Epigenetic Regulation of Endothelial Cell Function by Nucleic Acid Methylation in Cardiac Homeostasis and Disease
AbstractPathological remodelling of the myocardium, including inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy, in response to acute or chronic injury is central in the development and progression of heart failure (HF). While both resident and infiltrating cardiac cells are implicated in these pathophysiological processes, recent evidence has suggested that endothelial cells (ECs) may be the principal cell type responsible for orchestrating pathological changes in the failing heart. Epigenetic modification of nucleic acids, including DNA, and more recently RNA, by methylation is essential for physiological development due to their c...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - August 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Anakinra for the Treatment of COVID-19-Associated Pericarditis: A Case Report
(Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

PCSK9Q β-003 Vaccine Attenuates Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice
ConclusionsThe results demonstrated that the PCSK9Q β-003 vaccine attenuated the progression of atherosclerosis by modulating reverse cholesterol transport and inhibiting inflammation infiltration and apoptosis, which may provide a novel therapeutic approach for atherosclerosis and greatly improve treatment compliance among patients. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 28, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics of the BioProsthetic Valves with Atrial Fibrillation (BPV-AF) Study
ConclusionPatients enrolled into this study are typical of the wider Japanese AF/BPV population in terms of age and clinical history. Future data accruing from the observational period will contribute to future treatment recommendations and guide therapeutic decisions in patients with BPV and AF.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: UMIN000034485 (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 24, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Potential of Albuminuria as a Biomarker of Diabetic Complications
AbstractDiabetes mellitus is a disease of dysregulated blood glucose homeostasis. The current pandemic of diabetes is a significant driver of patient morbidity and mortality, as well as a major challenge to healthcare systems worldwide. The global increase in the incidence of diabetes has prompted researchers to focus on the different pathogenic processes responsible for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Similarly, increased morbidity due to diabetic complications has accelerated research to uncover pathological changes causing these secondary complications. Albuminuria, or protein in the urine, is a well-recognised biomarker an...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Complications of COVID-19: Pharmacotherapy Perspective
This article seeks to review the latest evidence with a view to explaining possible pharmacotherapies for the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 including acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, myocarditis, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism, as well as possible interactions between these medications and those currently administered (or under evaluation) in the treatment of COVID-19. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Presenting When Urgent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Is Unavailable: Should We Adhere to Current Guidelines?
AbstractThe pivotal studies that led to the recommendations for emergent reperfusion therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were conducted for the most part over 25  years ago. At that time, contemporary standard treatments including aspirin, statin, and even anticoagulation were not commonly used. The 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines and the 2017 European Society of Cardiology guidelines give a class I recommendation (with the level of evidence A) for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in patients with STEMI and ischemic s...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Suppression of Vascular Macrophage Activation by Nitro-Oleic Acid and its Implication for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Therapy
ConclusionAdministration of NO2-OA protects against AAA formation and multifactorial macrophage activation. With NO2-OA currently undergoing FDA approved phase II clinical trials, these findings may expedite the use of this nitro-fatty acid for AAA therapy. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Purine Metabolism in Platelets and Heart Cells of Hyperlipidemic Rats
ConclusionTogether, these findings are indicative of an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in hyperlipidemic rats. The pretreatments with antioxidants reverted some of the changes prompted by hyperlipidemia preventing detrimental changes in the cells and tissues.Graphical Abstract (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Apixaban Downregulates Endothelial Inflammatory and Prothrombotic Phenotype in an In Vitro Model of Endothelial Dysfunction in Uremia
AbstractPurposeChronic kidney disease (CKD) associates with inflammatory and prothrombotic phenotypes, resulting in higher cardiovascular risk. Factor Xa displays functions beyond coagulation, exhibiting proinflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a direct FXa inhibitor protects from the endothelial dysfunction (ED) caused by uremia.MethodsMacro (HUVEC) and microvascular (HMEC) endothelial cells (ECs) were exposed to serum from uremic patients or healthy donors, in absence and presence of apixaban (60 ng/ml). We evaluated changes in surface VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, intracellular eNOS, reactiv...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Comparison of the Effect of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Left Ventricular Systolic Function in Patients with Non-ischaemic and Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractPurposeSacubitril/valsartan has been demonstrated to improve prognosis and outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients. We sought to compare the improvement in cardiac function between non-ischaemic and ischaemic cardiomyopathy for patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan.MethodsWe conducted a single centre prospective cohort survey of patients reviewed in the Heart Function Clinic between February 2017 and January 2018. Functional evaluation and measurement of biochemical and echocardiographic parameters occurred before the initiation of sacubitril/valsartan, and after 3  months o...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Ester Prodrugs of Malonate with Enhanced Intracellular Delivery Protect Against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury In Vivo
ConclusionsThe rapidly hydrolysed malonate prodrug MAM can protect against cardiac I/R injury in a clinically relevant mouse model. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Next-Generation Sequencing of CYP2C19 in Stent Thrombosis: Implications for Clopidogrel Pharmacogenomics
ConclusionNGS detected CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and paradoxically greater number of so-called rapid metabolizers in ST cases. Rare deleterious exonic variation occurs in 4%, and potentially disruptive intronic alleles occur in 16% of ST cases. Additional studies are required to evaluate the role of these variants in platelet aggregation and clopidogrel metabolism. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Decreases Allograft Vasculopathy Via Regulating the Functions of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Normoglycemic Rats
ConclusionsWe suggest that the mechanisms underlying sitagliptin-mediated inhibition of OAT vasculopathy probably occur through a direct increase in GLP-1 activity. In addition to the GLP-1-dependent pathway, sitagliptin may regulate SDF-1 α levels and EPC function to reduce OAT-induced vascular injury. This study may provide new prevention and treatment strategies for DPP-4 inhibitors in chronic rejection-induced vasculopathy. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Prolonged-release pirfenidone prevents obesity-induced cardiac steatosis and fibrosis in a mouse NASH model
ConclusionsThe results suggest that PR-PFD could be a promising drug for the prevention and treatment of cardiac steatosis and fibrosis induced by obesity. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

LEADER Trial Eligibility and Preventable Cardiovascular Events in US Adults with Diabetes: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007 –2016
ConclusionLiraglutide may prevent many fatal and non-fatal CVD events if provided to US adults meeting LEADER eligibility criteria. More efforts are needed to educate the healthcare providers on the CVD benefits from newer diabetes therapies, including liraglutide. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Factor Xa Inhibition with Apixaban Does Not Influence Cardiac Remodelling in Rats with Heart Failure After Myocardial Infarction
MI surgery increased the myocardial expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and increased the relative expression of foetal ( β-MHC) compared to with that of adult (α-MHC) myosin heavy-chain isoform (i.e. β-MHC/α-MHC ratio). (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - July 1, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Can Clinical and Functional Outcomes Be Improved with an Intelligent “Internet Plus”-Based Full Disease Cycle Remote Ischemic Conditioning Program in Acute ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention? Rationale and Design of the i-RIC Trial
DiscussionThe i-RIC trial is designed to test the hypothesis that clinical and functional outcomes can be improved with the i-RIC program in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. The concept of RIC is expected to be enhanced with this intelligent “Internet Plus”-based program focusing on the full disease cycle. If the i-RIC program results in superior improvement in primary and secondary outcomes, it will offer an innovative treatment option for STEMI patients and form the basis of future recommendations.Clinical Trial RegistrationChinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn): ChiCTR2000031550, 04 April 2...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Benefit-Risk Profile of DAPT Continuation Beyond 1  Year after PCI in Patients with High Thrombotic Risk Features as Endorsed by 2018 ESC/EACTS Myocardial Revascularization Guideline
AbstractPurposeThe ischemic/bleeding trade-off of continuing dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) beyond 1  year after PCI for patients with high thrombotic risk (HTR) as endorsed by 2018 ESC/EACTS myocardial revascularization guidelines remain unknown.MethodsPatients undergoing coronary stenting between January 2013 and December 2013 from the prospective Fuwai registry were defined as HTR if they met at least 1 ESC/EACTS guideline-endorsed HTR criteria. A total of 4578 patients who were at HTR and were events free at 1  year after the index procedure were evaluated. The primary efficacy outcome was major adverse car...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Patient Characteristics and Treatment Patterns among Medicare Beneficiaries Initiating PCSK9 Inhibitor Therapy
This study examined baseline characteristics of fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare beneficiaries newly initiating PCSK9i therapy during the period immediately following market availability.MethodsThis cross-sectional study used Medicare claims (2013 –2016) to identify 5051 FFS Medicare beneficiaries who filled ≥ 1 PCSK9i prescription between August 2015 and December 2016. We analyzed patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and baseline healthcare expenditures in the 12-month period prior to PCSK9i initiation, for these beneficiari es.ResultsMost beneficiaries initiating PCSK9i were female (57%),
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Impact of PRECISE-DAPT and DAPT Scores on Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Duration After 2nd Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation
ConclusionCompared with short-duration DAPT, standard-duration DAPT was associated with similar net clinical outcomes and ischemic events, but more bleeding events at 12  months after second-generation DES implantation. However, standard-duration DAPT reduced ischemic events without increasing bleeding events among patients at low bleeding and high ischemic risk. When determining DAPT duration, considering both ischemic and bleeding risk can help optimize patient b enefits.Clinical Trial RegistrationEXCELLENT (NCT00698607), RESET (NCT01145079), IVUS-XPL (NCT01308281), OPTIMA-C (NCT03056118) (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

CHA2DS2-VASc and ATRIA Scores and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
ConclusionsThe CHA2DS2-VASc and ATRIA scores are associated with risks of adverse outcomes in HFpEF patients. However, the predictive abilities of CHA2DS2-VASc and ATRIA are modest, and their clinical utility in HFpEF remains to be determined.Clinical trial registrationhttps://clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00094302 (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 24, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Patients with Late or Very Late Stent Thrombosis
ConclusionFollowing successful primary PCI, patients with LST/VLST who received ticagrelor had fewer ischemic cardiovascular events at 1-yr follow-up, compared with those who received clopidogrel. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 22, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Smooth Muscle Sirtuin 1 Blocks Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm/Dissection Development in Mice
ConclusionOur findings suggest that SIRT1 expression in SMCs protects against TAAD and could be a novel therapeutic target for TAAD management. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 20, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Diallyl Trisulfide Suppresses Angiotensin II –Induced Vascular Remodeling Via Inhibition of Mitochondrial Fission
ConclusionsOur findings showed that DATS mitigated Ang II-induced vascular remodeling by suppressing Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission in an ROCK1-dependent manner. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 20, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Established and Emerging Pharmacological Therapies for Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Heart Failure: a Review of the Evidence
AbstractAfter an episode of myocardial infarction (MI), patients remain at risk for recurrent ischemic events, heart failure (HF), and sudden death. Post-MI patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) have an even greater risk of mortality and morbidity. Randomized clinical trials that included post-MI patients with LVSD have demonstrated that pharmacologic therapies aimed at preventing post-MI remodeling with neurohormonal antagonists can significantly improve short- and long-term outcomes, including death, reinfarction, and worsening HF. Recent trials have also demonstrated benefits in terms of cardiovascu...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 20, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pralidoxime-Induced Potentiation of the Pressor Effect of Adrenaline and Hastened Successful Resuscitation by Pralidoxime in a Porcine Cardiac Arrest Model
ConclusionPralidoxime improved CPP and hastened ROSC in a model with a short duration of untreated VF. The potentiation of the pressor effect of adrenaline was not accompanied by the worsening of the adverse effects of adrenaline. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Concepts and Controversies: Lipid Management in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
AbstractAtherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains an important contributor of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is recognized as an important risk enhancer that identifies patients as candidates for more intensive low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering. However, there is controversy regarding the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy, especially in patients on dialysis. Among patients with CKD, not yet on dialysis, there is clinical trial evidence for the use of statins with or without ezetimibe to reduce ASCVD events. Newer cholesterol lowering agents have bee...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Double-Edged Sword —Cardiovascular Concerns of Potential Anti-COVID-19 Drugs
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 significantly affects multiple systems including the cardiovascular system. Most importantly, in addition to the direct injury from the virus per se, the subsequent cytokine storm, an overproduction of immune cells and their activating compounds, causes devastating damage. To date, emerging anti-SARS-CoV-2 treatments are warranted to control epidemics. Several candidate drugs have been screened and are currently under investigation. These primarily include antiviral regimens a...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Idebenone Protects against Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice Via Activation of the SIRT3-SOD2-mtROS Pathway
ConclusionsWe demonstrated that idebenone acted as a mitochondrial protective agent by inhibiting the activation of NLPR3 via the SIRT3-SOD2-mtROS pathway. Idebenone may be a promising therapy for patients with atherosclerosis by improving mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting oxidative stress. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Phase 3 Multicenter Study of Revusiran in Patients with Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated (hATTR) Amyloidosis with Cardiomyopathy (ENDEAVOUR)
The original article contained incorrect terminology for one of the cardiac measures; throughout the manuscript and supplementary information ‘intraventricular septum wall thickness’ should have been given as ‘interventricular septum wall thickness’. Corrections should also be noted for Tables 1 and 4: in the Table 1 legend‘Low risk – Neither above at baseline’ should read‘Low risk – Neither above threshold at baseline’; in Table 4, the rows‘Mild: eGFR> 60 to 30 to
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Impairment in Kidney Function in the Oral Anticoagulation Era. A Pathophysiological Insight
AbstractThe need for anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is fundamental to prevent thromboembolic events. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) recently demonstrated to be superior, or at least equal, to Warfarin in reducing the risk for stroke/systemic embolism and preventing major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhages. The AF population often suffers from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, the relationship between AF and renal function is bidirectional: AF can trigger kidney failure, while kidney impairment can promote alterations able to enhance AF. Therefore, there are concerns regarding prescript...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Biotechnology Approaches for the Treatment of Dyslipidemia
ConclusionsBesides, genetic and epidemiological studies and Mendelian randomization analyses have strengthened the linear correlation between the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the incidence of cardiovascular events and highlighted various novel therapeutic targets. This review describes the novel strategies to reduce the levels of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, triglyceride, apolipoprotein B, and Lp(a), focusing on those developed using biotechnology-based strategies. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitors —2019 Update
AbstractAn abundance of new data regarding the use of the novel drug compound sacubitril/valsartan in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients is published every year since the initial publication of the PARADIGM-HF study in 2014. This review summarises the most recent evidence (2019 and onwards) of sacubitril/valsartan in CHF patients as well as provides a critical appraisal of these data. New data are grouped in categories such as real-world data, randomised controlled trials, surrogate end-points, cost-effectiveness, use of sacubitril/valsartan as an anti-hypertensive treatment, effect on diuretic dosing and implementation ...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Research Progress on the Involvement of ANGPTL4 and Loss-of-Function Variants in Lipid Metabolism and Coronary Heart Disease: Is the “Prime Time” of ANGPTL4-Targeted Therapy for Coronary Heart Disease Approaching?
ConclusionThe biological characteristics of ANGPTL4 are much more complex than those demonstrated by genetic studies. Future studies must elucidate how to effectively reduce the risk of CHD while avoiding potential atherogenic effects and other complications before the “prime time” of ANGPTL4-targeted therapy arrives. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound Theranostics in Adult and Pediatric Cardiovascular Research
AbstractTheranostics, the practice of systematically integrating diagnostics with treatment, has evolved as a field of medicine. In the context of ultrasound based theranostics, both traditional microbubbles and inorganic nanoparticles have emerged as technologies of clinical interest. Ultrasound induced microbubble cavitation has demonstrated efficacy in a variety of applications, including thrombolysis, tumor ablation, targeted microvascular flow enhancement, and targeted drug and gene delivery. This commentary summarizes the mechanisms and applications of ultrasound-based theranostics in cardiovascular medicine, includi...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

TAK1-AMPK Pathway in Macrophages Regulates Hypothyroid Atherosclerosis
ConclusionTaken together, these data suggest that the accelerated AS in hypothyroid patients may be due to the suppression of TAK1-AMPK pathway in macrophages. This new finding may become a novel therapeutic target in hypothyroid AS. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Vasopressin in Patients with Septic Shock and Dynamic Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction
ConclusionVasopressin allowed a reduction of norepinephrine with subsequent LVOTO reduction and hemodynamic improvement of the most severe form of LVOTO, which represented 1.9% of all septic shock patients. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Aspirin Discontinuation in Patients Requiring Oral Anticoagulation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, The Role of Procedural Complexity
ConclusionsProcedural complexity in patients with indication for oral anticoagulation undergoing PCI should be factored in when deciding optimal antithrombotic therapies. Aspirin discontinuation in patients with high-risk PCI features should be discouraged. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - June 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Exendin-4 Attenuates Remodeling in the Remote Myocardium of Rats After an Acute Myocardial Infarction by Activating β-Arrestin-2, Protein Phosphatase 2A, and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 and Inhibiting β-Catenin
ConclusionExendin-4 inhibits the remodeling in the remote myocardium of rats following acute MI by attenuating β-catenin activation and activating β-arrestin-2, PP2A, and GSK3β.Graphical AbstractA graphical abstract that illustrates the mechanisms by which Exendin-4 inhibits cardiac remodeling in remote myocardium of left ventricle MI-induced rats. Mechanisms are assumed to occur in the cardiomyocytes and/or other resident cells such as fibroblast. Β-catenin activation and nuclear translocation are associated with increased synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

CD38: A Potential Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractSubstantial research has demonstrated the association between cardiovascular disease and the dysregulation of intracellular calcium, ageing, reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD+ content, and decrease in sirtuin activity. CD38, which comprises the soluble type, type II, and type III, is the main NADase in mammals. This molecule catalyses the production of cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR), nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), and adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR), which stimulate the release of Ca2+, accompanied by NAD+ consumption and decreased sirtuin activity. Therefor...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Tailoring Dual Antiplatelet Therapy for the Complex PCI Patient: Current Status and Perspectives
AbstractDual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has long been considered a matter of controversy. Complex-PCI (C-PCI) is considered to be associated with an increased ischemic risk that tends to be greater with progressively higher procedural complexity. Thus, with a view to balance ischemic versus bleeding risks, high complexity of PCI intuitively represents an advocate of prolonged DAPT duration. However, the optimal DAPT strategy in this high ischemic risk subset of patients remains unclear, a fact that is exacerbated by the absence of a universal definit...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Attenuation of atrial remodeling by aliskiren via affecting oxidative stress, inflammation and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
AbstractIntroductionAtrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia. Atrial remodeling is a major factor to the AF substrate. The purpose of the study is to explore whether aliskiren (ALS) has a cardioprotective effect and its potential molecular mechanisms on atrial remodeling.MethodsIn acute experiments, dogs were randomly assigned to Sham, Paced and Paced+aliskiren (10  mg kg−1) (Paced+ALS) groups, with 7 dogs in each group. Rapid atrial pacing (RAP) was maintained at 600  bpm for 2 h for paced and Paced+ALS groups and atrial effective refractory periods (AERPs), inducibility of ...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Function and Mitophagy in Ischaemic/Reperfused Hearts from Control and High-Fat Diet Rats: Effects of Long-Term Melatonin Treatment
ConclusionsThe results suggest that I/R (i) affects mitochondria from control and HFSD hearts similarly and (ii) melatonin-induced cardioprotection is not associated with reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction or changes in the PINK1/Parkin pathway. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A TOR2A Gene Product: Salusin- β Contributes to Attenuated Vasodilatation of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
ConclusionsThese results indicated that enhanced salusin- β activity is involved in attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation pathogenesis in SHR by activating NAD(P)H oxidase derived ROS generation and inhibiting eNOS activation and NO release. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Factor Xa Inhibition with Apixaban Does Not Influence Cardiac Remodelling in Rats with Heart Failure After Myocardial Infarction
ConclusionFXa inhibition with apixaban does not influence pathological cardiac remodelling after MI. These data do not support the use of FXa inhibitor in HF patients with the aim to amend the severity of HF.Graphical Abstract (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Protection of Sacubitril/Valsartan against Pathological Cardiac Remodeling by Inhibiting the NLRP3 Inflammasome after Relief of Pressure Overload in Mice
ConclusionSac/Val exerted its beneficial effects to prevent maladaptive cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in mice following pressure unloading, which was at least partly due to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

“BAX602” in Preventing Surgical Adhesion after Extracorporeal Ventricular Assist Device Implantation for Refractory Congestive Heart Failure: Study Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial
AbstractBackgroundThe high surgical risk in redo cardiac surgery is largely attributed to adhesions around the epicardium and the great vessels. BAX602 is an adhesion prevention reagent composed of two synthetic polyethylene glycols. Spraying BAX602 over the epicardium and the great vessels reportedly contributes to adhesion prevention after pediatric cardiac surgery. The present study aims to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of BAX602 spray in patients undergoing extracorporeal ventricular assist device implantation surgery to treat refractory congestive heart failure.Methods and DesignThis investigator-initiated, mu...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 22, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Clinical Role of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 3 in Evaluating Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
AbstractPurposeHyperlipidemia is the most important early atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD) indicator. Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) 3, 4, and 8 are lipid dysfunction markers that may be linked to CAD. We investigated whether these circulating ANGPTLs are associated with CAD in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).MethodsA total of 327 individuals participated in this study: 221 patients with OSA and CAD, 50 patients with OSA alone, and 56 controls. The Gensini Score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, and ANGPTL8 were measured in all subjects using Human Magnetic L...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Major Cardiac –Psychiatric Drug–Drug Interactions: a Systematic Review of the Consistency of Drug Databases
ConclusionUnfortunately, there is considerable inconsistency among the databases searched, such that a clinician ’s discretion and clinical experience remain invaluable tools for the management of patients with comorbidities present in psychiatric and cardiac disorders. The possibility of an interaction should be considered. With a multidisciplinary approach, particularly involving a pharmacist, the prescrib er should be alerted to the possibility of an interaction. MDD and AD pharmacologic treatment in cardiac patients could be implemented safely both by cardiologists and psychiatrists.Trial RegistrationPROSPERO Sys...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - May 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research