Adverse events associated with nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukaemia: mechanisms and management strategies
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 23. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2021.1894129. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting BCR/ABL, which is used for the first-line treatment of newly-diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients and the second-line treatment of most CML patients who are resistant or intolerant to prior therapy that includes imatinib. In addition to common adverse reactions, long-term use of nilotinib shows some toxicities that are different from those of occurring during other BCR/ABL TKI treatment, such as cardiovascular toxicity...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zeng Wang Liyu Jiang Hao Yan Zhifei Xu Peihua Luo Source Type: research

Use of calcium channel blockers in dermatology: a narrative review
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2021.1894128. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are commonly used for cardiovascular diseases. The evidence supporting the use of CCB in dermatology is mostly anecdotal and limited to case reports or small case series.AREAS COVERED: This review article is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the therapeutic use of CCB in dermatology. The second part focuses on mucocutaneous adverse reactions due to the administration of CCB.EXPERT OPINION: The use of CCB in dermatology is mainly based on its properties as a va...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yang Lo Lian-Yu Lin Tsen-Fang Tsai Source Type: research

Review of Galectin-3 inhibitors in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 20. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2021.1894127. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION: There are no pharmacotherapies available for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and many compounds have failed clinical trials. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside binding protein associated with many disease pathologies, including chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis. It has been implicated in the disease severity of NASH, although its precise role is unknown. Inhibition of Galectin-3 has shown to improve and prevent fibrosis progression and has now reached phase III clinical trial in NASH pati...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Atef Al Attar Ani Antaramian Mazen Noureddin Source Type: research

Concomitant use of dexamethasone and tetracyclines: a potential therapeutic option for the management of severe COVID-19 infection?
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 15. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2021.1888714. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntroduction: The global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a critical challenge to the research community as well as to the healthcare systems. Severe COVID-19 patients are at a higher risk of developing serious complications and mortality. There is a dire need for safe and effective pharmacotherapy for addressing unmet needs of patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Concomitant use of dexamethasone and tetracyclines, by virtue of their immunomodulatory and other relevant pharmacological properti...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 15, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Harmanjit Singh Prerna Chauhan Jasbir Singh Saurabh Saurabh C S Gautam Ashish Kumar Kakkar Source Type: research

Do the types and routes of proton pump inhibitor treatments affect Clostridium difficile in ICU patients?: A retrospective cohort study.
Authors: Lee P, Fike D, Yang H, Hall RG, Pass S, Alvarez CA Abstract Background: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure is associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The impact of the route of administration is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients in the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II database (MIMIC-II) from 2001-2008 who were>18 years old, admitted to medical, surgical, or cardiac ICUs were included. PPI exposure types were omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole. PPI administration routes were oral or intravenous. Patients who received hista...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide-induced nevus-associated cutaneous melanoma: first report in the medical literature.
We present a 67-year-old patient treated for a period of 3 years with a combined preparation containing Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide 80 mg/12.5 mg. Within 2 years, the patient observed the rapid development of a nevus that progressed to melanoma and was subsequently identified histopathologically as nevus-associated cutaneous melanoma with a 0.6 mm thickness, Clark IV. Following surgical treatment, no tumor progression has occurred to date. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient who developed a nevus-associated cutaneous melanoma after combination therapy with generic sartan and hydrochlorothiazi...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Serious flaws in targeting LDL-C reduction in the management of cardiovascular disease in familial hypercholesterolemia.
Authors: Ravnskov U, de Lorgeril M, Kendrick M, Diamond DM PMID: 33565344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 11, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Sex differences in COPD management.
Authors: Matera MG, Ora J, Calzetta L, Rogliani P, Cazzola M Abstract INTRODUCTION: : A growing body of evidence indicates that prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been increasing more rapidly among women compared to men but the available data on the differences between the sexes in the responses to the various COPD therapies are still scarce. AREAS COVERED: : The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on sex differences in COPD management. EXPERT OPINION: : There is no solid evidence of sex differences in response to usual COPD treatments but ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 10, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Afamelanotide for prevention of phototoxicity in erythropoietic protoporphyria.
This article aims to review afamelanotide. AREAS COVERED: : This review summarizes the chemical properties, pharmacokinetics, safety, preclinical and clinical data on afamelanotide in EPP,and post-marketing surveillance. PubMed search, manufacturers' websites and relevant articles used for approval by authorities were used for the literature search. EXPERT OPINION: Afamelanotide is an α-melanocyte stimulating hormone analogue. It can activate eumelanogenesis without exposure to UV radiation. Clinical studies in EPP showed that afamelanotide treatment significantly increased exposure to sunlight and QoL. In ou...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 30, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical course of severe patients with COVID-19 treated with tocilizumab: report from a cohort study in Spain.
We report the long-term outcomes, changes in laboratory parameters, the incidence of secondary nosocomial infections and treatment cost of a Spanish cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 that received tocilizumab (TCZ). Methods: Retrospective cohort of PCR confirmed adult patients who received TCZ from March 1 to 24, 2020 in a tertiary hospital was analyzed. Patients were followed up until 10 May 2020. Results: We included 162 patients (median age 64 years; 70.4% male). At time of TCZ administration, 48.1% of patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Over a median follow-up of 53 days, 46.9% of pa...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 28, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Recent developments in geriatric psychopharmacology.
Authors: Aftab A, Lam J, Liu F, Ghosh A, Sajatovic M Abstract INTRODUCTION: There is a tremendous growing need to address the burden of geriatric psychiatric disorders. Recent developments relevant to geriatric psychiatry have focused on Alzheimer's disease (AD), severe/refractory depression, and cancer/end of life care. AREAS COVERED: This is a non-systematic, narrative review (databases and websites for search: PubMed, Google Scholar, Medscape, ClinicalTrials.gov; focusing on the last 6 years), and covers developments in disease modifying therapies for AD, diagnostic radiotracers for AD, medications for neuro...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 28, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Radical metastasectomy followed by sorafenib versus observation in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma: extended follow up of efficacy results from the randomized phase II RESORT trial.
Conclusion: Sorafenib after metastasectomy did not improve RFS, but surgery in selected patients potentially improves survival. At a median follow-up of 42 months, 47% in the observation arm are relapse-free Clinical trial registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier is NCT0144480. PMID: 33472450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cenobamate tablets as a treatment for focal-onset seizures in adults.
Authors: Steinhoff BJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite the introduction of numerous new antiseizure medications (ASMs) still about one third of epilepsies remain drug resistant. Therefore, new compounds with advanced efficacy are urgently needed. Cenobamate (CNB) is a new ASM that has been recently introduced in the United States for the treatment of adults with focal-onset seizures. The approval in Europe is under way. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the pharmacological profile of CNB, the proof-of-concept trial, the two double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trials investigating adjunct CNB in adults with f...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 21, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 protein drug targets landscape: a potential pharmacological insight view for the new drug development.
Authors: Chakraborty C, Bhattacharya M, Mallick B, Sharma AR, Lee SS, Agoramoorthy G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Protein drug targets play a significant choice in different stages of the drug discovery process. There is an urgent need to understand the drug discovery approaches and protein drug targets (PDT) of SARS-CoV-2, with structural insights for the development of SARS-CoV-2 drugs through targeted therapeutic approach. AREAS COVERED: We have described the protein as a drug target class and also discussed various drug discovery approaches for SARS-CoV-2 involving the protein drug targets such as drug repurposin...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 12, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Letter to the editor re: 'serious adverse events and deaths in PCSK9 inhibitor trials reported on ClinicalTrials.gov: a systematic review'. Expert rev clin pharmacol 2020;13(7): 787-96.
Authors: Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Schwartz GG PMID: 33428482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 12, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Response to Letter to the Editor re: "Serious adverse events and deaths in PCSK9 inhibitor trials reported on ClinicalTrials.gov: a systematic review".
Response to Letter to the Editor re: "Serious adverse events and deaths in PCSK9 inhibitor trials reported on ClinicalTrials.gov: a systematic review". Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Jan 11;: Authors: van Bruggen FH, Nijhuis GBJ, Zuidema SU, Luijendijk HJ PMID: 33428485 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - January 12, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Reliance: a smarter way of regulating medical products - The IPRP survey.
This article describes the findings and recommendations from the IPRP survey. It shows that reliance in the area of medical product oversight is broadly accepted. The first part presents the acceptance and reasons for accepting reliance including the need for trust, then gives examples of the most common areas for reliance, and explains the difference between unilateral or reciprocal reliance. Finally, the article analyzes the lessons learned including challenges and opportunities for reliance on regulatory authorities to facilitate patient access in their jurisdictions. Expert opinion: Regulatory reliance facilitates regu...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Real world effectiveness of olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Brazil over a 16-year follow-up period; findings and implications.
CONCLUSION: Olanzapine demonstrated superior real-world effectiveness over risperidone, in terms of survival and psychiatric hospitalization. This superiority was not sustained in all analyzes. PMID: 33331189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Tumor mutational burden as a tissue-agnostic biomarker for cancer immunotherapy.
Authors: Sung WWY, Chow JCH, Cho WCS PMID: 33322961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Epoetin alfa-epbx: a new entrant into a crowded market. a historical review of the role of erythropoietin stimulating agents and the development of the first epoetin biosimilar in the United States.
Authors: Anand S, Al-Mondhiry J, Fischer K, Glaspy J Abstract Introduction: Erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) have been established both to correct anemia and provide the clinical benefits of increased exercise capacity, reduced transfusion requirements, and improved quality of life. An increase in physician and patient adoption of biosimilars, as well as changes to healthcare reimbursement policies have driven market competitors to innovate and expand the range of biosimilar products. While erythropoietin biosimilars have been approved by the EMA since 2007, the FDA's approval of epoetin alfa-epbx in 2018 m...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Interactions of antiepileptic drugs with drugs approved for the treatment of indications other than epilepsy.
Authors: Borowicz-Reutt KK, Czuczwar SJ, Rusek M Abstract Introduction: Comorbidities of epilepsy may significantly interfere with its treatment as diseases in the general population are also encountered in epilepsy patients and some of them even more frequently (for instance, depression, anxiety, or heart disease). Obviously, some drugs approved for other than epilepsy indications can modify the anticonvulsant activity of antiepileptics. Areas covered: This review highlights the drug-drug interactions between antiepileptics and aminophylline, some antidepressant, antiarrhythmic (class I - IV), selected antihyperte...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The toxic effects of ethylene glycol tetraacetate acid, ferrum lek and methanol on the glutathione system: correction options.
Conclusion; The results of the study indicate that poisoning affected practically all components of the glutathione system. The oxidative stress was likely to result from an increased generation of reactive oxygen species against the background of inhibited antioxidant protection. PMID: 33306408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ibuprofen and postoperative bleeding in children undergoing tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy. a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Authors: Simonini A, Murgia F, Cascella M, Marinangeli F, Vittori A, Calevo MG Abstract INTRODUCTION: : Ibuprofen is a drug widely used in children who underwent elective tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy because compared to the other Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) it is considered a safe drug with a low risk of postoperative bleeding. AREAS COVERED: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing ibuprofen vs. placebo or not-NSAIDs drugs in children aged up to 17 years of age, who underwent elective tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy. We sear...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of metformin on body weight in polycystic ovary syndrome patients: model-based meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: It was the first time to quantify the effects of metformin on body weight and recommend dose and duration for metformin monotherapy and metformin combination therapy in PCOS patients. PMID: 33306918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids focusing on eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases: a review of the state-of-the-art.
This article reviews studies on omega-3 PUFAs in the past 50 years, and identifies issues relevant to cardiovascular risk. EXPERT OPINION: : Recent studies have focused on the anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 PUFAs and specialized pro-resolving mediators. High-purity eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester and EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) preparations have been developed primarily for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Various trials on the cardiovascular protective effects of omega-3 PUFAs have been reported, but the results have not been consistent. Some issues of the trials have been suggested, such as usi...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Rapid review of suspected adverse drug events due to remdesivir in the WHO database; findings and implications.
Conclusions: Deterioration of liver and kidney function are frequently observed ADEs with remdesivir; consequently, patients should be monitored for these ADEs. The findings are in line with ADEs included in regulatory authority documents. PMID: 33252992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - December 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effect of perioperative ketamine on postoperative mood and depression: a review of the literature.
Authors: Reinert JP, Parmentier BL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ketamine is being increasingly utilized in a variety of patient care settings, ranging from high acuity inpatient scenarios to the outpatient management of select mental health diagnoses. Postoperative patients are at an increased risk of developing a depressed state, and though ketamine's ability to improve mood is well documented in the literature, the relationship between perioperative ketamine and postoperative mood has not beed fully elucidated. AREAS COVERED: The purpose of this review was to determine ketamine's ability to improve mood and depress...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pre-existing diabetes and PTDM in kidney transplant recipients: how to handle immunosuppression.
Authors: Chevallier E, Jouve T, Rostaing L, Malvezzi P, Noble J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pre-existing diabetes (PD) and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) are common and severe comorbidities posttransplantation. The immunosuppressive regimens are modifiable risk factors. AREAS COVERED: We reviewed Pubmed and Cochrane database and we summarize the mechanisms and impacts of available immunosuppressive treatments on the risk of PD and PTDM. We also assess the possible management of these drugs to improve glycemic parameters while considering risks inherent in transplantation. EXPERT OPINION: PD i) increase...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a level I evidence based expert opinion.
Conclusions: Denosumab resulted most effective, particularly in reducing the occurrence of non-vertebral fractures. Romosozumab and Ibandronate resulted best to prevent, respectively, vertebral fractures and hip fractures. Adverse events leading to study discontinuation were less frequent in the Romosozumab and Denosumab groups, while Raloxifene and Alendronate showed a lower incidence of serious adverse events overall. Level of evidence: I, Bayesian network meta-analysis of RCTs. PMID: 33183112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and pharmacological treatment of prurigo nodularis.
Authors: Williams KA, Roh YS, Brown I, Sutaria N, Bakhshi P, Choi J, Gabriel S, Chavda R, Kwatra SG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by intensely pruritic, hyperkeratotic nodules distributed on the trunk and extensor surfaces of the extremities. PN has a profoundly negative impact on sleep and quality of life in patients with PN. There are currently no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved agents and patients are often recalcitrant to current therapies, highlighting the importance of further research into this severely debilitating condition. ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Hippocampal volume, function and related molecular activity in anorexia nervosa: a scoping review.
This study aimed to map the evidence for alterations in hippocampal volume, function and related molecular activity in anorexia nervosa. PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science were searched for studies related to hippocampal function and integrity using a range of methodologies, such as neuropsychological paradigms, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and analysis of blood components. EXPERT OPINION: 39 studies were included in this review. The majority were neuroimaging studies, which found hippocampus-specific volumetric and functional impairments. Neuropsychological studies showed evidence for specific...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Oral drugs used to treat persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.
Authors: Zhang W, Wu YE, Yang XY, Shi J, van den Anker J, Song LL, Zhao W Abstract INTRODUCTION: Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) is a life-threatening neonatal condition, mostly treated with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), intravenous prostaglandins, oral bosentan, sildenafil and tadalafil. However, the utility of non-oral agents is limited in PPHN for their side effects and inconvenient deliveries. Therefore, oral agents such as bosentan, sildenafil and tadalafil are becoming appealing for their satisfactory efficacy, easy mode of administration and acceptable side effects. AREAS COVERED: W...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - November 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical efficacy and safety of apatinib as maintenance treatment in patients with advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: The positive expression of VEGFR-2 and NF-kB is expected to be the molecular target of oral apatinib targeted therapy for oesophageal cancer. Apatinib has a certain clinical effect as the maintenance treatment for advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients, with mild adverse reactions and high safety. PMID: 33115264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Exploring the effectiveness of incorporating carbon nanotubes into bioengineered scaffolds to improve cardiomyocyte function.
Authors: Ghai P, Mayerhofer T, Jha RK Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbon nanotubes are effective in improving scaffolds to enhance cardiomyocyte function and hold great promise in the field of cardiac tissue engineering. AREAS COVERED: A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed to find relevant literature. 18 total studies were used as primary literature. The literature revealed that the incorporation of carbon nanotube into biocompatible scaffolds that mimic myocardial extracellular matrix, enhanced the ability to promote cell functions by improving physical profiles of scaffolds. Several studies showed impro...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Managing blood disorders during the Covid-19 pandemic: current pharmacological insights.
Authors: Karunakaran P, Nampoothiri RV, Sahu KK PMID: 33089736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Developing a latent class analysis model to identify at-risk populations among people using medicine without prescription.
CONCLUSION: The strategy to identify the target patient audience so as to deliver patient education intervention programs, regarding safe and effective use of MWP was built. PMID: 33054459 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Polypharmacy among adult and older adult users of primary care services delivered through the Unified Health System in Minas Gerais, Brazil.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that polypharmacy is a real concern in primary health care and affects older and middle-aged adults alike. Groups of patients that are more likely to experience polypharmacy were identified. Our findings emphasize the relevance of an appropriate approach to polypharmacy driven by aging and multimorbidity. PMID: 33054470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: what does the future hold?
Authors: Polychronopoulos G, Tziomalos K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) is a common metabolic disease associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Despite treatment with the currently available lipid-lowering agents (statins, ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors), a substantial proportion of patients with heFH does not achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. AREAS COVERED: The PubMed database was reviewed for relevant papers published up to August 2020. The safety and efficacy of novel agents, namely inclisiran an...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Repurposing denosumab in breast cancer beyond prevention of skeletal related events: could nonclinical data be translated into clinical practice?
Authors: Deligiorgi MV, Panayiotidis MI, Trafalis DT Abstract INTRODUCTION: Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody inhibiting the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Initially approved as anti-osteοporotic agent, denosumab is being currently pursued as a candidate for drug repurposing in oncology, especially breast cancer. AREAS COVERED: The present review provides an overview of the therapeutic potential of denosumab in breast cancer beyond prevention of skeletal related events (SREs), with focus on prevention of carcinogenesis in BRCA mutation carriers and on adjuvant treatm...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis' role in design of phase Ⅰ clinical trials of anticoagulant agents: a systematic review.
Authors: Zhao N, Xiang Q, Liu Z, Zhao X, Cui Y Abstract INTRODUCTION: There remains an unmet need for better anticoagulants. The phase I clinical trial is of great significance in the development of anticoagulants, and the design is special. This system review aims to provide insights for the design of future phase I clinical trials of anticoagulants. AREAS COVERED: We searched the database PubMed and ClinicalTrail.gov website, to collate the phase I clinical trial of anticoagulants in healthy people. The study protocol, inclusion exclusion criteria, safety and pharmacodynamic indexes were reviewed. EXPERT ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Current immunosuppressive and antifibrotic therapies of systemic sclerosis and emerging therapeutic strategies.
Authors: Fallet B, Walker UA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare, difficult to treat disease with profound effects on quality of life and high mortality. Complex and incompletely understood pathophysiologic processes and greatly heterogeneous clinical presentations and outcomes have hampered drug development. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the currently available immunosuppressive and antifibrotic therapies and discusses novel approaches for the treatment of SSc. We reviewed the literature using the MEDLINE and ClinicalTrial.gov databases between May and September 2020. EXPERT O...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Combining hydroxychloroquine and minocycline: potential role in moderate to severe COVID-19 infection.
Authors: Gautam SS, Gautam CS, Garg VK, Singh H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection require specific drugs to prevent the morbidity and mortality. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has shown some promise in the management of COVID 19. Minocycline, because of its anti-cytokine and other useful properties can be an ideal candidate for combining with HCQ. AREAS COVERED: Here we review the need and mechanisms and reasons for combining HCQ and minocycline moderate to severe COVID-19 infection. We also reviewed the advantages, potential safety concerns and precautions to be taken, while ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - October 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor regarding 'Estetrol (E4): the new estrogenic component of combined oral contraceptives'.
Authors: Bennink HJC PMID: 32981383 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The pharmacological treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children.
We report not only the efficacy of the diet coupled with regular exercise, but also advantages of the pharmacological treatments used in combination with lifestyle interventions in pediatric NAFLD. EXPERT OPINION: Since pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have demonstrated variable effects in pediatric NAFLD, it is clear that safe and specific and efficient therapeutic strategies have not yet been identified. Therefore, large and long-term clinical trials in children are needed to find a way to reverse the liver tissue damage and the NAFLD-related long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID: 32981386 ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

How polypharmacy affects frailty.
Authors: Cesari M PMID: 32985932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antibody-drug conjugates for previously treated aggressive lymphomas: focus on polatuzumab vedotin.
Authors: Burke JM, Morschhauser F, Andorsky D, Lee C, Sharman JP Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are immunoconjugates and comprise a monoclonal antibody that is chemically attached to a cytotoxic drug (or payload) via a stable chemical linker. Since the approval of the first ADC in 2000, there are now nine different approved agents and over 100 ADCs in the drug-development pipeline. AREAS COVERED: This review briefly describes the ADCs approved for treatment of lymphoma and their distinguishing factors in terms of target, linker and payload. The clinical implications of the use of ADCs ar...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Guiding principles for the use of knowledge bases and real-world data in clinical decision support systems: report by an international expert workshop at Karolinska Institutet.
Authors: Hoffmann M, Vander Stichele R, Bates DW, Björklund J, Alexander S, Andersson ML, Auraaen A, Bennie M, Dahl ML, Eiermann B, Hackl W, Hammar T, Hjemdahl P, Koch S, Kunnamo I, Le Louët H, Panagiotis P, Rägo L, Spedding M, Seidling HM, Demner-Fushman D, Gustafsson LL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Technical and logical breakthroughs have provided new opportunities in medicine to use knowledge bases and large-scale clinical data (real-world) at point-of-care as part of a learning healthcare system to diminish the knowledge-practice gap. AREAS COVERED: The article is based on presentations, discussion...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor regarding 'Patiromer for the treatment of hyperkalemia'.
Authors: Cooper K PMID: 32975136 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effectiveness of valproic acid for treating cyanotic breath holding spells: a pilot prospective study.
CONCLUSION: VPA therapy reduces CBHS' frequency. Mood improvement is a suggestive effective mechanism. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier is NCT04482764. PMID: 32969724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

An update on guanylyl cyclase C in the diagnosis, chemoprevention, and treatment of colorectal cancer.
Authors: Rappaport JA, Waldman SA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, underscoring the need for novel therapies. Despite the successes of new targeted agents for other cancers, colorectal cancer suffers from a relative scarcity of actionable biomarkers. In this context, the intestinal receptor, guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), has emerged as a promising target. AREAS COVERED: GUCY2C regulates a tumor suppressive signaling axis that is silenced through loss of its endogenous ligands at the earliest stages of tumorigenesis. A body of literatu...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - September 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research