Issue Overview
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: ISSUE OVERVIEW Source Type: research

Key Points for Issue
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: KEY POINTS FOR ISSUE Source Type: research

List of Abbreviations
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Source Type: research

Learning Objectives
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND CORE COMPETENCIES Source Type: research

Erratum
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Postreading Self-Assessment and CME Test—Preferred Responses
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND CME Source Type: research

Postreading Self-Assessment and CME Test
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND CME Source Type: research

Instructions for Completing CME and Tally Sheet
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND CME Source Type: research

Tinnitus, Hyperacusis, Otalgia, and Hearing Loss
This article reviews the causes of tinnitus, hyperacusis, and otalgia, as well as hearing loss relevant for clinicians in the field of neurology. RECENT FINDINGS Important causes of unilateral and bilateral tinnitus are discussed, including those that are treatable or caused by serious structural or vascular causes. Concepts of hyperacusis and misophonia are covered, along with various types of neurologic disorders that can lead to pain in the ear. Hearing loss is common but not always purely otologic. SUMMARY Tinnitus and hearing loss are common symptoms that are sometimes related to a primary neurologic dis...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Selected Otologic Disorders Causing Dizziness
This article details updated clinical presentations and current treatment paradigms of the common otologic disorders that may present to the neurologist for vertigo, including Ménière disease, superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome, perilymphatic fistula, barotrauma, cholesteatoma, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, and autoimmune inner ear disease including Cogan syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS The recent data on modern imaging techniques with three-dimensional delayed IV contrast in Ménière disease, findings on the clinical and testing parameters to diagnose...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Vertigo Related to Central Nervous System Disorders
This article provides an overview of the numerous causes of vertigo and dizziness that are due to central nervous system (CNS) pathology and guides clinicians in formulating a differential diagnosis and treating patients with CNS causes of vertigo. RECENT FINDINGS Specific autoimmune vestibulocerebellar syndromes may now be tested for, and this article discusses the antibodies known to cause such syndromes. Superficial siderosis can be more accurately diagnosed with imaging studies, and treatment using iron chelation has recently been studied but has not yet been established as an effective treatment. Central autono...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Chronic Dizziness
This article covers distinct causes of chronic dizziness including persistent postural perceptual dizziness, mal de débarquement syndrome, motion sickness and visually induced motion sickness, bilateral vestibulopathy, and persistent dizziness after mild concussion. RECENT FINDINGS To date, none of the disorders above has a cure but are considered chronic syndromes with fluctuations that are both innate and driven by environmental stressors. As such, the mainstay of therapy for chronic disorders of dizziness involves managing factors that exacerbate symptoms and adding vestibular rehabilitation or cognitive-b...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Acute Vestibular Syndrome
This article provides a practical approach to acute vestibular syndrome while highlighting recent research advances. RECENT FINDINGS Acute vestibular syndrome is defined as sudden-onset, continuous vertigo lasting longer than 24 hours with associated nausea and vomiting, all of which are worsened with head movement. Acute vestibular syndrome is provoked by a variety of central and peripheral causes, the most common of which are vestibular neuritis and acute stroke (posterior circulation). A clinical approach focusing on timing, associated history, and ocular motor findings can improve diagnostic accuracy and is more...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Episodic Spontaneous Dizziness
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Conditions causing recurrent spontaneous episodes of dizziness or vertigo span several medical specialties, making it challenging for clinicians to gain confidence in evaluating and managing the spectrum of episodic vestibular disorders. Patients are often asymptomatic and have normal examinations at the time of evaluation. Thus, diagnosis depends heavily on eliciting key features from the history. Overreliance on symptom quality descriptions commonly leads to misdiagnosis. The goal of this article is to provide the reader with a straightforward approach to the diagnosis and management of conditions t...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Episodic Positional Dizziness
This article provides a summary of the evaluation and treatment of patients presenting with episodic positional dizziness. RECENT FINDINGS Positional components are nearly ubiquitous among diagnoses of dizziness, so it can be challenging to classify patients with episodic positional dizziness simply based on the history of present illness. Overreliance on the presence of a report of positional components has likely resulted in misapplication or misinterpretation of positional testing and negative experiences with maneuvers to treat positional dizziness. The prototypical episodic positional dizziness disorder is beni...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Vestibular Testing
This article introduces readers to core concepts, as well as recent advances, in bedside and instrumented vestibular assessments. RECENT FINDINGS Vestibular testing has improved immensely in the past 2 decades. While history and bedside testing is still the primary method of differential diagnosis in patients with dizziness, advances in technology such as the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test for superior canal dehiscence and the video head impulse test for vestibular neuritis have capabilities that go far beyond the bedside examination. Current vestibular testing now allows clinicians to test all fiv...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Approach to the History and Evaluation of Vertigo and Dizziness
This article reviews a method of obtaining the medical history of patients presenting with dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance. By combining elements of the history with examination, the goal is to identify patterns and an effective differential diagnosis for this group of patients to help lead to an accurate diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS Studies over the past dozen years have changed the historical approach to patients with dizziness from one based primarily on how the patient describes the sensation of dizziness. This older approach can lead to misdiagnosis, so a preferred method puts greater emphasis on whether the di...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Discovering Your Patient’s Inner Ear
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: EDITOR’S PREFACE Source Type: research

Contributors
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: CONTRIBUTORS Source Type: research

Table of Contents
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Table of Contents Source Type: research

Issue Overview
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: ISSUE OVERVIEW Source Type: research

Key Points for Issue
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: KEY POINTS FOR ISSUE Source Type: research

List of Abbreviations
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Source Type: research

Learning Objectives
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND CORE COMPETENCIES Source Type: research

Erratum
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Postreading Self-Assessment and CME Test—Preferred Responses
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND CME Source Type: research

Postreading Self-Assessment and CME Test
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND CME Source Type: research

Instructions for Completing CME and Tally Sheet
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND CME Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of Spinal Cord and Cauda Equina Disorders
This article reviews the neuroimaging of disorders of the spinal cord and cauda equina, with a focus on MRI. An anatomic approach is used; diseases of the extradural, intradural-extramedullary, and intramedullary (parenchymal) compartments are considered, and both neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions are covered. Differentiating imaging features are highlighted. RECENT FINDINGS Although T2-hyperintense signal abnormality of the spinal cord can have myriad etiologies, neuroimaging can provide specific diagnoses or considerably narrow the differential diagnosis in many cases. Intradural-extramedullary lesions comp...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Disorders of the Cauda Equina
This article describes cauda equina anatomy and the clinical features, differential diagnosis, and management of cauda equina disorders. RECENT FINDINGS The diagnosis of disorders of the cauda equina continues to be a challenge. If a compressive etiology is seen, urgent neurosurgical intervention is recommended. However, many people with clinical features of cauda equina dysfunction will have negative diagnostic studies. If the MRI is negative, it is important to understand the diagnostic evaluation and differential diagnosis so that less common etiologies are not missed. SUMMARY Cauda equina dysfunction most...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Hereditary Myelopathies
This article guides clinicians in the clinical recognition and differential diagnosis of hereditary myelopathies. RECENT FINDINGS Rather than a disease, a disease process, or relating to specific cellular vulnerability, the term hereditary myelopathy refers to diverse inherited disorders in which major aspects of the clinical syndrome reflect disturbance of elements within the spinal cord (specifically, the dorsal columns and dorsal root ganglia, corticospinal tracts, and anterior horn cells). It is important to note that the clinical features of almost all hereditary myelopathies reflect not only disturbance of ele...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Spondylotic and Other Structural Myelopathies
This article highlights both common structural causes of myelopathy, such as spondylotic disease, and infrequent but treatable causes, such as syringomyelia, spinal cord herniation, arachnoid cyst, arachnoid band and web, epidural lipomatosis, Hirayama disease, and arachnoiditis. RECENT FINDINGS Neuroimaging improvements and availability have uncovered many structural abnormalities in the spines and spinal cords of patients who were asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. Recent published clinical series have improved our knowledge of the natural history of structural abnormalities and the risks of intervention versu...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Metabolic and Toxic Myelopathies
This article describes the clinical presentation, relevant diagnostic investigations, and treatment of metabolic and toxic myelopathies. RECENT FINDINGS Metabolic myelopathies, including those due to deficiency of vitamin B12, folate, copper, or vitamin E, are preventable and typically respond to supplementation. In metabolic myelopathy, early recognition and treatment are important to reduce morbidity, particularly due to subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Toxic myelopathies, including those due to medical interventions (eg, methotrexate, radiation), dietary toxins (eg, lathyrism, konzo), and drugs ...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Neoplastic Myelopathies
This article reviews the current classification system of primary spinal cord tumors and explores evolving diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for both primary tumors and metastatic tumors to various compartments of the spinal cord. RECENT FINDINGS The 2016 World Health Organization classification system allows for more precise prognostication of and therapy for spinal cord tumors and has identified new entities, such as the diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M mutant. Whole-exome sequencing reveals that the genetic background of primary glial spinal cord neoplasms differs from that of their intracranial histologic cou...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Infectious Myelopathies
This article reviews infectious etiologies of spinal cord dysfunction, emphasizing the importance of recognizing common clinicoradiographic syndromes and interpreting them in the context of exposure risk and individual host susceptibilities. RECENT FINDINGS This article discusses the shifting spectrum of neurologic infectious diseases, the growing population of patients who are immunocompromised, and the emergence of effective antiretroviral therapies. In addition, it discusses new molecular and serologic tests that have the potential to enhance our ability to rapidly and accurately diagnose infectious diseases of t...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Myelitis and Other Autoimmune Myelopathies
This article provides an update on the clinical diagnosis and management of immune-mediated myelopathies, including the relevance of imaging, ancillary testing with an emphasis on autoantibody biomarkers, recognition of myelitis mimics, and therapeutic approach. RECENT FINDINGS The imaging characterization of immune-mediated myelopathies and the discovery of neural autoantibodies have been crucial in improving our ability to accurately diagnose myelitis. The identification of autoantibodies directed against specific central nervous system targets has led to major improvements in our understanding of the mechanisms u...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Vascular Myelopathies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Neurologists should be able to identify clinical and neuroimaging features that distinguish vascular disorders from other causes of myelopathy. RECENT FINDINGS Although certain clinical features suggest a vascular etiology in acute and chronic myelopathy settings, accurate MRI interpretation within the clinical context is key. Recent studies have shown vascular myelopathies are frequently misdiagnosed as transverse myelitis, and recognition of this diagnostic pitfall is important. Many different vascular mechanisms can cause myelopathy; this article provides a comprehensive review that simplifi...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Spinal Cord Anatomy and Localization
This article focuses on clinically relevant teaching points in spinal anatomy and localizing the lesion in myelopathy. RECENT FINDINGS The principles underlying spinal cord lesion localization are well established, but improvements in MRI and the discovery of pathologic antibodies associated with causes of transverse myelitis distinct from multiple sclerosis, such as aquaporin-4 IgG and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG, have assisted in diagnosis. SUMMARY The spinal cord has a highly organized neuroanatomy of ascending and descending tracts that convey sensory, motor, and autonomic information. Using i...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Traversing the Not-Always-Transverse Myelopathies
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: EDITOR’S PREFACE Source Type: research

Contributors
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: CONTRIBUTORS Source Type: research

Table of Contents
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - February 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Table of Contents Source Type: research

Issue Overview
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: ISSUE OVERVIEW Source Type: research

Key Points for Issue
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: KEY POINTS FOR ISSUE Source Type: research

List of Abbreviations
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Source Type: research

Learning Objectives
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND CORE COMPETENCIES Source Type: research

Postreading Self-Assessment and CME Test—Preferred Responses
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND CME Source Type: research

Postreading Self-Assessment and CME Test
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND CME Source Type: research

Instructions for Completing CME and Tally Sheet
No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND CME Source Type: research

Evaluation and Management Codes for Outpatient Neurology Services in 2021: Changes to 99202-99215
This article discusses the rationale for these coding changes and explains how they are to be applied in the clinical setting. (Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology)
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: PRACTICE ISSUES Source Type: research

Palliative and Supportive Care in Neuro-oncology
This article reviews the supportive care needs of patients with primary brain tumors and their caregivers, outlines the management of selected common symptoms of patients with brain tumors, and describes challenges and opportunities in providing palliative care for this population. RECENT FINDINGS Patients with primary malignant brain tumors generally have a poor prognosis and experience progressive neurologic decline and significant physical and psychological symptoms. Management of these symptoms, including fatigue, mood disorders, and the manifestations of cerebral edema, can be challenging. Caregivers for these ...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research