Tissue-Specific Fructose Metabolism in Obesity and Diabetes
The objective of this review is to provide up-to-date and comprehensive discussion of tissue-specific fructose metabolism in the context of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Recent FindingsIncreased intake of dietary fructose is a risk factor for a myriad of metabolic complications. Tissue-specific fructose metabolism has not been well delineated in terms of its contribution to detrimental health effects associated with fructose intake. Since inhibitors targeting fructose metabolism are being developed for the management of NAFLD and diabetes, it is essential to recognize how inability of...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - October 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

What Makes Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitors Stand out in Heart Failure?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe highlight the unique properties of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors) which may lend favorably to their efficient integration in the background of other heart failure (HF) therapies. We also discuss the unique aspects of SGLT-2 inhibitor dosing, lack of titration needs, effects on kidney function and electrolytes, diuretic activity, and safety in the high-risk peri-hospitalization window.Recent FindingsDapagliflozin was recently approved for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), irrespective of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes mellit...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - October 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Current State of Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Latin America: Challenges and Innovative Solutions to Improve Health Outcomes Across the Continent
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLatin America is the scenario of great inequalities where about 32 million human beings live with diabetes. Through this review, we aimed at describing the current state of the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus and completion of selected guidelines of care across Latin America and identify opportunities to advance research that promotes better health outcomes.Recent FindingsThe prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been consistently increasing across the region, with some variation: higher prevalence in Mexico, Haiti, and Puerto Rico and lower in Colombia, Ecuador, Do...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - October 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Do Women with Diabetes Need More Intensive Action for Cardiovascular Reduction than Men with Diabetes?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review makes the case for greater efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women with diabetes.Recent FindingsIn a recent meta-analysis including five CVOTs of diabetes medications with 46,606 subjects, women (vs men) with type 2 diabetes had a higher relative risk for stroke (RR 1.28; 95% CI 1.09, 1.50) and heart failure (1.30; 1.21, 1.40). Prior studies found higher “within-gender” RR for CVD mortality in women with diabetes although men have an absolute higher risk. Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a 2-fold higher CVD risk than th...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - October 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Integrating Genetics and the Plasma Proteome to Predict the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewProteins are the central layer of information transfer from genome to phenome and represent the largest class of drug targets. We review recent advances in high-throughput technologies that provide comprehensive, scalable profiling of the plasma proteome with the potential to improve prediction and mechanistic understanding of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Recent FindingsTechnological and analytical advancements have enabled identification of novel protein biomarkers and signatures that help to address challenges of existing approaches to predict and screen for T2D. Genetic studies have so far revealed...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - October 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of Agents for the Treatment of Diabetes in the Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an often unrecognized complication of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) associated with significant economic burden and poor long-term hepatic and extrahepatic outcomes. Our goal is to review evidence about the complex association between NAFLD and T2DM and highlight the potential for disease co-management with the available medications used for the treatment of diabetes.Recent FindingsA milieu of metabolic factors such as insulin resistance, glucotoxicity, and lipotoxicity, as well as genetics and other factors, contribute to the pathogenesis and co-existence of NA...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - October 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid Hormone Signalling Alteration in Diabetic Nephropathy and Cardiomyopathy: a “Switch” to the Foetal Gene Programme
In this study, we will analyse how diabetes induces the reactivation of organs ’ developmental programmes and growth, discuss how thyroid hormone (TH) signalling orchestrates these processes, and suggest novel strategies for exploiting TH-mediated reparative and regenerative properties.Recent FindingsDiabetes is a global pandemic that poses an enormous threat to human health. The kidney and the heart are among the organs that are the most severely damaged by diabetes over time. They undergo profound metabolic, structural, and functional changes that may be due (at least partially) to a recapitulation of their early d...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - September 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Review of the Current Evidence: Impact of Metabolic Surgery on Diabetes Outcomes and Obesity-Associated Macrovascular Complications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewType 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are comorbidities that generally progress with time even when non-invasive therapies are prescribed. Indeed, weight loss that is achieved with behavioral modification alone is generally inconsistent and often short-lived. In contrast, although patients do experience weight regain with metabolic surgery, they still benefit from a significant net decrease in weight. As a result, T2D remission can be achieved in up to 60% of patients within 2  years after surgery. However, it is unknown if the positive effects of metabolic surgery extend to macrovascular disease ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - September 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of Socioeconomic Status in Latino Health Disparities Among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewType 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence is growing faster among Latino than non-Latino White youth, but ethnic disparities in self-management behaviors and HbA1c are unclear. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a key factor in T1D, which may confound or contribute to disparities in Latino pediatric T1D management. A systematic review examined whether ethnic differences in pediatric T1D outcomes occur and are independent of socioeconomic status (SES).Recent FindingsLatino youth displayed lower self-management and higher HbA1c in approximately half of the identified studies prior to including SES in analyses. Ethn...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - September 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAmong adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), acceptance and commitment therapy, and mindfulness interventions have demonstrated improvement in depression, anxiety, and glycemic control. We assessed whether these treatment modalities have shown usefulness in adolescents with T2D or at risk for T2D.Recent FindingsData are limited on the use of the abovementioned therapeutic interventions and include only adolescent girls at risk for T2D. CBT was as useful as health education sessions. At 1  year, greater decreases in depression, insulin resistance, and BMI were ob...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - September 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Congenital Malformations in Pregnancies with Pre-existing Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFetuses of diabetic mothers are at increased risk for congenital malformations. Research in recent decades using animal and embryonic stem cell models has revealed many embryonic developmental processes that are disturbed by maternal diabetes. The aim of this review is to give clinicians a better understanding of the reasons for rigorous glycemic control in early pregnancy, and to provide background to guide future research.Recent FindingsMouse models of diabetic pregnancy have revealed mechanisms for altered expression of tissue-specific genes that lead to malformations that are more common in dia...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - September 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dyslipidemia in Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Dyslipidemia is prevalent in children with T2D and is a known risk factor for CVD. In this review, we critically examine the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and recommendations for dyslipidemia management in pediatric T2D.Recent FindingsDyslipidemia is multifactorial and related to poor glycemic control, insulin resistance, inflammation, and genetic susceptibility. Current guidelines recommend lipid screening after achieving glycemic control and annually thereafter. The desired lipid goals are low-density li...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Assessment of Risks and Benefits of Beta Cell Replacement Versus Automated Insulin Delivery Systems for Type 1 Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCurrent approaches to insulin replacement in type 1 diabetes are unable to achieve optimal levels of glycemic control without substantial risk of hypoglycemia and substantial burden of self-management. Advances in biology and technology present beta cell replacement and automated insulin delivery as two alternative approaches. Here we discuss current and future prospects for the relative risks and benefits for biological and psychosocial outcomes from the perspective of researchers, clinicians, and persons living with diabetes.Recent FindingsBeta cell replacement using pancreas or islet transplant ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - August 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Contribution of Kidney Disease to Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on the relationships between diabetes, cognitive impairment, and the contribution of kidney disease.Recent FindingsWe review the independent contributions of parameters of kidney disease, including albuminuria, glomerular filtration, bone/mineral metabolism, and vitamin D synthesis, on cognitive performance in patients with diabetes. Potential pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these associations are discussed highlighting gaps in existing knowledge. Finally, effects of the dialysis procedure on the brain and cognitive performance are considered. Emphasis is placed on novel ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - August 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes: a Bitter-Sweet Symphony
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a key phosphate-regulating hormone that has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Emerging data suggest that FGF23 plays a specific role in type 2 diabetes, partly independent of kidney function. We aimed to summarize current literature on the associations between FGF23 and outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes with or without CKD.Recent FindingsSeveral cohort studies have shown strong associations between plasma FGF23 and cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic CKD. Moreover, recent data suggest that FGF23 are el...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - August 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Moving Diabetes Upstream: the Social Determinants of Diabetes Management and Control Among Immigrants in the US
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRelative to the US-born population, immigrants are less likely to successfully manage and control their diabetes, leading to a host of diabetes-related complications. This review draws on the social determinants of health framework (SDoH) to summarize the multilevel factors that shape diabetes care and management among immigrants in the USA.Recent FindingsWhile the diabetes literature is replete with research on individual-level risk factors and health behaviors, empirical literature linking the SDoH to diabetes management among immigrants is limited. However, housing precarity, food insecurity, po...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - August 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Depression in Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe current review summarizes extant knowledge regarding the prevalence of depression in youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) and how depression might impact glycemic control through stress-related behavioral and physiological mechanisms. The current review also discusses depression intervention studies in adult-onset T2D, as there are no such studies in youth-onset T2D, and provides recommendations for clinical research.Recent FindingsThe prevalence of elevated depression symptoms in youth-onset T2D is approximately 20%. Some studies suggest depression may negatively impact glycemic control through i...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - August 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Early Onset of Autoimmune Diabetes in Children with Down Syndrome —Two Separate Aetiologies or an Immune System Pre-Programmed for Autoimmunity?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAn increased frequency of autoimmunity in children with Down syndrome (DS) is well described but few studies have investigated the underlying mechanisms. Recent immune system investigation of individuals with DS may shed light on the increased risk of autoimmune conditions including type 1 diabetes.Recent FindingsDiagnosis of type 1 diabetes is accelerated in children with DS with 17% diagnosed at, or under, the age of 2  years compared with only 4% in the same age group in the general population. Counterintuitively, children with DS and diabetes have less human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mediate...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - August 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Lipidomic Abnormalities During the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes: a Quantitative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe underlying factors triggering a cascade of autoimmune response that leads to the death of pancreatic beta cells and type 1 diabetes are to large extent unknown. Aberrations in the lipid balance have been suggested, either as factors directly contributing to autoimmunity or as a reflection of external factors, such as the diet or chemical exposure, which may increase the risk or even trigger the autoimmunity cascade.Recent FindingsA small number of recent studies have investigated the blood lipidome before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes with a goal of identifying biomarkers of disease pr...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - August 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Type 2 Diabetes in Youth: the Role of Early Life Exposures
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the impact of early life exposures on glucose metabolism in the offspring and explores potential metabolic mechanisms leading to type 2 diabetes in childhood.Recent FindingsOne in five adolescents is diagnosed with prediabetes. Recent studies have elucidated the impact of early exposures such as maternal diabetes, but also hyperglycemia below the threshold of gestational diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and paternal obesity on the future metabolic health of the offspring. Mechanisms affecting the developmental programing of offspring toward type 2 diabetes include epigenetic ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - August 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Bariatric Surgery for Monogenic Non-syndromic and Syndromic Obesity Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe global prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly over the last decades, posing a severe threat to human health. Currently, bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for patients with morbid obesity. It is unknown whether this treatment is also suitable for patients with obesity due to a confirmed genetic defect (genetic obesity disorders). Therefore, this review aims to elucidate the role of bariatric surgery in the treatment of genetic obesity.Recent FindingsIn monogenic non-syndromic obesity, an underlying genetic defect seems to be the most important factor determining the efficacy o...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - July 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Physiological Importance of Bile Acid Structure and Composition on Glucose Homeostasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStudies have identified several effects of bile acids (BAs) in glucose homeostasis, energy expenditure, and body weight control, through receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms. BAs are produced from cholesterol and characterized by their structures, which result from enzymes in the liver and the gut microbiota. The aim of this review is to characterize the effects of BA structure and composition on diabetes.Recent FindingsThe hydroxyl groups of BAs interact with binding pockets of receptors and enzymes that affect glucose homeostasis. Human and animal studies show that BA composition is asso...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Endocrine Mechanisms Connecting Exercise to Brown Adipose Tissue Metabolism: a Human Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the state-of-the-art regarding the exercise-regulated endocrine signals that might modulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and/or white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, or through which BAT communicates with other tissues, in humans.Recent FindingsExercise induces WAT browning in rodents by means of a variety of physiological mechanism. However, whether exercise induces WAT browning in humans is still unknown. Nonetheless, a number of protein hormones and metabolites, whose signaling can influence thermogenic adipocyte ’s metabolism, are secreted during and/or after exercise i...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

New Insights into the Genetics of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiabetes is a spectrum of clinical manifestations, including latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). However, it has been questioned whether LADA exists or simply is a group of misclassified type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. This review will provide an updated overview of the genetics of LADA, highlight what genetics tell us about LADA as a diabetes subtype, and point to future directions in the study of LADA.Recent FindingsRecent studies have verified the genetic overlap between LADA and both T1D and T2D and have contributed identification of a novel LADA-specific locu...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

miRNA Regulation of T Cells in Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRegulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical contributors to immune homeostasis and their dysregulation can lead to the loss of immune tolerance and autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes (T1D). Recent studies have highlighted microRNAs (miRNAs) as important regulators of the immune system, by fine-tuning relevant genes in various immune cell types. In this review article, we discuss recent insights into miRNA regulation of immune tolerance and activation. Specifically, we discuss how the dysregulation of miRNAs in T cells contributes to their aberrant function and the onset of islet autoimmunity, as ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - July 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Care of Infants Born to Women with Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInfants of women with diabetes are at risk for specific morbidities including congenital anomalies, abnormalities of fetal growth, neonatal hypoglycemia, electrolyte abnormalities, polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress syndrome. Recent studies have shed light on long-term outcomes of these infants and presented advances in treatment. The purpose of this review is to outline the most common neonatal morbidities affecting infants of women with diabetes, the pathophysiology and prevalence of these conditions, and contemporary approaches to treatment.Recent FindingsRecent investiga...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - July 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sleep Regularity and Cardiometabolic Heath: Is Variability in Sleep Patterns a Risk Factor for Excess Adiposity and Glycemic Dysregulation?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNight-to-night variability in sleep patterns leads to circadian disruption and, consequently, could increase cardiometabolic risk. The purpose of this review is to summarize findings from studies published between 2015 and 2020 examining various measures of night-to-night variability in sleep in relation to metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and their risk factors. We illustrate a potential causal pathway between irregular sleep patterns and T2D, highlighting knowledge gaps along the way.Recent FindingsAcross different measures of sleep variability, irregular sleep patterns were asso...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - July 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of Parent Self-Regulation in Youth Type 1 Diabetes Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewYouth with strong self-regulation (SR), or the ability to manage thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, engage in more effective type 1 diabetes (T1D) management. However, while parent support and engagement are critical to ensuring positive youth T1D outcomes, it is rarely considered that parents ’ SR may also influence youth T1D management. If this is the case, novel interventions to improve parents’ SR or ensure adequate support for parents with SR challenges offer great potential to improve family functioning and youth T1D management.Recent FindingsTheoretical and preliminary empirical ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - July 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Public Health Approaches to Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: the US National Diabetes Prevention Program and Beyond
The sentence should read: “Average weight loss and physical activity minutes per week were calculated among participants who attended  ≥ 3 sessions in the first 6 months and whose time from first session attended to last session attended was ≥ 9 months. (Source: Current Diabetes Reports)
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - June 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Effects of Lifestyle and/or Vitamin D Supplementation Interventions on Pregnancy Outcomes: What Have we Learned from the DALI Studies?
The original version of this review article unfortunately contained a mistake. (Source: Current Diabetes Reports)
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - June 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetes Management During Breastfeeding in Women with Type 1 Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an update on glycemic management of type 1 diabetes during breastfeeding with focus on diet and insulin treatment to prevent hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and weight retention. Recommendations for insulin pump settings are given.Recent FindingsWomen with type 1 diabetes are encouraged to breastfeed. Hypoglycemia is a concern in the breastfeeding period among women with type 1 diabetes, and ketoacidosis may also occur. The usual goals for glucose values for persons with diabetes also apply during breastfeeding. The recommended minimum daily carbohydrate intake is 210  g during breastfe...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Role of Senescent Renal Cells in Pathophysiology of Diabetic Kidney Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of kidney failure in the USA, representing ~  44% of all cases of kidney failure. Advancements in both glucose management and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system have significantly improved prognosis for individuals with DKD, yet DKD continues to affect 30–40% of people with type 2 diabetes and is still a major predictor of mortalit y in this population. Thus, new interventions are required to address this significant health burden.Recent FindingsOne potential target for intervention is cellular senescence. Senescence permanentl...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - June 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Eating Disorders and Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review describes the characteristics of patients with eating disorders in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the principles of their treatment.Recent FindingsThe combination of type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder is sometimes known as “diabulimia”. The hallmark of the condition is that the patient deliberately takes an inadequate amount of insulin in order control their body weight (insulin restriction). Other disordered eating behaviours, such as dietary restriction, self-induced vomiting and binge eating, may also be presen t but typical anorexia nervosa is rare. There is an ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - June 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory Properties of Amniotic Membrane Derivatives and Their Potential in Regenerative Medicine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDuring the last decades, the field of regenerative medicine has been rapidly evolving. Major progress has been made in the development of biological substitutes applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering.Recent FindingsAmong other sources, amniotic-derived products have been used for decades in various fields of medicine as a biomaterial for the wound care and tissue replacement. Moreover, human amniotic epithelial and mesenchymal cells have been intensively studied for their immunomodulatory capacities.SummaryAmniotic cells possess two major characteristi...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - June 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Purine Metabolite Signatures and Type 2 Diabetes: Innocent Bystanders or Actionable Items?
This article reviews evidence linking cardiometabolic conditions with changes in purine metabolites, including increased serum uric acid (sUA), and discusses intervention studies that investigated the therapeutic relevance of these associations.Recent FindingsMetabolic and epidemiological findings support a correlation between sUA and circulating levels of other purines with insulin resistance (IR) and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition, increased activity of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), the rate-limiting enzyme for UA production, has been detected in tissues targeted by obesity. Yet, inhibition o...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - June 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

CNS Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis: Role of the Leptin-Melanocortin System
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this brief review, we highlight studies that have contributed to our current understanding of glucose homeostasis by the central nervous system (CNS) leptin-melanocortin system, particularly proopiomelanocortin neurons and melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R).Recent FindingsLeptin deficiency is associated with insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism whereas leptin administration improves tissue glucose uptake/oxidation and reduces hepatic glucose output. These antidiabetic effects of leptin have been demonstrated in experimental animals and humans, even when circulating insulin levels are ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Managing Diabetes in Hard to Reach Populations: A Review of Telehealth Interventions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiabetes mellitus is a leading chronic disease worldwide. Access to diabetes care varies widely and is influenced by multiple factors including social, geographic, and economic conditions. The use of technology to expand healthcare may bridge these barriers and improve access. Our aim was to review the evidence for the role of telehealth to expand access to quality diabetes care.Recent FindingsThere is evidence that application of technology-based programs to deliver healthcare are both feasible and effective. These programs are accepted by both patients and providers, can reduce healthcare costs, ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: “H” for Heterogeneity in the Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes Management
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the authorgroup section. The authors ’ given and family names were inadvertently interchanged. (Source: Current Diabetes Reports)
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Peptides as Therapeutic Targets to Mitigate Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity affects over than 600 million adults worldwide resulting in multi-organ complications and major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to summarise the physiological effects as well as the therapeutic implications of the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.Recent FindingsClinical trials have proven that the widely used GLP-1 analogues have pleotropic effects beyond those on weight and glucose metabolism and appear to confer favourable car...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - May 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Euglycemic Ketoacidosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, acidosis, and ketosis. Ketoacidosis may occur with blood glucose level  
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - May 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Economic Simulation Modeling in Type 2 Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper provides an overview of type 2 diabetes economic simulation modeling and reviews current topics of discussion and major challenges in the field.Recent FindingsImportant challenges in the field include increasing the generalizability of models and improving transparency in model reporting. To identify and address these issues, modeling groups have organized through the Mount Hood Diabetes Challenge meetings and developed tools (i.e., checklist, impact inventory) to standardize modeling methods and reporting of results. Accordingly, many newer diabetes models have begun utilizing these too...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - May 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Using Person-Reported Outcomes (PROs) to Motivate Young People with Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis manuscript describes how person-reported outcomes (PROs) can be utilized in care for young people with diabetes in the context of motivation.Recent FindingsThe use of person-reported outcome measures (PROMS) in clinical care is feasible and acceptable, and helps focus the clinical encounter on life domains important to the person with diabetes. Results with regard to impact on self-management and glycemic outcomes are limited. Motivation is an important factor for self-management. Based on self-determination theory, autonomy-supportive, person-centered, and collaborative communication by diabe...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Updates on Gene Therapy for Diabetic Retinopathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of visual impairment in the developed country, is characterized by vascular lesions and neuronal damage of the retina. Treatment options for this condition are currently limited. The advent of therapy targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) demonstrated significant benefits to patients with DR. However, this treatment is limited by its short half-life and requirement for frequent invasive intravitreal injections. In addition, many patients failed to achieve clinically significant improvement in visual function. Gene therapy has the potential to...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

How Do the Challenges of Emerging Adulthood Inform our Understanding of Diabetes Distress? An Integrative Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEmerging adulthood (ages 18 –29) presents many emotional, social, and developmental challenges that can contribute to an increased sense of burden when managing type 1 diabetes (T1D). Diabetes distress (DD) is the concept that captures the emotional burden, frustrations, and worries resulting from living with T1D. This integ rative review sets out to examine the impact of developmental context by answering this question: How do the challenges of emerging adulthood inform our understanding of DD?Recent FindingsDD is highly prevalent in emerging adults and occurs at higher rates than in other a...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - April 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Inter-organelle Communication in the Pathogenesis of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImpairments in mitochondrial function in patients with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have been disputed for decades. This review aims to briefly summarize the current knowledge on mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic tissues and to particularly focus on addressing a new perspective of mitochondrial dysfunction, the altered capacity of mitochondria to communicate with other organelles within insulin-resistant tissues.Recent FindingsOrganelle interactions are temporally and spatially formed connections essential for normal cell function. Recent studies have shown that mitochondria interact...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - April 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fibrocalculous Pancreatic Diabetes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) is an uncommon form of diabetes occurring in underprivileged developing countries of the world. We attempt to review the latest evidence on epidemiology, secular trends, etiopathogenic mechanisms, and treatment modalities of FCPD with particular reference to studies from the past decade.Recent findingsThere has been little new data on FCPD over the past decade even from countries where it was considered to be prevalent. There appears to be a decline in prevalence of the condition of late. There is also some evidence to show that the condition develops due t...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - April 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
This article aims for summarizing current clinical knowledge on screening, diagnosis, and treatment and gives an overview on the pathophysiology of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in diabetes.Recent FindingsRecent studies reveal novel insights into the close interaction of acinar, ductal, and endocrine cells and the gut-pancreas axis.SummaryExocrine pancreatic insufficiency is a clinically relevant, frequent but poorly understood disorder in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (Source: Current Diabetes Reports)
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - March 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Physiological and Lifestyle Traits of Metabolic Dysfunction in the Absence of Obesity
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIndividuals with metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) have an adverse cardiometabolic risk factor profile in the absence of excess body weight, and increased risk for diabetes and heart disease. We critically review some physiological traits and lifestyle characteristics of the MUNW phenotype.Recent FindingsThe prevalence of MUNW varies considerably around the world and among ethnicities, partly because of different definitions; on average, this phenotype affects about ~  30% of normal weight persons globally. Most studies have recruited MUNW subjects who, although within the normal ...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - March 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diabetes of the Exocrine Pancreas Related to Hereditary Pancreatitis, an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim was to review evidence about diabetes secondary to hereditary pancreatitis, seeking novel diagnostic and treatment features.Recent FindingsHereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an autosomal dominant condition, characterized by recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis, progression to fibrosis, and chronic pancreatitis. Clinical presentation includes diabetes of the exocrine pancreas (DEP). HP prevalence ranges from 0.3 to 0.57 per 100,000 people, with up to 80% of these develop DEP. This condition often requires specific interventions: with regard to metabolic control, metformin is the first choic...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - March 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Novel Challenges in Aging with Type 1 Diabetes
This article is a review of the aging literature in T1D and identifies existing gaps while serving as a call to the research community.Recent FindingsRecent studies have identified an association between cognitive impairment and glycemic variability, as well as increased risk and frequency of hypoglycemia in older adults with T1D. However, limited research exists about additional physical and mental health conditions and barrier to successful treatment in this population.SummaryOlder adults may experience both age- and diabetes-related barriers to diabetes management. Due to the scarcity of aging T1D research, current trea...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - March 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research