic, visceral pain. The patients report pain as the most distressing symptom with the greatest impact on quality of life, challenging both to patients and healthcare providers. Areas covered: This review focuses on the pathophysiology of abdominal pain in IBS and describes current treatment possibilities. It also covers latest findings that may lead to novel pharmacological optio...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Diagnosis of drug causality in non-immediate drug hypersensitivity in children.
Authors: Graham F, Caubet JC PMID: 29949394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Carbamazepine adverse drug reactions.
Authors: Fricke-Galindo I, LLerena A, Jung-Cook H, López-López M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbamazepine (CBZ) is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of adverse reactions (ADRs) to CBZ can negatively impact the quality of life of patients, as well as, increase health care costs. Thus, knowledge of CBZ-induced ADRs is important to achieve safer treatment outcomes. Areas covered. This review describes the clinical features, known mechanisms, and clinical management of the main CBZ-induced ADRs. In addition, pharmacogenetic studies focused on A...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Treatment of Sarcoidosis: Grading the evidence.
Authors: James WE, Baughman R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Treatment of sarcoidosis recommendations are often based on clinical experience and expert opinion. However, there are an increasing number of studies which are providing evidence to support decisions regarding treatment. Areas Covered: Several studies have identified factors associated with increased risk for organ failure or death ("danger"). There have been several studies focused on the role of treatment to improve quality of life for the patient. Sarcoidosis treatment often follows a progression, based on response. Corticosteroids remain the initia...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacoperone drugs: targeting misfolded proteins causing lysosomal storage-, ion channels-, and G protein-coupled receptors- associated conformational disorders.
Authors: Hou ZS, Ulloa-Aguirre A, Tao YX Abstract INTRODUCTION: Conformational diseases are caused by structurally abnormal proteins that cannot fold properly and achieve their native conformation. Misfolded proteins frequently originate from genetic mutations that may lead to loss-of-function diseases involving a variety of structurally diverse proteins including enzymes, ion channels, and membrane receptors. Pharmacoperones are small molecules that cross the cell surface plasma membrane and reach their target proteins within the cell, serving as molecular scaffolds to stabilize the native conformation of misfolde...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatment options for severe hypertriglyceridemia and familial chylomicronemia syndrome.
Authors: Chaudry R, Viljoen A, Wierzbicki AS Abstract INTRODUCTION: A spectrum of disorders, ranging from rare severe cases of homozygous null lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD) -familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) to heterozygous missense LPLD or polygenic causes, result in hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. The effects of mutations are exacerbated by environmental factors such as diet, pregnancy and insulin resistance. Areas covered: In this review, authors discuss chronic treatment of FCS by ultra-low fat diets allied with the use of fibrates, omega-3 fatty acids, niacin, statins and insulin-sensitisin...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Tailoring tacrolimus therapy in kidney transplantation.
CONCLUSION: tacrolimus-based immunosuppression is still the best immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplant recipients, and can be tailored according to patients'need. PMID: 29779413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The impact of chronic kidney disease on medication choice and pharmacologic management in patients with heart failure.
Authors: Shah SR, Winchester DE Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the past few years, medical community, including doctors, have become increasingly aware of the fact that chronic kidney disease (CK) and heart failure (HF) have common risk factors which impacts one another in terms of choice of therapy. Areas covered: Management of these two diseases has been a challenge for physicians. The treatment goals for HF patients in CK are very important. They serve as the end-point in using a specific treatment for management and treatment of CK patients hence, decreasing mortality rates. In this review, we discuss the pharmacolo...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
Authors: Baron J, Wang ES Abstract INTRODUCTION: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of a monoclonal antibody targeting CD33 linked to a cytotoxic derivative of calicheamicin. Despite the known clinical efficacy in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), GO was withdrawn from the market in 2010 due to increased early deaths seen in newly diagnosed AML patients receiving GO + intensive chemotherapy. In 2017, new data on the clinical efficacy and safety of GO administered on a fractionated dosing schedule led to re-approval for newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory AML. Are...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Dolutegravir and rilpivirine for the maintenance treatment of virologically suppressed HIV-1 infection.
Authors: Casado JL, Monsalvo M, Rojo AM, Fontecha M, Rodriguez-Sagrado MA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triple combinations of antiretroviral (ART) drugs are the standard treatment for HIV infection, but the challenges include long-term side effects, high costs, and adherence. The recent advent of potent and well tolerated ART has renewed the interest for newer ART strategies. A dual regimen with the combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV), two well tolerated, metabolic-friendly, and potent drugs could offer additional benefits. Areas covered: A review of recent randomized trials and observational cohorts ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

A systematic review and combined analysis of therapeutic drug monitoring studies for oral paliperidone.
This article includes a combined analysis of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) studies and a review of the marketer's data on pharmacological mechanisms. Areas covered: An article search led to the inclusion of 21 paliperidone studies in the systematic review plus 2 case reports. Paliperidone clearance was calculated from: 1) steady-state studies using concentration/dose (C/D) ratios, and 2) single-dose studies describing 24-hour area under the curve calculations. The marketed extended-release formulation has 28% bioavailability. Calculated mean C/D ratios (ng/ml/mg/d) were: 1) 4.09 in 6 studies of 221 non-Korean and non-g...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Enasidenib for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
Authors: Dugan J, Pollyea D Abstract INTRODUCTION: In August 2017 the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved enasidenib (Idhifa, Celgene/Agios) for adults with relapsed and refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with an IDH2 mutation. Enasidenib targets cells with mutant copies of isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2), inhibiting the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarte (2-HG) formed by the mutant IDH2. Areas covered: We review the studies leading to enasidenib's approval, as well as common side effects and safety issues experienced during the clinical trials. There is a focus on the diagnosis and tr...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Seek and destroy: improving PK/PD profiles of anticancer agents with nanoparticles.
Authors: Rodallec A, Fanciullino R, Lacarelle B, Ciccolini J Abstract BACKGROUND: The Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) relationships with cytotoxics are usually based on a steepening concentration-effect relationship; the greater the drug amount, the greater the effect. The Maximum Tolerated Dose paradigm, finding the balance between efficacy while keeping toxicities at their manageable level, has been the rule of thumb over the last 50-years. Developing nanodrugs is an appealing strategy to help broaden this therapeutic window. The fact that efficacy and toxicity with cytotoxics are intricately linked is ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Placebo effects: the need for a new perspective and conceptualization.
Authors: Benedetti F, Frisaldi E, Shaibani A PMID: 29745259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of iron chelators in thalassemia and sickle cell disease: A multiple treatment comparison network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.
CONCLUSION: Relative estimates between the individual iron chelators have been established. However, this evidence should be considered preliminary and may change with the results of future head-to-head clinical trials. PMID: 29727586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Impact of Total Body Weight on Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Gram-Negative Bacteremia.
CONCLUSIONS: TBW>80kg was associated with the development of AKI. However, the mechanism for this association is not clear. PMID: 29718754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Response to: Pharmacological treatment of primary membranous nephropathy in 2016.
Authors: Printza N, Georeli I, Stabouli S, Dotis J, Sidira C, Fotios P PMID: 29669425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - April 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Intracavitary Therapies for Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.
Authors: Knoedler JJ, Raman JD Abstract INTRODUCTION: While radical nephroureterectomy remains the gold-standard for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), there is a growing push for organ-sparing therapy in low-risk disease. Herein we review the use of intracavitary topical therapy for treatment of UTUC. Areas covered:. A PubMed search was performed for studies pertaining to upper tract urothelial carcinoma, with 236 articles reviewed, and distilled for content pertinent to intracavitary therapy for UTUC. Topics discussed include agents used for management of UTUC, most commonly BCG, as well as techniques for a...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - April 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Treatment and prevention of HIV infection with long-acting antiretrovirals.
Authors: Benítez-Gutiérrez L, Soriano V, Requena S, Arias A, Barreiro P, de Mendoza C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Current antiretroviral therapy allows to achieve and sustain maximal suppression of HIV replication in most treated patients. As result, the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons has improved dramatically and is nowadays similar to that of the HIV-negative population. However, oral antiretrovirals have to be taken daily and indefinitely to avoid resumption of HIV replication and selection of drug resistance. Unfortunately, drug adherence is often suboptimal and tends to decline over time. Are...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and the role Cyclosporine and other immunomodulating drugs play.
Authors: Ogawa T, Ishizuka O, Ueda T, Tyagi P, Chancellor MB, Yoshimura N Abstract INTRODUCTION: Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a symptomatic disorder characterized by pelvic pain and urinary frequency. Immunological responses are considered as one of the possible etiologies of IC/BPS. In this review, we focused on emerging targets, especially on those modulating immunological mechanisms for the treatments of IC/BPS. Area covered: This review was based on the literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, for which key words following bladder pain syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and/or cyclosporine ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Dupilumab for treatment of atopic dermatitis.
Authors: Seegräber M, Srour J, Walter A, Knop M, Wollenberg A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dupilumab is a new treatment option for patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. It blocks IL-4/IL13-signaling and thereby inhibits receptor signaling downstream the JAK-STAT-pathway. Three of the main disease mechanisms of atopic dermatitis are affected by blocking this pathway; the decrease of skin barrier function, the class switch to IgE and the TH2-differentiation. Areas Covered: Dupilumab showed promising results in clinical trials of phase I-III. Clinical outcome parameters such as SCORAD, EASI, IGA and BSA i...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Potential nephrotoxicity of sofosbuvir-based treatment in patients infected with hepatitis C virus: a review on incidence, type and risk factors.
Authors: Dashti-Khavidaki S, Khalili H, Nasiri-Toosi M Abstract INTRODUCTION: There was no report of nephrotoxicity during clinical trials assessed sofosbuvir for treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. This may be due to excluding patients with severe kidney dysfunction, as a main population at risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity from these studies. There are some reports of acute kidney injury (AKI) possibly related to sofosbuvir-containing treatments from real-life experiences. Areas covered: Available data on epidemiology, type, and possible risk factors for nephrotoxicity of sofosbuvir-containing treatment ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Lateral switch to IFN beta-1a 44 mcg may be effective as escalation switch to fingolimod in selected persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a real-world setting experience.
CONCLUSIONS: lateral switch to IFN beta-1a 44 mcg and escalation switch to fingolimod showed same ability in influencing RRMS disease activity at 24 months. PMID: 29521113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of late-onset hypogonadism.
Authors: Rastrelli G, Maggi M, Corona G Abstract INTRODUCTION: The frequency of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) ranges between 2 and 15%. Up to 85% of LOH is due to a functional impairment of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis, mostly secondary to metabolic conditions. Areas covered: This paper provides a comprehensive review of all the available medications for treating LOH, including antiestrogens, gonadotropins and testosterone therapy (TTh). In addition, the evidence on clinical outcomes of these treatments is provided by meta-analyzing the results from the available randomized clinical trials. Expert com...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of multiple doses of teicoplanin in Chinese elderly critical patients.
CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese elderly critical patients, t1/2 of teicoplanin was consistent with that of literatures published, however, CL were higher. The pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin at the range of 400~800mg is linear pharmacokinetics, indicating that the dosage regimens for patients were more simply and accurately adjusted according to therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID: 29506414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

What prevents cardioprotective drugs from reaching the market?
Authors: Simko F, Adamcova M PMID: 29495886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Treatment of early stage chronic Hepatitis C Virus infection.
Authors: Ponziani FR, Miele L, Tortora A, Furnari M, Bodini G, Pompili M, Gasbarrini A, Giannini EG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) is able to achieve the cure of infection in almost the totality of patients, independently of patients and virus characteristics, using short treatment schedules, and without the need of ribavirin. The high cost of DAAs is the main limiting factor for universal treatment of HCV. However, there is a strong evidence that treatment of infection at the early stage of disease may be the most rewarding approach. Areas covered: ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

A New Class of Agents for Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.
Authors: Ekoue DN, Unni N, Raj GV PMID: 29439601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

What is the role of statins in the elderly population?
Authors: Stavropoulos K, Imprialos K, Doumas M, Athyros VG PMID: 29431524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment in high-risk prostate cancer.
Authors: Bandini M, Fossati N, Gandaglia G, Preisser F, Dell'Oglio P, Zaffuto E, Stabile A, Gallina A, Suardi N, Shariat SF, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI, Briganti A Abstract INTRODUCTION: High-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) represents a heterogeneous disease with potential risk for local and distant progression. In these patients, a multi-modal approach consisting of neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant systemic therapies has been proposed. The aim of this review is to summarize the emerging roles of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies in HRPCa patients. Areas covered: This review collects the most relevant phase III randomized...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Solving the problem of dose optimisation of children's medicines.
Authors: McWilliam SJ, Hawcutt DB PMID: 29355041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research