Implications of Medical and Recreational Marijuana Laws for Neuroscience Research: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReview of US medical and recreational marijuana laws (MML and RML), their effects on cannabis potency, prevalence of non-medical cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) in adolescents and adults, and implications for neuroscience research, given what is known about the relationship of cannabis to neurocognitive impairments and underlying brain functioning.Recent FindingsCannabis potency may be increasing faster in states with MML or RML than in other states. MML and RML have not impacted prevalence in adolescents but have consistently been shown to increase rates of adult non-medical use and C...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

New Developments in Cholinergic Imaging in Alzheimer and Lewy Body Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review novel trends in cholinergic neuroimaging in Alzheimer and Lewy body parkinsonian disorders.Recent FindingsThe spectrum of cholinergic imaging is expanding with the availability of spatially more precise radioligands that allow assessment of previously less recognized subcortical and cortical structures with more dense cholinergic innervation. In addition, advances in MRI techniques now allow quantitative structural or functional assessment of both the cholinergic forebrain and the pedunculopontine nucleus, which may serve as non-invasive prognostic predictors. Multimodal i...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Trauma History and Mental Health of North Korean Defectors
This study aimed to review the mental health status of North Korean defectors (NKDs) and related factors. Interventions to promote their mental health and issues to be dealt with are also reviewed.Recent FindingsNKDs are often exposed to multiple severely traumatic events, both in North Korea and surrounding their defection. Furthermore, they face sociocultural barriers in adapting to a new society. Past exposure to traumatic events, longer defection periods, forced repatriation, psychological factors, and acculturative stress such as perceived discrimination, low income, family violence, and health complaints contribute t...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interoceptive Processing in Borderline Personality Pathology: a Review on Neurophysiological Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes empirical evidence on alterations in four distinct interoceptive facets, namely, objective physiological states, interoceptive accuracy, interoceptive sensitivity, and interoceptive awareness in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and related conditions. We focus on psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms and discuss their possible relevance for the pathogenesis of BPD.Recent FindingsRecent findings on objective physiological states suggest that patients with BPD likely exhibit reduced central representation of interoceptive signals as baseline, which might be relat...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Persistent Auditory Hallucination in Schizophrenia: Predictors of Response
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review aims to discuss the role of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in schizophrenia for the management of persistent auditory hallucination, along with the predictors of response.Recent FindingsSchizophrenia is a chronic, highly disabling, severe mental illness. Antipsychotic medications are the mainstay of treatment in schizophrenia. Despite adequate pharmacotherapy, a considerable number of patients remain symptomatic, for which brain stimulation (neuromodulation) techniques like electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Digital Phenotyping Using Multimodal Data
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDigital phenotyping involves the quantification of in situ phenotypes using personal digital devices and holds the potential to dramatically reshape how serious mental illnesses (SMI) assessment is conducted. Despite promise, few, if any, digital phenotyping efforts for SMI have garnered the support necessary for clinical implementation.Recent FindingsIn this paper, we highlight how digital phenotyping efforts can be improved by integrating data from multiple channels (i.e., “multimodal” data integration). We begin by arguing that “multimodal” integration is critical for dig...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gaming Disorder: How to Translate Behavioral Neuroscience Into Public Health Advances
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGaming disorder (GD), meanwhile classified as a mental disorder in both DSM-5 and ICD-11, is a current public health issue. Theoretical models assume core psychological processes, such as cue reactivity, craving, reward processing, decision-making, cognitive biases, inhibitory control, and stress relief, to be crucially involved in the development and maintenance of GD. This review summarizes neuroscientific findings on these processes in the context of GD as well as treatments and intervention programs addressing these processes.Recent FindingsWe identified overlaps regarding the involvement of ne...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Intranasal Oxytocin on Social Cognition: an Integrative Human Lifespan Approach
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis narrative review synthesizes research from the last two decades on the modulatory role of intranasal OT administration (IN-OT) on social cognition in early life, young/middle adulthood, and older adulthood. Advances and knowledge gaps are identified, and future research directions are discussed within an integrative human lifespan framework to guide novel research on IN-OT and social cognition.Recent FindingsCurrent evidence regarding IN-OT modulation of social-cognitive processes, behavior, and related neurocircuitry is mixed with some studies suggesting benefits (e.g., improved social percep...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inflammatory Pathways in Psychiatric Disorders: the Case of Schizophrenia and Depression
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA better understanding of the key molecules/pathways underlying the pathophysiology of depression and schizophrenia may contribute to novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we have discussed the recent developments on the role of inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia.Recent FindingsInflammation is an innate immune response that can be triggered by various factors, including pathogens, stress, and injury. Under normal conditions, the inflammatory responses quiet after pathogen clearance and tissue repair. However, abnormal long-term or chronic inflammation ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - July 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Impulsivity across Substance Use Categories: Consideration of Sex/Gender
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal was to review recent (1/2015 –2/2020) evidence of impulsivity as a feature of substance use disorders or use of substances (alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, opioids, stimulants) in males compared with females in terms of the following: (a) impulsivity in substance-using groups (or substance-using compared with control groups), an d (b) relationship between impulsivity and substance use behavior, clinical severity, or treatment outcomes.Recent FindingsOf 361 papers identified by the searches, 69 met inclusion criteria, and 39 were highlighted for considering sex/gender in relation to impu...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - July 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Bayesian Brain and Psychoanalytic Dimensions of Hyper-salience in Psychosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the Bayesian model of the brain as it has been applied to hyper-salient experiences in psychosis such as ideas of reference (in particular, the attribution of personal meaning to the glance of strangers) and to amend this model by adding a Meaning Salience factor to the Bayesian equation that specifies the personal significance of the hyper-salient experience to the individual.Recent FindingsRecent descriptions of the semi-independent processes of biological and psychological recovery from psychosis do not include an account of the figurative, metaphorical meaning of anomalous experien...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decision-Making in Gambling Disorder, Problematic Pornography Use, and Binge-Eating Disorder: Similarities and Differences
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe present review attempts to provide a comprehensive and critical overview of the neurocognitive mechanisms of gambling disorder (GD), problematic pornography use (PPU), and binge-eating disorder (BED), focusing specifically on decision-making processes.Recent FindingsGD, PPU, and BED have been associated with decision-making impairments both under risk and ambiguity. Features such as intelligence, emotions, social variables, cognitive distortions, comorbidities, or arousal may condition decision-making processes in these individuals.SummaryImpairments in decision-making seem to be a shared trans...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Learning and Motivation for Rewards in Schizophrenia: Implications for Behavioral Rehabilitation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImpaired reward processing and amotivation are well documented in schizophrenia. We aim to review the current state of neuroimaging and behavioral research addressing components of motivational deficits in this complex and impairing syndrome. Evidence will be integrated to inform the ongoing development of effective strategies for behavioral rehabilitation.Recent FindingsWhile striatal dopamine and aberrant reward prediction errors have been connected to amotivation in schizophrenia, they are not sufficiently full explanations of reward processing impairments. Frontal dysfunction and associated cog...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuromodulation in Schizophrenia: Relevance of Neuroimaging
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on discussing the recent evidences that demonstrate the relevance of neuroimaging in the context of neuromodulation in schizophrenia.Recent FindingsNeuromodulation techniques have been used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In the past few decades, neuroimaging guided neuromodulation interventions, proven to improve effectiveness and accuracy of intervention.SummaryNeuroimaging techniques also predict the efficacy as well as prognosis of the neuromodulation intervention. Many of the existing evidences are preliminary and limited by small ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biological Targets Underlying the Antisuicidal Effects of Lithium
This article highlights the potential relationship of lithium ’s cellular and molecular targets to its antisuicidal effects in bipolar disorder (BD).Recent FindingsLithium is the mood stabilizer that shows the most robust therapeutic evidence in relapse prevention and mood episodes in BD. Compelling evidence also elucidates lithium ’s unique effects in reversing and preventing suicidal behavior (SB), mostly in individuals with BD.SummaryThe following review is an up-to-date summary of studies related to the anti-suicidal effects of lithium in patients with BD. We focused on studies investigating the similaritie...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Microbiome and Schizophrenia: Current Evidence and Future Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to summarize the current evidence for the link between schizophrenia and alterations in the microbiome.Recent FindingsAvailable data show microbiome alterations in patients with schizophrenia, especially in the gut microbiome compared with healthy individuals. Changes were observed in diversity, with associations noted between the microbiome and metabolic and immune pathways. However, results showed specific community structure patterns of the microbiome varied among patients with schizophrenia. The observed changes reflected disease-related processes (e.g., nicotine use), and also...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Lens Shapes the View: on Task Dependency in ToM Research
This article provides an overview of current findings on Theory of Mind (ToM) in human children and adults and highlights the relationship between task specifications and their outcome in socio-cognitive research.Recent FindingsToM, the capacity to reason about and infer others ’ mental states, develops progressively throughout childhood—the exact time course is still a matter of debate. Neuroimaging studies indicate the involvement of a widespread neuronal network during mentalizing, suggesting that ToM is a multifaceted process. Accordingly, the tasks and trainings t hat currently exist to investigate and enh...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - April 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Current and Future Vistas in Bipolar Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to provide a succinct and narrative review of key developments in the diagnostic criteria, neurobiology, and treatment of bipolar disorder (BD).Recent FindingsDepressive symptoms/episodes and cognitive dysfunction are critical mediators of human capital, quality of life, and wellness in persons with BD. Significant advances in tolerability and incremental advances in efficacy exist with antimanic agents. Bipolar depression treatment options remain suboptimal with relatively few being metabolically neutral. In silico modeling and advanced computational methods provide promise to furt...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - April 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Critical Review on Structural Neuroimaging Studies in BD: a Transdiagnostic Perspective from Psychosis to Fronto-Temporal Dementia
AbstractRecent FindingsIn the last decades, many neuroimaging studies have investigated the brain structural deficits associated with the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder (BD). Notably, the available literature identified the presence of selective brain structural abnormalities, in terms of both gray matter (GM) and white matter, known to be involved in emotion regulation and processing. Nonetheless, the complex and heterogeneous nature of BD has not yet allowed the identification of a clear biological signature of this disorder.Purpose of ReviewIn this context, this review aims to a) briefly summarize the evidence from...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - March 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prevention of Bipolar Disorder: Are We Almost There?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA considerable portion of bipolar patients do not respond well to available therapeutic strategies. Therefore, early identification of BD and its possible prevention are of high interest. We performed a critical review of the literature, focusing on the evidence with putative implications for the prevention of BD.Recent FindingsSeveral psychopathological findings among individuals at high genetic risk for BD may correspond to a prodromal stage of BD. Neuroimaging alterations and other biological findings among those at high risk for BD have also been identified. However, the ability of these strate...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - March 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NMDA Antagonists and Their Role in the Management of Bipolar Disorder: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis manuscript aims to review the role of NMDA antagonists in the treatment of mood disorders, more specifically in bipolar disorder.Recent FindingsDifferent sources of evidence have implicated glutamatergic abnormalities in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. In particular, rapid and robust antidepressant effects of NMDA antagonist ketamine and its enantiomer esketamine have been consistently reported by several controlled trials. In last years, considerable research efforts have been destined to identify glutamatergic drugs with a better safety and tolerability profile. However, efforts to ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - March 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging as a Tool for Individualized Treatment Choice in Depression: the Past, the Present and the Future
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review the findings on neuroimaging as a tool for facilitating individualized treatment choice in depression.Recent FindingsNeuroimaging has allowed the exploration of neural candidates for response biomarkers. In less than two decades, the field has expanded from small single drug studies to large multisite initiatives testing multiple interventions; from simple analytical methods to employing artificial intelligence, with an aim of establishing models based on a variety of data, such as neuroimaging, biological, psychological and clinical measures.SummaryNeural biomarkers of re...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - February 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Treatment of Bipolar Depression: Current Status and Future Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review current available treatment options and to consider future directions in the treatment of bipolar depression.Recent FindingsThere are a limited number of established treatments that have demonstrated varied efficacy in acute bipolar depression including modern antipsychotics (quetiapine, lurasidone, olanzapine ± fluoxetine and recently cariprazine) and mood stabilisers (lamotrigine and valproate). Lithium has a role in protecting against depressive relapses and suicide. Alternative and experimental treatments including pramipexole, modafinil/armodafinil, omega-3 fat...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - January 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gut Microbiome and Sex Bias in Autism Spectrum Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) express as impaired social interactions and stereotypes. The gut microbiome which is remarkably different in ASD compared with controls may contribute to the sex bias of this disorder, with females being less vulnerable to clinically present autism. This review aims to understand the role of gut microbiota and female sex hormone in the sex bias of autism.Recent FindingsRecent evidence proved that transplanted gut microbiota from autistic donors but not healthy controls into germ-free mice were effective in inducing autistic features. Moreover selective probiotic know...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - January 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Common Pathways in Depression and Obesity: The Role of Gut Microbiome and Diets
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review data regarding two determinants of comorbidity between depression and obesity, i.e., the role of disturbed gut microbiome in their genesis and of diets in their treatment.Recent FindingsObesity and major depressive disorders (MDD) are highly comorbid, the “metabolic” (obese) subtype of MDD affects about one third of all individuals with MDD. There is an urgent need for better therapies strategies, which may include specific dietary measures. A diet low in carbohydrates (low-carb), effective in obesity, may be beneficial also in MDD. However, the underlying mech...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - January 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infusing Hope Into the Treatment of Suicidality: a Review of Ketamine ’s Effects on Suicidality
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGiven recent increases in rates of suicide and lack of rapid treatments for suicidality, ketamine has been identified as a potential fast-acting anti-suicidal treatment. Our review seeks to describe the effects of ketamine on suicidality, given the growing literature on the use of ketamine in reducing suicidality. We examine open-label studies and randomized controlled trials evaluating the treatment of suicidality with ketamine. Furthermore, our manuscript identifies potential mechanisms of ketamine ’s effects on suicidality.Recent FindingsBased on existing RCTs, ketamine appears to have rap...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - December 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phenomenology of Voice-Hearing in Psychosis Spectrum Disorders: a Review of Neural Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAuditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a common experience for people diagnosed with psychosis spectrum disorders, often leading to distress and disability. The purpose here is to describe four common phenomenological features of AVH (negativity of content, memory, inner speech/self-monitoring, and spatial location), and review their associated neural mechanisms.Recent FindingsDiverse phenomenological qualities of AVH have been found to be related to differing brain regions. Negative content of AVH is associated with the right Broca ’s area and increased amygdala activation, whereas the hip...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sharing a Diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality: a Challenging Decision with Associated Risks and Benefits
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to examine diagnostic sharing of narcissistic personality from multiple vantage points and to describe strategies that might help clinicians in patient management.Recent FindingsIn recent years, clinicians increasingly have been motivated to discuss with patients the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD), an intervention bolstered by the emergence of empirically validated treatments for BPD and by advocacy organizations calling for diagnostic sharing. Despite these advances, clinical experience suggests that the diagnosis of narcissistic personality, including narcissis...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Spirituality May Mitigate Against Stress and Related Mental Disorders: a Review and Preliminary Neurobiological Evidence
This article aims to review recent research on the relationship between spirituality and stress and how spirituality may protect against stress-related mental disorders. Preliminary data on neural mechanisms by which spirituality may influence stress processing are also presented.Recent FindingsRecent neuroscientific research on stress implicates widespread corticostriatal-limbic neural circuitry that includes the salience and the default-mode networks. Acute and chronic stress represents a significant etiological factor for a range of mental disorders, and research suggests that specific brain mechanisms of acute stress i...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurocognitive Processes Implicated in Adolescent Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: Applying an RDoC Framework for Conceptualizing Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIdentifying risk factors for STBs during adolescence is essential for suicide prevention. In this review, we employ the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework to synthesize studies on key neurocognitive processes —cognitive control, reward responsiveness/valuation, and negative urgency—relevant to adolescent STBs.Recent FindingsWithin subdomains of cognitive control, studies of inhibition/suppression and updating/maintenance were mixed, while response selection (i.e., decision-making) deficits were consistently associated with suicide attempts. Fewer studies, by comparison, have prob...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sequencing the Human Brain at Single-Cell Resolution
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes some of the most recent studies on single-cell resolution sequencing of the post-mortem human brain and the application of these techniques for the study of psychiatric and neurological disorders.Recent FindingsOver the last several years, researchers have optimized single-cell transcriptome and genome sequencing in post-mortem human brain tissue. This has given us unprecedented access to cell-type specific gene expression profiles and somatic mutations unique to pathological states. Additionally, we can now measure epigenetic information from individual brain cells and with ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Subjective Cognitive Decline and Biomarkers of Preclinical Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHere, we have provided an overview of previous biomarker studies to support the importance of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in early identification of at-risk subjects and differentiation between normal and pathological aging, including Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). We have identified several major areas that would require future research to address current gaps in knowledge and increase the value of SCD in preclinical AD.Recent FindingsSCD in clinically normal individuals has received increasing attention by clinicians and AD researchers. SCD is etiologically heterogeneous. Biomarker studi...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Depression in Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdolescent depression is a major public health concern associated with severe outcomes. A lack of efficacious interventions has triggered an increase in cognitive neuropsychology research to identify relevant treatment targets for new interventions. This review summarises key neurocognitive findings in adolescent depression and explores the potential of neurocognitive markers as treatment targets in new interventions.Recent FindingsStudies support difficulties in the voluntary deployment of attention towards and away from emotional stimuli, negative interpretation biases and overgeneralised autobio...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An Overview of the Neurobiology of Impulsivity in Gambling and Gaming Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGambling disorder (GD) and gaming disorder (IGD), the two currently recognized behavioural addictions are characterized by high levels of impulsivity. Increasing research focuses on neurocognitive impulsive features in GD and IGD as these disorders can provide a “drug-free” model to study shared neural mechanisms across addictive disorders. This review provides an overview of neurobiological findings across three impulsive components of behaviour: response inhibition, delay discounting, and reward processing.Recent FindingsResponse inhibition is characterized by decreased fronto-striata...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurocognition and Suicide Risk in Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeurocognitive deficits (impaired mental abilities corresponding to brain dysfunction) are transdiagnostic features of psychiatric illness, which account for the vast majority of suicide deaths. Here, we provide a selective empirical overview of neurocognitive factors and associated pathophysiology implicated in adult suicide. The present report draws primarily from the neuropsychology literature to complement and update prior reviews and meta-analyses.Recent FindingsSuicidality is linked to impairment across neurocognitive domains, particularlyinhibition anddecision-making components of executive ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Framework for Identifying Neurobiologically Based Intervention Targets for NSSI
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNon-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common problem in adolescents. Recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of NSSI can serve to guide the conceptualization and development of new treatments to address adolescent NSSI. The purpose of this review is to integrate the extant findings from neurobiological NSSI research, with the goal of identifying potential treatment targets.Recent FindingsNSSI is associated with disruption across several neurobiological systems, including negative and positive valence, cognitive control, and social processes. These findings provide some groundwork for formi...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - August 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Can Understanding Reward Help Illuminate Anhedonia?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to examine how reward processing might help us understand the symptom of anhedonia.Recent FindingsThere are extensive reviews exploring the relationship between responses to rewarding stimuli and depression. These often include a discussion on anhedonia and how this might be underpinned in particular by dysfunctional reward processing. However, there is no specific consensus on whether studies to date have adequately examined the various sub-components of reward processing or how these might relate in turn to various aspects of anhedonia symptoms.SummaryThe approach to und...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - August 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biological Responses to Acute Stress and Suicide: a Review and Opportunities for Methodological Innovation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile rates of other medical illnesses have declined over the past several decades, rates of suicide have increased, particularly among adolescents. Prior research on biological underpinnings of suicide risk has remained limited. In this review, we describe a recent model conceptualizing suicide as a failure of biological responses to acute stress. According to this model, youth who fail to mount an adaptive stress response following exposure to a stressor are at acute risk for suicide.Recent FindingsAlthough much more research is needed, early evidence suggests that abnormal biological responses t...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - August 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders in the Emergency Department: Conceptualizing and Managing “Malingered” or “Exaggerated” Symptoms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are often suspected of malingering or exaggerating symptoms, though there is no clear evidence that they do so more than other patients. We review the manifestations, etiology, and management of seemingly feigned symptoms in these disorders, particularly related to their presentation in the emergency department (ED).Recent FindingsIt is dangerous to assume that all patients with ASPD and BPD are intentionally feigning symptoms in the ED. However, when ASPD patients are known to be malingering, the focus s...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - August 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Linking Late Life Depression and Alzheimer ’s Disease: Mechanisms and Resilience
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent literature linking Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and late life depression (LLD). It describes shared neurobiological features associated with both conditions, as well as factors that may increase resilience to onset and severity of cognitive decline and AD. Finally, we pose a number of future research directions toward improving detection, management, and treatment of both conditions.Recent FindingsEpidemiological studies have consistently shown a significant relationship between LLD and AD, with support for depression as a prodromal feature of AD, a risk factor for ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - July 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gradient Theories of Brain Activation: a Novel Application to Studying the Parental Brain
AbstractPurpose of ReviewParental brain research primarily employs general linear model –based (GLM-based) analyses to assess blood oxygenation level–dependent responses to infant auditory and visual cues, reporting common responses in shared cortical and subcortical structures. However, this approach does not reveal intermixed neural substrates related to different sensory modalit ies. We consider this notion in studying the parental brain.Recent FindingsSpatial independent component analysis (sICA) has been used to separate mixed source signals from overlapping functional networks. We explore relative differe...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - July 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Novel Pharmacologic Strategies for Treating Behavioral Disturbances in Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDeveloping pharmacological treatments to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer ’s disease is of high importance due to its significant association with poorer outcomes, caregiver burden, and severity of disease. Due to limited effective and safe treatment options, we reviewed emerging research in novel pharmacological agents for the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease.Recent FindingsWithin the past 5  years, 29 novel pharmacological agents to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease have been investigated or are currently i...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer ’s Disease and Progress in Mitochondria-Targeted Therapeutics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMitochondria are essential for facilitating energy homeostasis under ever-changing environmental conditions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to either play a primary role in the development of multiple human diseases and/or significantly contribute to disease progression. Here, we review recent findings on mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and strategies for the development of mitochondria-targeted therapies.Recent FindingsMultiple mechanisms essential for proper mitochondrial functioning including biogenesis and turnover, fission/fusion, trafficking, and bio...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroplasticity and Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review attempts to link cognitive training with neuroplasticity in schizophrenia evaluating the research evidences.Recent FindingsSchizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that often follows a chronic course and affects multiple domains of functioning. Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are one of the commonest causes of the functional impairments. Alterations in neuroplasticity in schizophrenia may be directly linked to the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can be improved with specific cognitive remediation techniques. Over the past few decades, mu...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Examining Neural Reactivity to Gambling Cues in the Age of Online Betting
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to provide new insights as to how and why functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on gambling cue reactivity can contribute to significant progress toward the understanding of gambling disorder. After having offered a detailed description of experimental paradigms and a comprehensive summary of findings related to gambling cue reactivity, the present review suggests methodological avenues for future research.Recent FindingsThe fMRI literature on problem gambling has identified the main neural pathways associated with reactivity to gambling cues. Yet, the cur...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Galantamine-Memantine Combination as an Antioxidant Treatment for Schizophrenia
The objective of this article is to highlight the potential role of the galantamine-memantine combination as a novel antioxidant treatment for schizophrenia.Recent FindingsIn addition to the well-known mechanisms of action of galantamine and memantine, these medications also have antioxidant activity. Furthermore, an interplay exists between oxidative stress, inflammation (redox-inflammatory hypothesis), and kynurenine pathway metabolites. Also, there is an interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress in schizophrenia. Oxidative stress may be associated with positive, cognitive, and negative s...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Frontal Alpha Asymmetry in Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNegative symptoms are highly predictive of whether individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) develop a psychotic disorder. However, little is known about pathophysiological mechanisms underlying negative symptoms during this period. The current study examined neurophysiological mechanisms underlying negative symptoms in CHR individuals using electroencephalography frontal alpha asymmetry power, a biomarker of approach and avoidance motivation.Recent FindingsPeople with schizophrenia display abnormal patterns of frontal alpha asymmetry indicative of reduced approach motivation. However, it is unknown ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Remote Monitoring for Understanding Mechanisms and Prediction in Psychiatry
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTechnological advances offer the potential to better characterise the symptoms and mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review provides an overview of how remote monitoring might inform understanding of mood and anxiety disorders, and may be used by clinicians to predict clinical outcomes and treatment response. The review also discusses salient ethical issues and the field ’s future directions.Recent FindingsA range of psychological and physiological remotely-collected data have been associated with clinical symptoms and outcomes, including momentary self-report, actigraphy, geolocation...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Frustrative Non-reward and Lab-Based Paradigms for Advancing the Study of Aggression in Persons with Psychosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPrior research and assessment of aggression in schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions has focused on one or two levels of measurement (third-party observation and self-report) identified by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), while frequently neglecting a third (laboratory behavioral paradigms). We review aggression in psychosis using the RDoC conceptualization of frustrative non-reward; describe how lab-based behavioral paradigms, particularly, the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), can help to better understand aggression in individuals with psychosis; and suggest direction...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Remediation of Visual Processing Impairments in Schizophrenia: Where We Are and Where We Need to Be
AbstractPurpose of ReviewVisual perceptual deficits are well-established in schizophrenia and are related to poorer outcomes and functioning. Improvement in perceptual functioning with training has been reliably demonstrated in healthy populations, yet relatively few studies have examined approaches to targeting visual processing dysfunction in schizophrenia. This review summarizes recent literature investigating visual remediation in schizophrenia, identifies current limitations, and suggests directions for further research.Recent FindingsExisting studies provide support for the remediation of visual processing impairment...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research