The Treatment of Bipolar Depression: Current Status and Future Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review current available treatment options and to consider future directions in the treatment of bipolar depression.Recent FindingsThere are a limited number of established treatments that have demonstrated varied efficacy in acute bipolar depression including modern antipsychotics (quetiapine, lurasidone, olanzapine ± fluoxetine and recently cariprazine) and mood stabilisers (lamotrigine and valproate). Lithium has a role in protecting against depressive relapses and suicide. Alternative and experimental treatments including pramipexole, modafinil/armodafinil, omega-3 fat...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - January 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gut Microbiome and Sex Bias in Autism Spectrum Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) express as impaired social interactions and stereotypes. The gut microbiome which is remarkably different in ASD compared with controls may contribute to the sex bias of this disorder, with females being less vulnerable to clinically present autism. This review aims to understand the role of gut microbiota and female sex hormone in the sex bias of autism.Recent FindingsRecent evidence proved that transplanted gut microbiota from autistic donors but not healthy controls into germ-free mice were effective in inducing autistic features. Moreover selective probiotic know...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - January 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Common Pathways in Depression and Obesity: The Role of Gut Microbiome and Diets
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review data regarding two determinants of comorbidity between depression and obesity, i.e., the role of disturbed gut microbiome in their genesis and of diets in their treatment.Recent FindingsObesity and major depressive disorders (MDD) are highly comorbid, the “metabolic” (obese) subtype of MDD affects about one third of all individuals with MDD. There is an urgent need for better therapies strategies, which may include specific dietary measures. A diet low in carbohydrates (low-carb), effective in obesity, may be beneficial also in MDD. However, the underlying mech...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - January 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infusing Hope Into the Treatment of Suicidality: a Review of Ketamine ’s Effects on Suicidality
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGiven recent increases in rates of suicide and lack of rapid treatments for suicidality, ketamine has been identified as a potential fast-acting anti-suicidal treatment. Our review seeks to describe the effects of ketamine on suicidality, given the growing literature on the use of ketamine in reducing suicidality. We examine open-label studies and randomized controlled trials evaluating the treatment of suicidality with ketamine. Furthermore, our manuscript identifies potential mechanisms of ketamine ’s effects on suicidality.Recent FindingsBased on existing RCTs, ketamine appears to have rap...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - December 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phenomenology of Voice-Hearing in Psychosis Spectrum Disorders: a Review of Neural Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAuditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a common experience for people diagnosed with psychosis spectrum disorders, often leading to distress and disability. The purpose here is to describe four common phenomenological features of AVH (negativity of content, memory, inner speech/self-monitoring, and spatial location), and review their associated neural mechanisms.Recent FindingsDiverse phenomenological qualities of AVH have been found to be related to differing brain regions. Negative content of AVH is associated with the right Broca ’s area and increased amygdala activation, whereas the hip...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sharing a Diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality: a Challenging Decision with Associated Risks and Benefits
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to examine diagnostic sharing of narcissistic personality from multiple vantage points and to describe strategies that might help clinicians in patient management.Recent FindingsIn recent years, clinicians increasingly have been motivated to discuss with patients the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD), an intervention bolstered by the emergence of empirically validated treatments for BPD and by advocacy organizations calling for diagnostic sharing. Despite these advances, clinical experience suggests that the diagnosis of narcissistic personality, including narcissis...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How Spirituality May Mitigate Against Stress and Related Mental Disorders: a Review and Preliminary Neurobiological Evidence
This article aims to review recent research on the relationship between spirituality and stress and how spirituality may protect against stress-related mental disorders. Preliminary data on neural mechanisms by which spirituality may influence stress processing are also presented.Recent FindingsRecent neuroscientific research on stress implicates widespread corticostriatal-limbic neural circuitry that includes the salience and the default-mode networks. Acute and chronic stress represents a significant etiological factor for a range of mental disorders, and research suggests that specific brain mechanisms of acute stress i...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurocognitive Processes Implicated in Adolescent Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: Applying an RDoC Framework for Conceptualizing Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIdentifying risk factors for STBs during adolescence is essential for suicide prevention. In this review, we employ the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework to synthesize studies on key neurocognitive processes —cognitive control, reward responsiveness/valuation, and negative urgency—relevant to adolescent STBs.Recent FindingsWithin subdomains of cognitive control, studies of inhibition/suppression and updating/maintenance were mixed, while response selection (i.e., decision-making) deficits were consistently associated with suicide attempts. Fewer studies, by comparison, have prob...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sequencing the Human Brain at Single-Cell Resolution
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes some of the most recent studies on single-cell resolution sequencing of the post-mortem human brain and the application of these techniques for the study of psychiatric and neurological disorders.Recent FindingsOver the last several years, researchers have optimized single-cell transcriptome and genome sequencing in post-mortem human brain tissue. This has given us unprecedented access to cell-type specific gene expression profiles and somatic mutations unique to pathological states. Additionally, we can now measure epigenetic information from individual brain cells and with ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Subjective Cognitive Decline and Biomarkers of Preclinical Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHere, we have provided an overview of previous biomarker studies to support the importance of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in early identification of at-risk subjects and differentiation between normal and pathological aging, including Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). We have identified several major areas that would require future research to address current gaps in knowledge and increase the value of SCD in preclinical AD.Recent FindingsSCD in clinically normal individuals has received increasing attention by clinicians and AD researchers. SCD is etiologically heterogeneous. Biomarker studi...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Depression in Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdolescent depression is a major public health concern associated with severe outcomes. A lack of efficacious interventions has triggered an increase in cognitive neuropsychology research to identify relevant treatment targets for new interventions. This review summarises key neurocognitive findings in adolescent depression and explores the potential of neurocognitive markers as treatment targets in new interventions.Recent FindingsStudies support difficulties in the voluntary deployment of attention towards and away from emotional stimuli, negative interpretation biases and overgeneralised autobio...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An Overview of the Neurobiology of Impulsivity in Gambling and Gaming Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGambling disorder (GD) and gaming disorder (IGD), the two currently recognized behavioural addictions are characterized by high levels of impulsivity. Increasing research focuses on neurocognitive impulsive features in GD and IGD as these disorders can provide a “drug-free” model to study shared neural mechanisms across addictive disorders. This review provides an overview of neurobiological findings across three impulsive components of behaviour: response inhibition, delay discounting, and reward processing.Recent FindingsResponse inhibition is characterized by decreased fronto-striata...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurocognition and Suicide Risk in Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeurocognitive deficits (impaired mental abilities corresponding to brain dysfunction) are transdiagnostic features of psychiatric illness, which account for the vast majority of suicide deaths. Here, we provide a selective empirical overview of neurocognitive factors and associated pathophysiology implicated in adult suicide. The present report draws primarily from the neuropsychology literature to complement and update prior reviews and meta-analyses.Recent FindingsSuicidality is linked to impairment across neurocognitive domains, particularlyinhibition anddecision-making components of executive ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Framework for Identifying Neurobiologically Based Intervention Targets for NSSI
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNon-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common problem in adolescents. Recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of NSSI can serve to guide the conceptualization and development of new treatments to address adolescent NSSI. The purpose of this review is to integrate the extant findings from neurobiological NSSI research, with the goal of identifying potential treatment targets.Recent FindingsNSSI is associated with disruption across several neurobiological systems, including negative and positive valence, cognitive control, and social processes. These findings provide some groundwork for formi...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - August 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Can Understanding Reward Help Illuminate Anhedonia?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this paper is to examine how reward processing might help us understand the symptom of anhedonia.Recent FindingsThere are extensive reviews exploring the relationship between responses to rewarding stimuli and depression. These often include a discussion on anhedonia and how this might be underpinned in particular by dysfunctional reward processing. However, there is no specific consensus on whether studies to date have adequately examined the various sub-components of reward processing or how these might relate in turn to various aspects of anhedonia symptoms.SummaryThe approach to und...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - August 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biological Responses to Acute Stress and Suicide: a Review and Opportunities for Methodological Innovation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile rates of other medical illnesses have declined over the past several decades, rates of suicide have increased, particularly among adolescents. Prior research on biological underpinnings of suicide risk has remained limited. In this review, we describe a recent model conceptualizing suicide as a failure of biological responses to acute stress. According to this model, youth who fail to mount an adaptive stress response following exposure to a stressor are at acute risk for suicide.Recent FindingsAlthough much more research is needed, early evidence suggests that abnormal biological responses t...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - August 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders in the Emergency Department: Conceptualizing and Managing “Malingered” or “Exaggerated” Symptoms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are often suspected of malingering or exaggerating symptoms, though there is no clear evidence that they do so more than other patients. We review the manifestations, etiology, and management of seemingly feigned symptoms in these disorders, particularly related to their presentation in the emergency department (ED).Recent FindingsIt is dangerous to assume that all patients with ASPD and BPD are intentionally feigning symptoms in the ED. However, when ASPD patients are known to be malingering, the focus s...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Linking Late Life Depression and Alzheimer ’s Disease: Mechanisms and Resilience
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent literature linking Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and late life depression (LLD). It describes shared neurobiological features associated with both conditions, as well as factors that may increase resilience to onset and severity of cognitive decline and AD. Finally, we pose a number of future research directions toward improving detection, management, and treatment of both conditions.Recent FindingsEpidemiological studies have consistently shown a significant relationship between LLD and AD, with support for depression as a prodromal feature of AD, a risk factor for ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - July 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gradient Theories of Brain Activation: a Novel Application to Studying the Parental Brain
AbstractPurpose of ReviewParental brain research primarily employs general linear model –based (GLM-based) analyses to assess blood oxygenation level–dependent responses to infant auditory and visual cues, reporting common responses in shared cortical and subcortical structures. However, this approach does not reveal intermixed neural substrates related to different sensory modalit ies. We consider this notion in studying the parental brain.Recent FindingsSpatial independent component analysis (sICA) has been used to separate mixed source signals from overlapping functional networks. We explore relative differe...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - July 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Novel Pharmacologic Strategies for Treating Behavioral Disturbances in Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDeveloping pharmacological treatments to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer ’s disease is of high importance due to its significant association with poorer outcomes, caregiver burden, and severity of disease. Due to limited effective and safe treatment options, we reviewed emerging research in novel pharmacological agents for the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease.Recent FindingsWithin the past 5  years, 29 novel pharmacological agents to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease have been investigated or are currently i...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - July 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer ’s Disease and Progress in Mitochondria-Targeted Therapeutics
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMitochondria are essential for facilitating energy homeostasis under ever-changing environmental conditions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to either play a primary role in the development of multiple human diseases and/or significantly contribute to disease progression. Here, we review recent findings on mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and strategies for the development of mitochondria-targeted therapies.Recent FindingsMultiple mechanisms essential for proper mitochondrial functioning including biogenesis and turnover, fission/fusion, trafficking, and bio...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroplasticity and Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review attempts to link cognitive training with neuroplasticity in schizophrenia evaluating the research evidences.Recent FindingsSchizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that often follows a chronic course and affects multiple domains of functioning. Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are one of the commonest causes of the functional impairments. Alterations in neuroplasticity in schizophrenia may be directly linked to the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can be improved with specific cognitive remediation techniques. Over the past few decades, mu...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Examining Neural Reactivity to Gambling Cues in the Age of Online Betting
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to provide new insights as to how and why functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on gambling cue reactivity can contribute to significant progress toward the understanding of gambling disorder. After having offered a detailed description of experimental paradigms and a comprehensive summary of findings related to gambling cue reactivity, the present review suggests methodological avenues for future research.Recent FindingsThe fMRI literature on problem gambling has identified the main neural pathways associated with reactivity to gambling cues. Yet, the cur...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Galantamine-Memantine Combination as an Antioxidant Treatment for Schizophrenia
The objective of this article is to highlight the potential role of the galantamine-memantine combination as a novel antioxidant treatment for schizophrenia.Recent FindingsIn addition to the well-known mechanisms of action of galantamine and memantine, these medications also have antioxidant activity. Furthermore, an interplay exists between oxidative stress, inflammation (redox-inflammatory hypothesis), and kynurenine pathway metabolites. Also, there is an interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress in schizophrenia. Oxidative stress may be associated with positive, cognitive, and negative s...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Frontal Alpha Asymmetry in Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNegative symptoms are highly predictive of whether individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) develop a psychotic disorder. However, little is known about pathophysiological mechanisms underlying negative symptoms during this period. The current study examined neurophysiological mechanisms underlying negative symptoms in CHR individuals using electroencephalography frontal alpha asymmetry power, a biomarker of approach and avoidance motivation.Recent FindingsPeople with schizophrenia display abnormal patterns of frontal alpha asymmetry indicative of reduced approach motivation. However, it is unknown ...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Remote Monitoring for Understanding Mechanisms and Prediction in Psychiatry
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTechnological advances offer the potential to better characterise the symptoms and mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This review provides an overview of how remote monitoring might inform understanding of mood and anxiety disorders, and may be used by clinicians to predict clinical outcomes and treatment response. The review also discusses salient ethical issues and the field ’s future directions.Recent FindingsA range of psychological and physiological remotely-collected data have been associated with clinical symptoms and outcomes, including momentary self-report, actigraphy, geolocation...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Frustrative Non-reward and Lab-Based Paradigms for Advancing the Study of Aggression in Persons with Psychosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPrior research and assessment of aggression in schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions has focused on one or two levels of measurement (third-party observation and self-report) identified by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), while frequently neglecting a third (laboratory behavioral paradigms). We review aggression in psychosis using the RDoC conceptualization of frustrative non-reward; describe how lab-based behavioral paradigms, particularly, the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), can help to better understand aggression in individuals with psychosis; and suggest direction...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Remediation of Visual Processing Impairments in Schizophrenia: Where We Are and Where We Need to Be
AbstractPurpose of ReviewVisual perceptual deficits are well-established in schizophrenia and are related to poorer outcomes and functioning. Improvement in perceptual functioning with training has been reliably demonstrated in healthy populations, yet relatively few studies have examined approaches to targeting visual processing dysfunction in schizophrenia. This review summarizes recent literature investigating visual remediation in schizophrenia, identifies current limitations, and suggests directions for further research.Recent FindingsExisting studies provide support for the remediation of visual processing impairment...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Good Clinical Science Needs Rigorous Methodology, Enhanced Reproducibility, and Also Proper Citations
(Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports)
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Current Understanding of the Neurobiology of Opioid Use Disorder: an Overview
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying opioid use disorder (OUD) drawing from genetic, functional, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research.Recent FindingsPreliminary evidence suggests an association between OUD and specific variants of the DRD2, δ-opioid receptor 1 (OPRD1), and μ-opioid receptor 1 (OPRM1) genes. Additionally, MRI research indicates functional and structural alterations in striatal and corticolimbic brain regions and pathways underlying reward, emotion/stress, and cognitive control processes among individuals with OUD....
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - January 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Concept of Food Addiction: a Review of the Current Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWith the literature on food addiction expanding rapidly, we aim to provide an overview of what is known about this topic, including its assessment, prevalence, and associated behavioral, clinical, and neurobiological characteristics.Recent FindingsThe literature presents compelling evidence for the validity of the concept of food addiction, revealing numerous substantive parallels between compulsive overeating and substance use disorders. Research published since the introduction of a formal measure of food addiction has examined neurobiological characteristics associated with food addiction, provi...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cannabis Use: Neurobiological, Behavioral, and Sex/Gender Considerations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the current literature on the effects of cannabinoids in humans and to discuss the existing literature on the sex- and gender-related differences in the effects of cannabinoids.Recent FindingsCannabis and its constituent cannabinoids are associated with risk of addiction, cognitive deficits, and mood/psychotic disorders. Preclinical and emerging clinical data suggest greater sensitivity to the effects of cannabinoids in women.SummaryCannabis is one of the most commonly used drugs with increasing rates of use. Women in particular may be at a greater risk of adverse outcomes given the pr...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Do Obese Bacteria Make us “Want them”? Intestinal Microbiota, Mesocorticolimbic Circuit and Non-Homeostatic Feeding
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHighly palatable foods (HPF) have rewarding effects, and their consumption induces gut dysbiosis. Because intestinal microbes communicate bidirectionally with the brain, we reviewed the literature in order to link the effects of HPF on the brain reward system and on gut microbiota. Additionally, we propose these alterations contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity.Recent FindingsNon-homeostatic consumption of HPF programs the brain to seek these foods from early-life. Fatty food induces gut dysbiosis, which might alter communications to the brain. Additionally, prebiotic fibre and short-chain f...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurobiological Considerations for Tobacco Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNeurobiological studies of tobacco/nicotine use examining genetic, molecular, functional, and behavioral correlates have improved our understanding of tobacco/nicotine dependence and have informed treatment. Recent work extending previously established findings and reporting novel methodologies and discoveries in preclinical and human studies are reviewed.Recent FindingsRecent work in preclinical models has focused on the differential roles of nicotinic receptor subtypes and nicotine ’s effects on neural systems beyond cortico-striatal dopaminergic pathways, and utilizing advanced methodologi...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Review of Neurobiological Influences on Externalizing and Internalizing Pathways to Alcohol Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTwo developmental courses through which alcohol use disorder (AUD) may emerge include externalizing and internalizing pathways. We review recent neuroimaging studies of potential neural risk factors for AUD and link findings to potential behavioral risk factors for AUD.Recent FindingsThere is evidence that early emerging weakness in prefrontal functioning and later-emerging differences in reward system functioning contribute to an externalizing risk pathway. Stress may be an important contributor in the internalizing pathway through a blunting of reward-related activation, which may act alone or in...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Behavioral Neuroscience of Buying-Shopping Disorder: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper provides a narrative review of recent neurocognitive, pharmacological, and genetic findings in buying-shopping disorder (BSD).Recent FindingsPreliminary evidence from experimental neuropsychological studies indicates BSD is associated with reward-seeking, cue-induced craving towards buying/shopping stimuli and disadvantageous decision making under ambiguous risk conditions that may be attributable to disrupted emotional feedback. BSD is not linked to deficits in general executive functioning. Psychopharmacological studies with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or opioid antagonists...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Current Understanding of the Behavioral Neuroscience of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder and Problematic Pornography Use
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the recently released eleventh edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) was for the first time included and classified as an impulse control disorder. The present report aims at summarizing the empirical results concerning the neurobiological underpinnings of CSBD, including problematic pornography use. Insight into mechanistic factors underlying CSBD may promote the development of more effective therapeutic interventions for people affected.Recent FindingsRecent neurobiological studies have revealed that compulsive sexual behav...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

New Insights on Neurocognition in Cocaine Use Disorder
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to provide an update of neurocognition in cocaine use disorder (CUD), focusing on new developments and areas of growth. It starts with a discussion of novel findings on the neurobiological underpinnings of CUD, including cognitive-genetic research and advanced functional neuroimaging tools and models. This is followed by an overview of progress in the area of CUD-related cognitive deficits, with a special focus on social cognition and meta-cognition. Finally, the review covers recent developments on the relationship between neurocognitive deficits and treatment outcomes and new tri...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Highlighting Internet-Communication Disorder as Further Internet-Use Disorder When Considering Neuroimaging Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBesides gaming disorder, which has recently been included in the ICD-11, several other types of Internet-use behaviors were shown to have addictive potential causing impairments in daily life. Research on Internet-communication disorder (ICD) focuses on the pathological use of Internet-communication applications. However, its clinical relevance as well as similarities to other addictive behaviors have to be clarified.Recent FindingsRecent neuropsychological studies try to identify relevant neural mechanisms underlying ICD. Summarizing the results of brain imaging studies indicate the relevance of b...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive Dysfunction in Major Depressive Disorder: Cause and Effect
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is a pervasive and debilitating mental illness, associated with significant emotional, social, and functional deficits. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of MDD and may negatively interact with other clinical features of the illness (e.g., psychosocial dysfunction, illness onset). We review recent advances in our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in MDD and highlight the putative causes and effects of cognitive deficits in depressed patients.Recent FindingsRecent findings in this domain point to a multifaceted pathology of co...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive Functioning in Late-life Depression: A Critical Review of Sociodemographic, Neurobiological, and Treatment Correlates
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBoth clinical and subthreshold depression in older adults are associated with cognitive dysfunction. This review summarizes the latest literature on patterns of cognitive functioning in late-life depression (LLD), including moderators of the relationship between depression and cognitive functioning and underlying neurobiological mechanisms.Recent FindingsLLD is associated with cognitive dysfunction across multiple domains, particularly processing speed and executive functions. This relationship is moderated by demographic and clinical variables such as sex, race, age of onset, and severity of diffe...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Non-Pharmacological Cognitive Remediation Strategies for Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Impairment
AbstractObjectiveMajor depression in the elderly often presents with cognitive impairment. Mild cognitive deficits in memory, processing speed, and cognitive control functioning are particularly common in late-life depression. For the almost 40% of elderly depressed patients with cognitive impairment, there is currently no efficacious intervention that adequately treats both mood and the cognitive deficits leaving many patients depressed and disabled [AJGP 9(3):269 –74, 2001].Recent FindingsRecent advances in non-pharmacologic treatments for depression and cognitive impairment show promise for treating both cognitive...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Neural Correlates of Visual Perspective Taking: a Critical Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewVisual perspective taking (VPT) enables us to understand, anticipate, and interact with other social beings by accurately computing how and what they see in their environment. The present review provides an up-to-date review of the neural mechanisms underpinning VPT that integrates all neuroscientific methods and, importantly, organizes studies based on the distinct cognitive dimensions of VPT they measure.Recent FindingsRecent studies are characterized by a greater use of transcranial stimulation and a more diverse use of contrasts in analyses. Recent findings suggest namely that the temporopariet...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Non-Pharmacological Cognitive Remediation Strategies for Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Impairment
AbstractObjectiveMajor depression in the elderly often presents with cognitive impairment. Mild cognitive deficits in memory, processing speed, and cognitive control functioning are particularly common in late-life depression. For the almost 40% of elderly depressed patients with cognitive impairment, there is currently no efficacious intervention that adequately treats both mood and the cognitive deficits leaving many patients depressed and disabled [AJGP 9(3):269 –74, 2001].Recent FindingsRecent advances in non-pharmacologic treatments for depression and cognitive impairment show promise for treating both cognitive...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - August 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Neural Correlates of Visual Perspective Taking: a Critical Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewVisual perspective taking (VPT) enables us to understand, anticipate, and interact with other social beings by accurately computing how and what they see in their environment. The present review provides an up-to-date review of the neural mechanisms underpinning VPT that integrates all neuroscientific methods and, importantly, organizes studies based on the distinct cognitive dimensions of VPT they measure.Recent FindingsRecent studies are characterized by a greater use of transcranial stimulation and a more diverse use of contrasts in analyses. Recent findings suggest namely that the temporopariet...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - July 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulation of Brain Function and Behavior by Focused Ultrasound
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe past decade has seen rapid growth in the application of focused ultrasound (FUS) as a tool for basic neuroscience research and potential treatment of brain disorders. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how FUS can alter brain activity, perception, and behavior when applied to the central nervous system, either alone or in combination with circulating agents.Recent FindingsFocused ultrasound in the central nervous system can directly excite or inhibit neuronal activity, as well as affect perception and behavior. Combining FUS with intravenous microbubbles to open the blo...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Using Animal Models to Improve the Design and Application of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation in Humans
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTranscranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a non-invasive stimulation technique used for modulating brain function in humans. To help tES reach its full therapeutic potential, it is necessary to address a number of critical gaps in our knowledge. Here, we review studies that have taken advantage of animal models to provide invaluable insight about the basic science behind tES.Recent FindingsAnimal studies are playing a key role in elucidating the mechanisms implicated in tES, defining safety limits, validating computational models, inspiring new stimulation protocols, enhancing brain function, an...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The MHC/HLA Gene Complex in Major Psychiatric Disorders: Emerging Roles and Implications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMajor psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are etiologically heterogeneous. Gene-environment interactions seemingly constitute the predominant risk mechanism for these conditions. Multiple common and rare genetic variants, sometimes shared, are shown to confer risk to these disorders. Amongst them, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in humans, has emerged as one of the best replicated genetic risk locus of various neuropsychiatric diseases. Herein, we review recent advances regarding MHC ’s involvement in the immunopath...
Source: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research