Effect of perioperative ketamine on postoperative mood and depression: a review of the literature.
Authors: Reinert JP, Parmentier BL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ketamine is being increasingly utilized in a variety of patient care settings, ranging from high acuity inpatient scenarios to the outpatient management of select mental health diagnoses. Postoperative patients are at an increased risk of developing a depressed state, and though ketamine's ability to improve mood is well documented in the literature, the relationship between perioperative ketamine and postoperative mood has not beed fully elucidated. AREAS COVERED: The purpose of this review was to determine ketamine's ability to improve mood and depress...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pre-existing diabetes and PTDM in kidney transplant recipients: how to handle immunosuppression.
Authors: Chevallier E, Jouve T, Rostaing L, Malvezzi P, Noble J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pre-existing diabetes (PD) and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) are common and severe comorbidities posttransplantation. The immunosuppressive regimens are modifiable risk factors. AREAS COVERED: We reviewed Pubmed and Cochrane database and we summarize the mechanisms and impacts of available immunosuppressive treatments on the risk of PD and PTDM. We also assess the possible management of these drugs to improve glycemic parameters while considering risks inherent in transplantation. EXPERT OPINION: PD i) increase...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a level I evidence based expert opinion.
Conclusions: Denosumab resulted most effective, particularly in reducing the occurrence of non-vertebral fractures. Romosozumab and Ibandronate resulted best to prevent, respectively, vertebral fractures and hip fractures. Adverse events leading to study discontinuation were less frequent in the Romosozumab and Denosumab groups, while Raloxifene and Alendronate showed a lower incidence of serious adverse events overall. Level of evidence: I, Bayesian network meta-analysis of RCTs. PMID: 33183112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and pharmacological treatment of prurigo nodularis.
Authors: Williams KA, Roh YS, Brown I, Sutaria N, Bakhshi P, Choi J, Gabriel S, Chavda R, Kwatra SG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by intensely pruritic, hyperkeratotic nodules distributed on the trunk and extensor surfaces of the extremities. PN has a profoundly negative impact on sleep and quality of life in patients with PN. There are currently no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved agents and patients are often recalcitrant to current therapies, highlighting the importance of further research into this severely debilitating condition. ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Hippocampal volume, function and related molecular activity in anorexia nervosa: a scoping review.
This study aimed to map the evidence for alterations in hippocampal volume, function and related molecular activity in anorexia nervosa. PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science were searched for studies related to hippocampal function and integrity using a range of methodologies, such as neuropsychological paradigms, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and analysis of blood components. EXPERT OPINION: 39 studies were included in this review. The majority were neuroimaging studies, which found hippocampus-specific volumetric and functional impairments. Neuropsychological studies showed evidence for specific...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Oral drugs used to treat persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.
Authors: Zhang W, Wu YE, Yang XY, Shi J, van den Anker J, Song LL, Zhao W Abstract INTRODUCTION: Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) is a life-threatening neonatal condition, mostly treated with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), intravenous prostaglandins, oral bosentan, sildenafil and tadalafil. However, the utility of non-oral agents is limited in PPHN for their side effects and inconvenient deliveries. Therefore, oral agents such as bosentan, sildenafil and tadalafil are becoming appealing for their satisfactory efficacy, easy mode of administration and acceptable side effects. AREAS COVERED: W...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical efficacy and safety of apatinib as maintenance treatment in patients with advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: The positive expression of VEGFR-2 and NF-kB is expected to be the molecular target of oral apatinib targeted therapy for oesophageal cancer. Apatinib has a certain clinical effect as the maintenance treatment for advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients, with mild adverse reactions and high safety. PMID: 33115264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Exploring the effectiveness of incorporating carbon nanotubes into bioengineered scaffolds to improve cardiomyocyte function.
Authors: Ghai P, Mayerhofer T, Jha RK Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbon nanotubes are effective in improving scaffolds to enhance cardiomyocyte function and hold great promise in the field of cardiac tissue engineering. AREAS COVERED: A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed to find relevant literature. 18 total studies were used as primary literature. The literature revealed that the incorporation of carbon nanotube into biocompatible scaffolds that mimic myocardial extracellular matrix, enhanced the ability to promote cell functions by improving physical profiles of scaffolds. Several studies showed impro...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Managing blood disorders during the Covid-19 pandemic: current pharmacological insights.
Authors: Karunakaran P, Nampoothiri RV, Sahu KK PMID: 33089736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Developing a latent class analysis model to identify at-risk populations among people using medicine without prescription.
CONCLUSION: The strategy to identify the target patient audience so as to deliver patient education intervention programs, regarding safe and effective use of MWP was built. PMID: 33054459 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Polypharmacy among adult and older adult users of primary care services delivered through the Unified Health System in Minas Gerais, Brazil.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that polypharmacy is a real concern in primary health care and affects older and middle-aged adults alike. Groups of patients that are more likely to experience polypharmacy were identified. Our findings emphasize the relevance of an appropriate approach to polypharmacy driven by aging and multimorbidity. PMID: 33054470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: what does the future hold?
Authors: Polychronopoulos G, Tziomalos K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) is a common metabolic disease associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Despite treatment with the currently available lipid-lowering agents (statins, ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors), a substantial proportion of patients with heFH does not achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. AREAS COVERED: The PubMed database was reviewed for relevant papers published up to August 2020. The safety and efficacy of novel agents, namely inclisiran an...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Repurposing denosumab in breast cancer beyond prevention of skeletal related events: could nonclinical data be translated into clinical practice?
Authors: Deligiorgi MV, Panayiotidis MI, Trafalis DT Abstract INTRODUCTION: Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody inhibiting the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Initially approved as anti-osteοporotic agent, denosumab is being currently pursued as a candidate for drug repurposing in oncology, especially breast cancer. AREAS COVERED: The present review provides an overview of the therapeutic potential of denosumab in breast cancer beyond prevention of skeletal related events (SREs), with focus on prevention of carcinogenesis in BRCA mutation carriers and on adjuvant treatm...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis' role in design of phase Ⅰ clinical trials of anticoagulant agents: a systematic review.
Authors: Zhao N, Xiang Q, Liu Z, Zhao X, Cui Y Abstract INTRODUCTION: There remains an unmet need for better anticoagulants. The phase I clinical trial is of great significance in the development of anticoagulants, and the design is special. This system review aims to provide insights for the design of future phase I clinical trials of anticoagulants. AREAS COVERED: We searched the database PubMed and ClinicalTrail.gov website, to collate the phase I clinical trial of anticoagulants in healthy people. The study protocol, inclusion exclusion criteria, safety and pharmacodynamic indexes were reviewed. EXPERT ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Current immunosuppressive and antifibrotic therapies of systemic sclerosis and emerging therapeutic strategies.
Authors: Fallet B, Walker UA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare, difficult to treat disease with profound effects on quality of life and high mortality. Complex and incompletely understood pathophysiologic processes and greatly heterogeneous clinical presentations and outcomes have hampered drug development. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the currently available immunosuppressive and antifibrotic therapies and discusses novel approaches for the treatment of SSc. We reviewed the literature using the MEDLINE and ClinicalTrial.gov databases between May and September 2020. EXPERT O...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Combining hydroxychloroquine and minocycline: potential role in moderate to severe COVID-19 infection.
Authors: Gautam SS, Gautam CS, Garg VK, Singh H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection require specific drugs to prevent the morbidity and mortality. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has shown some promise in the management of COVID 19. Minocycline, because of its anti-cytokine and other useful properties can be an ideal candidate for combining with HCQ. AREAS COVERED: Here we review the need and mechanisms and reasons for combining HCQ and minocycline moderate to severe COVID-19 infection. We also reviewed the advantages, potential safety concerns and precautions to be taken, while ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor regarding 'Estetrol (E4): the new estrogenic component of combined oral contraceptives'.
Authors: Bennink HJC PMID: 32981383 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The pharmacological treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children.
We report not only the efficacy of the diet coupled with regular exercise, but also advantages of the pharmacological treatments used in combination with lifestyle interventions in pediatric NAFLD. EXPERT OPINION: Since pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have demonstrated variable effects in pediatric NAFLD, it is clear that safe and specific and efficient therapeutic strategies have not yet been identified. Therefore, large and long-term clinical trials in children are needed to find a way to reverse the liver tissue damage and the NAFLD-related long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID: 32981386 ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

How polypharmacy affects frailty.
Authors: Cesari M PMID: 32985932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antibody-drug conjugates for previously treated aggressive lymphomas: focus on polatuzumab vedotin.
Authors: Burke JM, Morschhauser F, Andorsky D, Lee C, Sharman JP Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are immunoconjugates and comprise a monoclonal antibody that is chemically attached to a cytotoxic drug (or payload) via a stable chemical linker. Since the approval of the first ADC in 2000, there are now nine different approved agents and over 100 ADCs in the drug-development pipeline. AREAS COVERED: This review briefly describes the ADCs approved for treatment of lymphoma and their distinguishing factors in terms of target, linker and payload. The clinical implications of the use of ADCs ar...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Guiding principles for the use of knowledge bases and real-world data in clinical decision support systems: report by an international expert workshop at Karolinska Institutet.
Authors: Hoffmann M, Vander Stichele R, Bates DW, Björklund J, Alexander S, Andersson ML, Auraaen A, Bennie M, Dahl ML, Eiermann B, Hackl W, Hammar T, Hjemdahl P, Koch S, Kunnamo I, Le Louët H, Panagiotis P, Rägo L, Spedding M, Seidling HM, Demner-Fushman D, Gustafsson LL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Technical and logical breakthroughs have provided new opportunities in medicine to use knowledge bases and large-scale clinical data (real-world) at point-of-care as part of a learning healthcare system to diminish the knowledge-practice gap. AREAS COVERED: The article is based on presentations, discussion...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor regarding 'Patiromer for the treatment of hyperkalemia'.
Authors: Cooper K PMID: 32975136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effectiveness of valproic acid for treating cyanotic breath holding spells: a pilot prospective study.
CONCLUSION: VPA therapy reduces CBHS' frequency. Mood improvement is a suggestive effective mechanism. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier is NCT04482764. PMID: 32969724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

An update on guanylyl cyclase C in the diagnosis, chemoprevention, and treatment of colorectal cancer.
Authors: Rappaport JA, Waldman SA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, underscoring the need for novel therapies. Despite the successes of new targeted agents for other cancers, colorectal cancer suffers from a relative scarcity of actionable biomarkers. In this context, the intestinal receptor, guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), has emerged as a promising target. AREAS COVERED: GUCY2C regulates a tumor suppressive signaling axis that is silenced through loss of its endogenous ligands at the earliest stages of tumorigenesis. A body of literatu...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Time-course and dose-effect of metformin on weight in patients with different disease states.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly provided quantitative information for metformin effects on weight in different disease states, including patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, patients with antipsychotic induced weight gain, patients with obesity. PMID: 32940086 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Overview of the clinical use of erdafitinib as a treatment option for the metastatic urothelial carcinoma: where do we stand.
Authors: D'Angelo A, Bagby S, Galli IC, Bortoletti C, Roviello G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Erdafitinib is the first orally administered pan-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitor approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). AREAS COVERED: Specifically binding to FGFR family (FGFR-1 to FGFR-4), erdafitinib leads to reduced cell signaling and cellular apoptosis. Coupled with the ability to bind to vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR-2), KIT, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4), platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and β (PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β), RET and colo...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Remdesivir emergency approvals: a comparison of the US, Japanese and EU systems.
Authors: Saint-Raymond A, Sato J, Kishioka Y, Teixeira T, Hasslboeck C, Kweder SL Abstract INTRODUCTION: there were no formal regulatory approvals for antivirals for the COVID-19 pandemic as of June 2020. AREAS COVERED: We compare the first regulatory approvals for remdesivir, through emergency pathways available to three of the main regulators in the world, the US, Japan and the EU. We look at the data supporting the decisions and how authorities exchanged information and collaborated to speed up approvals. Based only on topline data available as of April 29th, 2020, regulators granted approvals to remdesivir ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

A narrative review of buprenorphine in adult cancer pain.
Authors: Degnan M, Mousa SA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adult cancer pain is a disease state battled on a global scale. Proper pain management is essential to prevent health complications and promote patient well-being. Due to the opioid misuse crisis in the United States, providers are looking for alternatives to traditional opioids used for adult cancer pain. Buprenorphine has multi-mechanistic interactions with opioid receptors mu and kappa and opioid receptor-like 1 and has a unique pharmacologic profile, allowing it to be delivered in non-invasive ways; thus, it offers an alternative to traditional options. Randomi...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

COVID-19 epidemic: a special focus on diagnosis, complications and management.
Authors: Ai L, Jiang L, Xu Z, Yan H, Luo P, He Q Abstract INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has become a serious hazard to global health. Apart from attacking respiratory system, it can induce multiorgan dysfunction, including cardiovascular system, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal, nervous system and immune system. However, there are few reviews focusing on summary and comparison of diagnostic methods and complications induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which places a significant limit on the effective management. AREAS COVERED: This review is a blend of evidence obtained by li...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of progestin-only contraceptives on the endometrium.
Authors: Bastianelli C, Farris M, Bruni V, Rosato E, Brosens I, Benagiano G Abstract INTRODUCTION: The contraceptive activity of synthetic progestins is mediated through three basic mechanisms: (a) An anti-gonadotrophic action leading to the inhibition of ovulation; (b) Changes in cervical mucus characteristics that inhibit sperm penetration and (c) desynchronization of the endometrial picture necessary for implantation. AREAS COVERED: Mechanisms involved in the progestin-induced endometrium desynchronization are individually reviewed for each of the routes of administration and, whenever possible, by individua...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Melatonin as a putative protection against myocardial injury in COVID-19 infection.
Authors: Simko F, Hrenak J, Dominguez-Rodriguez A, Reiter RJ PMID: 32893686 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Optimizing de-escalation of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: a systematic review of real-world findings.
Authors: Rogliani P, Ritondo BL, Gabriele M, Cazzola M, Calzetta L Abstract INTRODUCTION: To date there is solid evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) supporting the rationale for withdrawal from inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in most patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the populations selected for RCTs only partially represent the real-life population of COPD patients. AREAS COVERED: In this review a systematic synthesis of data useful in the daily clinical practice was provided in order to guide clinicians toward the optimal approach for the de-escalation...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Paracetamol for low back pain: the state of the research field.
We describe the origin of paracetamol and its proposed mechanisms of action. We focus in on low back pain and describe the evidence it has on the efficacy of paracetamol (taken by patients orally) and current insights on its side-effects. When searching for relevant publications we focused mainly on recent Cochrane reviews and published RCTs. We found that there is increasing evidence that shows paracetamol is not more effective than placebo in patients with acute low back pain. Concerning patients with subacute and chronic back pain, the evidence for or against the efficacy of paracetamol vs placebo is lacking and would n...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy for glioblastoma: current progress, challenges and future outlook.
Authors: Gedeon PC, Champion CD, Rhodin KE, Woroniecka K, Kemeny HR, Bramall AN, Bernstock JD, Choi BD, Sampson JH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite maximal surgical resection and chemoradiation, glioblastoma (GBM) continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Given success in multiple other forms of cancer, checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy remains foremost amongst novel therapeutic strategies that are currently under investigation. AREAS COVERED: Through a systematic review of both published literature and the latest preliminary data avail...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Changes of Serum Zinc, Copper and Selenium Levels in Epileptic Patients :A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of the changes in serum Zn, Cu and Se levels in human samples of healthy controls, epileptic patients and patients treated with VPA. Twenty-two published analyzable studies were selected by searching the databases of PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Google Scholar, Web of Science, EMBASE, WANFANG and Vip. EXPERT OPINION: This meta-analysis showed that serum Se levels were significantly lower in epileptic patients compared to healthy controls. Additionally, serum Zn levels in epileptic patients with VPA were significantly lower than those before the trea...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Anti-viral therapy for the sexually transmitted viruses: recent updates on vaccine development.
Authors: Kardani K, Basimi P, Fekri M, Bolhassani A Abstract INTRODUCTION: The sexually transmitted infections (STIs) caused by viruses including human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), human simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) are major public health issues. These infections can cause cancer or result in long-term health problems. Due to high prevalence of STIs, a safe and effective vaccine is required to overcome these fatal viruses. AREAS COVERED: This review includes a comprehensive overview of...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Medication therapy strategies for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): recent progress and challenges.
Authors: Yang X, Liu Y, Liu Y, Yang Q, Wu X, Huang X, Liu H, Cai W, Ma G Abstract INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread globally since it outbroke in December 2019. The urgent pandemic presents an unprecedented challenge to develop and identify effective medication therapy strategies to combat the COVID-19. AREAS COVERED: Here, we summarized and evaluated the current treatment drugs and regimens, and put forward the treatment recommendations, including using the potential repurposed or experimental drugs against COVID-19, e.g., chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), lopi...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The use of isotretinoin for acne - an update on optimal dosing, surveillance, and adverse effects.
Authors: Bagatin E, Costa CS Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acne is a chronic, inflammatory, and immune mediated disease of pilosebaceous unit, highly prevalent in adolescents. It involves face, trunk, and back; may leave scars and affect quality of life. Early, effective, and safe treatment is the key for disease resolution. Oral isotretinoin is the unique treatment for cure or prolonged remission for moderate and severe acne, preventing psychosocial impact and scars. It inhibits sebaceous glands activity and has anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. AREAS COVERED: We performed a comprehensive literature ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - August 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

An update on the clinical pharmacology of methylphenidate: therapeutic efficacy, abuse potential and future considerations.
Authors: Shellenberg TP, Stoops WW, Lile JA, Rush CR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate remains a first-line medication for treating ADHD in children and adults. However, its behavioral pharmacological similarities to methamphetamine and cocaine have historically created concern for its potential as a drug of abuse. In September 2019, the FDA published a docket requesting comments for the development of abuse deterrent formulations for CNS stimulants, emphasizing the abuse of methylphenidate as a public health concern. AREAS COVERED: We conducted a narrative review of research on the clinical pharmacology, ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

β-blocker therapy for infantile haemangioma.
β-blocker therapy for infantile haemangioma. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2020 Jul 14;: Authors: Koh SP, Leadbitter P, Smithers F, Tan ST Abstract INTRODUCTION: 15% of proliferating infantile haemangioma (IH) require intervention because of the threat to function or life, ulceration or tissue distortion. Propranolol is the mainstay treatment for problematic proliferating IH. Other β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been explored as alternative treatments. AREAS COVERED: The demonstration of a haemogenic endothelium origin of IH with a neural crest phenotype a...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus induced by 5-fluorouracil.
Authors: Cohen PR PMID: 32633154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Serious adverse events and deaths in PCSK9 inhibitor trials reported on ClinicalTrials.gov: a systematic review.
Authors: van Bruggen FH, Nijhuis GBJ, Zuidema SU, Luijendijk HJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous reviews of PCSK9 inhibitor trials are limited by a focus on composite cardiovascular outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov provides trial results for individual clinical outcomes. Aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke/TIA, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, neurocognitive events, all-cause serious adverse events (SAE) and all-cause deaths as registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. METHODS: PubMed, regulatory reports, ClinicalTrials.gov, and company websi...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The role of triple therapy in the management of COPD.
Authors: Calzetta L, Matera MG, Rogliani P, Cazzola M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triple therapy in COPD is becoming increasingly important with the cumulative documentation of its ability to reduce the risk of AECOPD. However, it must be established which patients benefit most from it compared to other treatments. AREAS COVERED: We critically review the literature to determine, if possible, the real role of triple therapy in the treatment of COPD. We have identified studies from several databases and selected the information thought to be more significant. EXPERT OPINION: It is still unclear whether and when ad...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Copanlisib for the treatment of adults with relapsed follicular lymphoma.
Authors: Magagnoli M, Carlo-Stella C, Santoro A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common histotype of lymphoma and is considered an incurable disease. The need for new treatment options has led to the development of innovative targeted agents, including inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. AREAS COVERED: Copanlisib, an intravenous pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of relapsed FL in patients who have received at least two prior systemic therapies. In this article, we critically r...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clozapine-related drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome: a systematic review.
Authors: de Filippis R, Soldevila-Matías P, De Fazio P, Guinart D, Fuentes-Durá I, Rubio JM, Kane JM, Schoretsanitis G Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a severe, multiorganic and potentially life-threatening drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction, linked to several common drugs, including antiepileptics, antibiotics and several psychotropic drugs, including clozapine. Due to the importance of clozapine in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia, a systematic review and characterization of clozapine-related DRESS syndrome i...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Impact of pharmaceutical price controls on the cost of cardiovascular drugs: does essentiality matter?
CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses demonstrate considerable cost variations for essential cardiovascular medicines. Given the need for prolonged and often, lifelong-treatment, there is significant potential for cost savings based on chosen brand, highlighting the need for patient as well as prescriber education. PMID: 32552127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Contraception and reproductive planning during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Authors: Ferreira-Filho ES, de Melo NR, Sorpreso ICE, Bahamondes L, Simões RDS, Soares-Júnior JM, Baracat EC Abstract INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global health emergency. Major disruption to healthcare services during the current COVID 19 pandemic will last even after its peak. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), specially contraception, needs to be understood as an essential service. AREAS COVERED: This paper is a narrative review. Data from PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and websites of scientific societies were screened during the months of April and May 2020. It addresses ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Drospirenone 4 mg-only pill (DOP) in 24+4 regimen: a new option for oral contraception.
Authors: Chiara Del Savio M, De Fata R, Facchinetti F, Grandi G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although progestin-only pills (POPs) are effective methods of hormonal contraception, their use is still relatively infrequent, mainly for their unpredictable effect on menstrual bleeding. A new oestrogen-free contraceptive consisting of 4 mg drospirenone (DRSP) for 24 days with a 4-day hormone-free interval has been developed to address this need, named the DRSP-only pill. DRSP is a potent progestin analogue of spironolactone, with antiandrogenic and antimineralocorticoid properties. AREAS COVERED: This is a narrative review...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The crosstalk between antiretrovirals pharmacology and HIV drug resistance.
Authors: Giacomelli A, Pezzati L, Rusconi S Abstract INTRODUCTION: The clinical development of antiretroviral drugs has been followed by a rapid and concomitant development of HIV drug resistance. The development and spread of HIV drug resistance is due on the one hand to the within-host intrinsic HIV evolutionary rate and on the other to the wide use of low genetic barrier antiretrovirals. AREAS COVERED: We searched PubMed and Embase on January 31, 2020, for studies reporting antiretroviral resistance and pharmacology. In this review we assessed the molecular target and mechanism of drug resistance development...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The availability of new drugs for hemophilia treatment.
Authors: Morfini M, Marchesini E Abstract INTRODUCTION: A number of new FVIII/IX concentrates enriched the portfolio of products available for the treatment of hemophilia A/B patients. Due to the large inter-patient variability, accurate tailoring of the therapy became essential to improve patients' adherence, clinical outcomes, and cost/effectiveness ratio. Recently, non-replacement therapies have taken the limelight and succeeded in decreasing the bleedings of patients. AREAS COVERED: The PK characteristics, efficacy, and safety of the new rFVIII and rFIX concentrates and of non-replacement therapy, are repor...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research