Avatrombopag for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease.
Authors: Xu H, Cai R Abstract Introduction: Thrombocytopenia is a common hematological abnormality in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), occurring in 64%~84% of patients with cirrhosis or fibrosis. Due to the increased risk of bleeding, thrombocytopenia potentially affects management of CLD, such as surgery or liver biopsy. Avatrombopag is a new oral thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, activating TPO receptor and increasing megakaryocytic proliferation/differentiation and platelet production. Areas covered: This review summarizes the collected data concerning pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety a...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Dacomitinib for the first-line treatment of patients with EGFR-mutated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
This article will review relevant literature regarding preclinical findings and clinical data from phase I-III trials of dacomitinib. We particularly discuss the mechanism of action of dacomitinib and its clinical efficacy and toxicity as a novel, first-line therapeutic option for EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Expert opinion: The therapeutic landscape for EGFR-mutated NSCLC has been greatly expanded. In the first-line setting, we have currently first-, second- and third-generation EGFR TKIs available and some combination strategies, including EGFR TKIs with anti-angiogenic drugs or chemotherapy, have also shown to be effective. Howe...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic drug monitoring-based dosing of TNF inhibitors in inflammatory bowel disease: the way forward?
Authors: Strik AS, Berends SE, Löwenberg M Abstract Introduction: Secondary loss of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy remains a challenge in the clinical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. A frequently observed reason for secondary loss of response to TNF blockers is inadequate drug exposure and sub-therapeutic serum drug concentrations. Areas covered: This review presents an overview of recent research on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-based dosing with anti-TNF agents in IBD. The role of reactive and proactive TDM is discussed and different approaches how to optimi...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The prevention of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers is a firmly established PPI indication.
Authors: Savarino V, Marabotto E, Zentilin P, Savarino E PMID: 31305167 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

A Combined, Bioidentical, Oral, 17 β-Estradiol and Progesterone Capsule for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Vasomotor Symptoms due to Menopause.
A Combined, Bioidentical, Oral, 17β-Estradiol and Progesterone Capsule for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Vasomotor Symptoms due to Menopause. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2019 Jul 08;: Authors: Archer DF, Bernick BA, Mirkin S Abstract Introduction: Many women seek treatment to alleviate menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS). Numerous women use combination compounded hormone therapy (CHT) to achieve the benefits of estrogen/progesterone for endometrial protection. TX-001HR is a combination of bioidentical 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in a single capsule designed for continuous da...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Adjuvant trastuzumab regimen for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Conclusion: Administering adjuvant trastuzumab in a weekly cycle concurrently with anthracycline-taxane chemotherapy regimen appears to be a preferable option to optimize its favorable effect in improving DFS and to prevent significantly higher risk for cardiotoxic effects. PMID: 31287333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - July 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Drug interactions between direct-acting oral anticoagulants and calcineurin inhibitors during solid organ transplantation: considerations for therapy.
Authors: Lam E, Bashir B, Chaballa M, Kraft WK Abstract Introduction: There is a high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in solid organ transplant recipients. The safety and efficacy of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOAC) have been well established in clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of VTE in broad populations. However, the management of VTE in the setting of solid organ transplantation remains a challenge to clinicians due to limited evidence of DOAC usage with calcineurin inhibitors. Areas covered: The current literature available on the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interaction b...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Evaluation of renal function equations to predict amikacin clearance.
CONCLUSIONS: Revised Lund-Malmö (rLM) and CKD-EPI showed superior predictive performance of amikacin drug elimination comparing to all the alternative metrics evaluated. PMID: 31242039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder: recent progress.
Authors: Parida S, Carroll KM, Petrakis IL, Sofuoglu M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Opioid use disorder (OUD) has risen globally and is exerting an enormous toll on public health in many countries, particularly in the United States (US). Buprenorphine (BUP) has become one of the mainstays of pharmacological treatment for OUD and newer delivery methods have been developed to improve its effectiveness in treatment. Areas covered: We provide a review of BUP products available for OUD, with a focus on the newer long-acting formulations. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov to ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical pharmacology of old age.
Authors: Koren G, Nordon G, Radinsky K, Shalev V Abstract Introduction: With the majority of elderly persons consuming multiple drugs, inappropriate drug use is a major issue in geriatric medicine. Areas covered: We reviewed PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to 1 May 2019 for potentially inappropriate use of medications, polypharmacy, and age-dependent changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We selected to highlight new aspects that have emerged in recent years: appropriate monitoring of drug adherence and the introduction of Big Data analysis in advancing geriatric pharmacology. Expert opinion:...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes: a magic potion to reduce heart failure?
Authors: Pafili K, Papanas N PMID: 31232616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Solriamfetol for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy.
Authors: Yang J, Gao J Abstract Introduction: Narcolepsy is a chronic disabling condition, excessive daytime somnolence is the main symptoms of it. There is currently no cure for narcolepsy, and hence there is a great need for new treatment options. Solriamfetol is a new selective dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with robust wake-promoting effects. The purpose of this paper is to review solriamfetol. Areas covered: The chemical property, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety of solriamfetol are introduced in this paper. Expert opinion: Solriamfetol can bind to dopamine a...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists: review of their role for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults.
Authors: Karthaus M, Schiel X, Ruhlmann CH, Celio L Abstract Introduction: The addition of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1RAs) to standard prophylaxis of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 RA (5-HT3RA) plus dexamethasone more effectively prevents chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Areas covered: This review presents the evidence base for the use of oral and intravenous (IV) NK1RAs, focusing on the pharmacologic and clinical properties as a class, and highlighting differences between agents. A PubMed literature search was conducted from 2000 to 20...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Should endotoxin be a research priority in Gram-negative sepsis and septic shock?
Authors: Mallat J, Leone S, Cascella M, Fiore M PMID: 31194595 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - June 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Literature review of the evidence regarding intravenous lipid administration in drug-induced cardiotoxicity.
Authors: Paneta M, Waring WS Abstract Introduction Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) administration is capable of reversing the acute cardiac and neurological toxicity caused by local anaesthetic agents. In recent years, ILE has also been explored as a potential antidote for cardiotoxicity caused by non-anaesthetic agents too. Areas covered The potential mechanisms, safety and efficacy of this approach are considered. Data were sought from published reports listed in PubMed and EMBASE, and abstracts of meetings of the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology and European Association of Poisons Centres and Clin...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Use of prucalopride in adults with chronic idiopathic constipation.
Authors: Vijayvargiya P, Camilleri M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prucalopride is a selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist with colonic prokinetic activity. It was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Before this approval, there were limited options to improve colonic motility in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Areas covered: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and international conference presentations, and we reviewed all studies that evaluated prucalopride for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults. In this review,...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Alternatives to antibiotics in an era of difficult-to-treat resistance: new insights.
Authors: Rello J, Parisella FR, Perez A Abstract INTRODUCTION: The rise of antibiotic resistance, the limited efficacy and the adverse events associated with antibiotics have urged the development of alternative measures to treat bacterial infections. Novel therapies which are pathogen specific and are safer to the healthy microbiome are being developed. Areas covered: This manuscript provides a compact overview of the feasibility and clinical impact of the latest novel therapies, with a focus on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), vaccines, stem cells, bacteriophages and liposomes. This is a follow-up of a previous manu...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

A comprehensive review of the clinical utility of and a combined analysis of the clozapine/norclozapine ratio in therapeutic drug monitoring for adult patients.
This article comprehensively reviews the clinical utility of the serum clozapine/norclozapine (CLO/NCLO) ratio. Areas covered: Fifty-four published studies used this ratio (21 from a PubMed search from onset to 10/21/18 and 33 identified by the authors). To estimate a combined mean of the CLO/NCLO ratio in published studies, a PubMed search on 10/21/18 identified 422 articles leading to 19 included. The systematic review focused on: 1) the combined analysis, 2) CYP1A2 activity, 3) clinical response, 4) cognition, and 5) renal function. Expert opinion: Our combined analysis provided a weighted mean CLO/NCLO ratio of 1.73 in...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Medication errors in the older people population.
Authors: Mira JJ PMID: 31063401 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

JAK3-selective inhibitor peficitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Authors: Qiu Q, Feng Q, Tan X, Guo M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterized by synovitis as well as symmetric and destructive arthropathy. Although several disease modified anti-rheumatic-drugs (DMARDs) have widely used in clinical practice, certain patients are non-responsive to or cannot take such medications due to adverse reactions. It is evident that Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have the potential to provide a significant breakthrough in the treatment of RA. These potent, orally administered, JAK inhibitors simplify the treatment options for ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The nephrotoxicity of new immunotherapies.
Authors: Sury K, Perazella MA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Advanced cancers that did not respond to chemotherapy were once a death sentence, but now there are newer therapies utilizing the patient's own immune system to fight cancer that are proving effective in chemotherapy-refractory malignancies. However, this success against cancer cells may be accompanied by immune-related adverse events that can affect the kidneys. Areas Covered: Using Medline and Scopus, we compiled all publications pertaining to ICPI and CAR T-cell therapy through February 2019. The focus of this review is discussion of two new cancer therapies, ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - May 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Evidence and mechanisms for statin-induced cognitive decline.
Authors: Tan B, Rosenfeldt F, Ou R, Stough C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Statin drugs have become the most highly prescribed drugs for cardiovascular disease. However, there is disagreement as to the existence of adverse effects of statin administration on cognitive function. Therefore, it is important to better understand the effects of statins on cognition and possible mechanisms of these effects. Areas covered: We analyzed relevant studies of the relationship between cognitive performance and statin and usage. We included articles published between 2018 and 1992. We identified three randomized trials, one observation...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - April 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Play in advance against neurodegeneration: exploring enteric glial cells in gut-brain axis during neurodegenerative diseases.
Authors: Seguella L, Capuano R, Sarnelli G, Esposito G Abstract INTRODUCTION: New investigations have shown that "activated" enteric glial cells (EGCs), astrocyte-like cells of the enteric nervous system (ENS), represent a possible extra-CNS trigger point of the neurodegenerative processes in impaired intestinal permeability conditions. The early modulation of enteric glia-mediated neuroinflammation might optimize neuroprotective treatments outcomes currently used in neurodegenerative diseases. Areas covered: We discussed recent clinical and preclinical data existing on Pubmed database, concerning the gli...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - April 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

On Healthcare by Popular Appeal: Critical Assessment of Benefit and Risk in Cannabidiol Based Dietary Supplements.
Authors: Cogan PS Abstract INTRODUCTION: In recent decades, federal legislation in the U.S. has recognized a new paradigm of pharmacotherapy in which ideology and popular demand, as opposed to sound clinical evidence, drives the marketing of ostensible herbal therapeutics as "dietary supplements". This vogue of democratizing medicine has more recently manifested in the ongoing legalization of cannabis products at the state level, where an arbitrary variety of definitions, restrictions, and assumed therapeutic uses are applied to a family of phytochemicals with no definitive evidence of efficacy or safety....
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - April 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

What's new on therapies for elevated lipoprotein(a).
This article reviews bioinformatics methods and software tools dedicated to the analysis of data from metaproteomics and metaproteogenomics experiments. In particular, it focuses on the creation of tailored protein sequence databases, on the optimal use of database search algorithms including methods of error rate estimation, and finally on taxonomic and functional annotation of peptide and protein identifications. Expert opinion: Recently, various promising strategies and software tools have been proposed for handling typical data analysis issues in metaproteomics. However, severe challenges remain that are highlighted an...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - April 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Reported needs of information resources, research tools, connectivity and infrastructure among African Pharmacological Scientists to improve future patient care and health.
CONCLUSIONS: Key areas of needs not currently provided by the African Pharmacological Science Gateway e-infrastructure were identified to guide further provision of resources on the e-infrastructure and potentially enhance research capacity within the continent. PMID: 30961406 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - April 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Parameters that determine dissolution and efficacy of itraconazole and its relevance to recalcitrant dermatophytoses.
Authors: Sardana K, Khurana A, Gupta A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Recalcitrant dermatophytoses is on the rise. Though myriad factors may contribute to recalcitrance including terbinafine resistance, itraconazole largely remains sensitive and is increasingly prescribed for dermatophytoses. However, there are increasing instances of patients not responding adequately to itraconazole despite low MICs, probably due to issues plaguing the pelletization process, resulting in suboptimal quality of itraconazole. Data on this topic was searched on pubmed using the search items: itraconazole, MIC, MFC, quality, assay, pharmacoki...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - April 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 30919707 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 31, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The role of pharmacogenomics in adverse drug reactions.
Authors: Cacabelos R, Cacabelos N, Carril JC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major health concern worldwide. There are multiple causes of ADRs, some of which are preventable. Pharmacogenomics accounts for ≈80% variability in drug efficacy and safety. Over 400 genes are clinically relevant in drug metabolism, and ≈200 pharmagenes are associated with ADRs. The condition of extensive metabolizer in the Caucasian population is lower than 20%, and about 60% of patients are exposed to potential ADRs. Areas covered: Important topics related to pharmacogenomics in drug efficacy and sa...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Novel immunotherapeutic approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.
Authors: Busato D, Mossenta M, Baboci L, Di Cintio F, Toffoli G, Dal Bo M Abstract Introduction The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors has been lately proposed for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with respect to other cancer types. Several immunotherapeutic approaches are now under evaluation for HCC treatment including: i) antibodies acting as immune checkpoint inhibitors; ii) antibodies targeting specific tumor associated antigens; iii) chimeric antigen receptor redirected T (CAR-T) cells targeting specific tumor associated antigens; iv) vaccination strategies with tumor specific epitope...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Treatment Options for Type 1 Diabetes: What's New?
Authors: Nally LM, Sherr JL, Van Name MA, Patel AD, Tamborlane WV Abstract INTRODUCTION: The expanding variety of insulins, including biosynthetic human insulin and rapid and long-acting insulin analogs, have dramatically transformed the management of type 1 diabetes (T1D) over the past 25 years. Moreover, increasing interest in the use of novel drugs developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as adjunctive therapies for T1D remains a work in progress. Areas Covered: We reviewed articles published up to December 2018 in PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov for recent developments in the pharmacologic treatment o...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ocular dysfunctions and toxicities induced by antiepileptic medications: Types, pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies.
Authors: Hamed SA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ocular dysfunctions and toxicities induced by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are rarely reviewed and not frequently received attention by treating physicians compared to other adverse effects (e.g. endocrinologic, cognitive and metabolic). However, some are frequent and progressive even in therapeutic concentrations or result in permanent blindness. Although, some adverse effects are non-specific, others are related to the specific pharmacodynamics of the drug. Areas covered: This review was written after detailed search in PubMed, EMBASE, ISI web, SciELO, Scopus and Cochrane Ce...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

How an engineered therapy could replace the need for potentially harmful plasma infusions.
Authors: Scully M PMID: 30829078 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

First line of biological drugs in rheumatoid arthritis: a medication persistence analysis.
CONCLUSION: The medication persistence was different between biological drugs. The rigorous follow-up of patients, by a multidisciplinary team, is important to enable the development of strategies for the adequate use of such drugs. PMID: 30813823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Heart failure hospitalization with SGLT-2 inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled and Observational Studies.
Authors: Singh AK, Singh R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) poses a significant increase in mortality. Until recently, anti-diabetic drugs have not been shown to reduce hospitalization due to heart failure (hHF). While thiazolidinedione class and saxagliptin has shown a significantly increased risk, sodium-glucose linked co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2Is) have demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of hHF. Areas covered: We systematically searched the database of PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and International conference presentation up to December 25, ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - March 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cannabis, a potential treatment option in pediatric IBD? Still a long way to go.
Authors: Halbmeijer N, Groeneweg M, de Ridder L Abstract INTRODUCTION: The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children is rising. Current treatment options are based on immunomodulatory therapy. Alternative treatment options are upcoming since they appear to be effective in individual patients. Cannabis might relief IBD symptoms in these cases and improve quality of life. Recent evidence suggests a potential anti-inflammatory effect of cannabis. Areas covered: This review presents an overview of recent literature on the use of cannabis in IBD focussing on pediatric IBD patients. Background information on ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Research on medication use in the neonatal intensive care unit.
We report on medication use research and have conducted a systematic review of observational studies on medication use to provide an updated overview on characteristics, objectives, methods and patterns in hospitalized neonates. Moreover, a review on aspects of medication use for opioids, anti-epileptics, gastric acid related disorders and respiratory stimulants with emphasis on trends and impact of interventions is presented, illustrating how research on medication use can contribute to improved neonatal pharmacotherapy and more focused research. Medication use reports describe patterns and provide signals on irrational u...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Switching strategies in the recent era of antiretroviral therapy.
Authors: Prieto P, Podzamczer D Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although antiretroviral therapy is highly effective, many patients may benefit from switching strategies. Rapid advances in the development of new antiretroviral drugs could enhance the success of these approaches. In this review, we build on a previous review from 2014 and summarize the current options for switching strategies in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. Areas covered: We conduct a critical analysis of scientific evidence for various switching strategies used in the modern era of antiretroviral therapy, as well as reasons for these appro...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Lorlatinib for the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer.
Authors: Yang J, Gong W Abstract INTRODUCTION: Approximately 3-5% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)belonged to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC. The treatment drugs of ALK-positive NSCLC mainly included crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib and brigatinib. Although these drugs had some effects, most of them were usually easy to develop drug resistance. Lorlatinib is a new inhibitor of ALK for treating ALK-positive NSCLC,the effect is obvious, and not easy to develop resistance. Areas covered: The main mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety of lorlatinib w...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Green tobacco sickness: Mecamylamine, varenicline, and nicotine vaccine as clinical research tools and potential therapeutics.
Authors: McMahon LR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Green tobacco sickness occurs from transdermal absorption of chemicals from freshly harvested, green tobacco leaves. Signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, headache, and abdominal cramps. Prevalence has shifted from the United States and Europe to China, India, and Brazil. Worldwide 8 million individuals are afflicted, including women and children. Areas covered: Mecamylamine (Inversine®, Vecamyl®), a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, should be tested as a remedy for green tobacco sickness. Mecamylamine is approved as an oral tablet for the...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Future perspectives of the pharmacological management of diabetic dyslipidemia.
Authors: Patti AM, Giglio RV, Papanas N, Rizzo M, Rizvi AA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Diabetic dyslipidemia is frequent among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by an increase in triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and small-dense (atherogenic) particles, and by a decrease in low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 that are strongly related to insulin resistance. The increased flux of free fatty acids from adipose tissue to the liver aggravates hepatic insulin resistance and promotes all of aspects of the dyslipidemic sta...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Patisiran for the treatment of hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis.
Authors: Yang J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis is caused by a mutation in transthyretin (TTR) gene resulting in misfolded TTR protein accumulating as amyloid fibrils. Patisiran is a lipid nanoparticle formulation of ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi), which can reduce the production of TTR. Areas covered: In this review, the chemical property, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety of patisiran were introduced. Expert Commentary: Patisiran offers a new treatment option for patients with hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis. Patisiran can sig...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Novel developments of hepatitis B: treatment goals, agents and monitoring tools.
Authors: Mak LY, Seto WK, Fung J, Yuen MF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection causes considerable morbidity and mortality and hence should be a target for global elimination. In recent years, advances have been made in understanding the disease pathophysiology and the relationship to clinical outcome. Novel treatment targets are actively being sought in the hope of improving the treatment outlook. Areas covered: We discussed the cascade of cure of CHB with respect to the degree of persistence of viral genome and proteins. Several novel antiviral agents either targeting the virus or the host a...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Guideline recommendations on the pharmacological management of non-specific low back pain in primary care - is there a need to change?
Authors: Schreijenberg M, Koes BW, Lin CC Abstract Introduction Analgesic drugs are often prescribed to patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). Recommendations for non-invasive pharmacological management of NSLBP from recent clinical practice guidelines were compared with each other and with the best available evidence on drug efficacy. Areas covered Recommendations concerning opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), paracetamol, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and muscle relaxants from national primary care guidelines published within the last 3 years were included in this review. For ea...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 30596309 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Emerging Role of Targeted Therapies for Advanced Well-Differentiated Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Authors: Cloyd JM, Konda B, Shah MH, Pawlik TM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a unique and complex neoplasm, exhibiting a wide spectrum of diverse clinical behaviors. The contemporary management of well-differentiated GEP-NETs is marked by the availability of a wide range of targeted therapies. Areas Covered: For patients with localized or oligometastatic disease, surgical resection remains the preferred approach and is associated with excellent long-term outcomes. For patients with unresectable but isolated liver metastases, multiple liver-directed therapies, i...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Response Letter to 'Does High LDL-cholesterol Cause Cardiovascular Disease?'
Authors: Ravnskov U, de Lorgeril M, Diamond DM, Hama R, Hamazaki T, Hammarskjöld B, Hynes N, Kendrick M, Langsjoen PH, Mascitelli L, McCully KS, Okuyama H, Rosch PJ, Schersten T, Sultan S, Sundberg R PMID: 30563359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Does High LDL-cholesterol Cause Cardiovascular Disease?
Authors: Targher G, Bonapace S, Byrne CD PMID: 30570363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical pharmacology in HIV cure research - what impact have we seen?
Authors: Giacomelli A, de Rose S, Rusconi S Abstract Introduction Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has transformed an inexorably fatal disease into a chronic pathology, shifting the focus of research from the control of viral replication to the possibility of HIV cure. Areas covered The present review assesses the principal pharmacological strategies that have been tested for an HIV cure starting from the in vitro proof of concept and the potential rationale of their in vivo applicability. We evaluated the possible pharmacological procedures employed during the early-stage HIV infection and the possibility of...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Neurologic conditions and disorders of uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease: Presentations, causes and treatment strategies.
Authors: Hamed SA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a term used to describe clinical, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities associated with progressive kidney failure. It is a rapidly growing public health problem worldwide. Nervous system complications occur in every patient with uremic syndrome of CKD. Areas covered: This review summarized central and peripheral nervous system complications of uremic syndrome of CKD and their pathogenic mechanisms. They include cognitive deterioration, encephalopathy, seizures, asterixis, myoclonus, restless leg syndrome, central pontine mye...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research