Local habitat features explain the distribution of the imperiled grass pickerel (Esox americanus vermiculatus)
This study identifies habitat elements important to grass pickerel and offers insights into management implications. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 10, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: J.E. Colm N.E. Mandrak B.L. Tufts Source Type: research

Sugar intake interacts with temperature to influence reproduction and immunity in adult Culex pipiens mosquitoes
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Disease transmission by insect vectors will depend on integrated physiological responses to interacting environmental variables. We explored how interactions between temperature and sucrose concentration affected immunity and fecundity, two variables that contribute to vectorial capacity, in Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 mosquitoes. We provided female C. pipiens with either 2% or 20% sucrose and exposed them to low (22 °C), moderate (25 °C), or high (30 °C) temperatures for 8 days. We then measured the strength of the melanization response in one subpopulation of fe...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 9, 2019 Category: Zoology Authors: L.V. Ferguson N.H. Beckett M.-C. French M.J. Campbell T.G. Smith S.A. Adamo Source Type: research

Predicting seasonal occurrence of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in eastern Canadian waters from turtle and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) sighting data and habitat characteristics
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Part of the western Atlantic population of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761)) forage in Canadian waters, where high-use areas have been identified using satellite telemetry and opportunistic sightings. Here, we use sightings of leatherback turtles and ocean sunfish (Mola mola (Linnaeus, 1758)) obtained during a systematic large-scale aerial survey, along with opportunistic turtle sightings, to examine the seasonal occurrence and distribution of leatherback turtles in eastern Canada. Using environmental correlates, we predict the spatial and seasonal de...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 21, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: A. Mosnier J.-F. Gosselin J. Lawson S. Plourde V. Lesage Source Type: research

Influence of body size and familiarity on mating and reproductive parameters in the zig-zag ladybird beetle, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Body size often indicates an individual ’s quality and so mate selection is typically for larger individuals, including in ladybirds (Coccinellidae). Many organisms including ladybirds are also are known to refuse mating attempts with familiar individuals, but whether at the expense of mating with larger individuals is not clear. We ass essed the cumulative effect of body size and familiarity on mating and reproductive behaviour in the zig-zag ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius, 1781) = Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius, 1781)). For this study, individu...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 21, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Priya Singh Geetanjali Mishra Omkar Source Type: research

Foraging behaviour of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in conifer forests regenerating after fire
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Wildfires in conifer forests create patchy, heterogeneous landscapes. For many animal species, this post-fire variability means having to navigate quite different habitat patches to locate adequate cover and food. For snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777), post-fire landscapes could include risky open patches, as well as dense regenerating stands rich in food and cover. We analyzed snowshoe hare tortuosity, speed of movement, and amount of browse along winter foraging pathways in unburned mature forest and in dense regenerating stands or open areas with sparse regen...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 21, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J. Hutchen K.E. Hodges Source Type: research

Snail leaps and bounds: drivers of the diel movement pattern of a large invertebrate, the Caribbean queen conch (Lobatus gigas), in a marginal inshore habitat
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Understanding the relationship between the movements of animals and their environment is crucial for fisheries and species management. There is currently a lack of detailed information about the movement of slow-moving benthic species, especially for species of ecological or commercial importance. Here we document the relationship between diel movement and environmental parameters in a groundwater-fed coastal inlet for the queen conch (Lobatus gigas (Linnaeus, 1758)), an important fishery resource of the Caribbean region, using three-dimensional accelerometers and video camera...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 20, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Antoine M. Dujon Thomas C. Stieglitz Erwan Amice Dale M. Webber Source Type: research

Temperature and breeding success for Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nesting on man-made structures: ecological traps?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. When an environmental cue that previously signaled a suitable habitat leads an animal to use an unsuitable site, individual fitness can decrease, ultimately leading to population declines. Such “ecological traps” may be particularly likely for birds that use human infrastructure for nesting. Here we tested whether high nest temperatures and the physical properties of barns are associated with lower breeding success for a declining population of Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (Vieillot, 1817)). We monitored nests under barn eaves below wood and metal roofs...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 20, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Tara L. Imlay Donavon Nickerson Andrew G. Horn Source Type: research

Eastern Fence Lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) display an ontogenetic shift in relative consumption of native and invasive prey
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Interactions between invasive prey and native predators can provide an opportunity to better understand predator –prey dynamics and how these may change through ontogeny. Eastern Fence Lizards (Sceloporus undulatus (Bosc and Daudin in Sonnini and Latreille, 1801)) are ant specialist, particularly as juveniles. Invasive red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972) pose a lethal risk to S. undulatus that eat them, especially smaller-bodied juveniles. We examine ontogenetic shifts in S. undulatus consumption of toxic invasive fire ants versus palatable native pyr...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 20, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Cameron P. Venable Tracy Langkilde Source Type: research

Seasonal space use of transient and resident coyotes (Canis latrans) in North Carolina, USA
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Coyote (Canis latrans Say, 1823) is a recent immigrant into eastern United States and little is known about the species ’ space use and movement in the region. We compared space use and movement of radio-collared coyotes among biological seasons. We captured and collared 30 coyotes from February through May 2011 and collected 85 386 GPS locations through October 2012 at Fort Bragg Military Installation. We define d four biological seasons according to coyote life history: breeding (December–February), gestation (March–May), pup-rearing (June–Augu...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 20, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Indrani Sasmal Christopher E. Moorman Morgan B. Swingen Shubham Datta Christopher S. DePerno Source Type: research

Molecular evidence for multiple introductions of the banded grove snail (Cepaea nemoralis) in North America
This study employs a 658 base pair fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene to identify and categorize clades of the banded grove snail (Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758)) from native (European) and introduced (North American) ranges using a maximum-likelihood phylogeny and haplotype networks. This work corroborates the existence of eight clades within C. nemoralis and further identified three clades that were common to both Europe and North America (A, D, O). Clades A and D were found in eastern Canada, Ontario (Canada), and British Columbia (Canada), whereas clade O was restricted to Ontario, possibly in...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 18, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: K.K.S. Layton C.P.K. Warne A. Nicolai A. Ansart J.R. deWaard Source Type: research

Note of appreciation / Note de reconnaissance
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 11, 2018 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Interannual repeatability of eggshell phenotype in individual female Common Murres (Uria aalge)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The recognition of own progeny is critical in group-living organisms that provide parental care for their young. The colonial seabird Common Murre (Uria aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763); also known as the Common Guillemot) does not build a nest, so direct cues must be available for the parents to recognize their own egg. However, only anecdotal evidence exists that, as seen in other avian lineages where examined, eggshells of Common Murres are also consistent in most aspects of their appearance between different breeding attempts by each female. Using digital photography, we quantifi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 11, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Mark E. Hauber Alec Luro C.J. McCarty Ketti Barateli Phillip Cassey Erpur S. Hansen James Dale Source Type: research

Native snails choose an invasive macrophyte over a native macrophyte as a food resource
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Invasive species cause ecological and economic impacts on invaded ecosystems, although the presence of native species hampers the propagation of invasive species due to biotic resistance. We tested the effects of grazing by the native channeled applesnail (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1828)) over the invasive macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (water thyme) and the native macrophyte Egeria najas Planch to evaluate the potential of herbivory as a mechanism to resist invasion. Both macrophyte species were offered, individually and combined, as food resources to the...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 7, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Marcelo V.C. Oliveira Mario S. Dainez-Filho Ana P.S. Bertoncin Carolina M. Muniz Thamis Meurer Bruno R.S. Figueiredo Sidinei M. Thomaz Silvia Luciana F ávaro Roger Paulo Mormul Source Type: research

Isotopic spiking and food dye experiments provide evidence that nestling Canada Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) receive cached food from their parents
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 4, Page 368-375, April 2019. While many animals rely on stored food to survive periods of no or few resources, some of these species may also use cached food to feed young. The Canada Jay (Perisoreus canadensis (Linnaeus, 1766)) is a territorial, food-caching resident of North American boreal forests. Canada Jays have high winter survival when fresh food is rarely available and achieve high fledging rates before the return and breeding of most sympatric migratory passerines. Stored food must account for the Canada Jay ’s winter survival, but it is less certain that stores ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: R. Derbyshire D.R. Norris K.A. Hobson D. Strickland Source Type: research

A test of the predator avoidance hypothesis to explain delayed onset of communal breeding
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. A neglected question in the study of communal breeding concerns why alloparental behaviour begins at variously late stages in the breeding cycle. In group-living corvids, the delay tends to be longer in species that are small and (or) typically have only a small nonbreeder complement. This pattern has been attributed to the relatively poor defensive capabilities of such species and their consequently greater need to minimize predator-attracting traffic to the nest or fledglings. We tested this predator avoidance hypothesis with the Canada Jay (Perisoreus canadensis (Linnaeus, ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: D. Strickland E. Brouwer T.M. Burg Source Type: research

Factors affecting the permeability of road mitigation measures to the movement of small mammals
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Mitigation measures, such as wildlife-exclusion fencing and crossing structures (overpasses, underpasses, culverts), have been widely demonstrated to reduce the negative effects of roads on medium-sized and large animals. It is unclear how these mitigation measures influence the movement of small mammals (
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Adam T. Ford Anthony P. Clevenger Source Type: research

Structure and composition of Nycteribiidae and Streblidae flies on bats along an environmental gradient in northeastern Brazil
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Bats can be parasitized by several arthropod groups, including ectoparasitic flies. The high host specificity is a common phenomenon between flies and bats. In recent years, more efforts have been employed to understand how environmental variables can influence richness and parasitic load (PL). However, many gaps still need to be filled to better understand this issue. We analyzed the PL of flies on bats sampled in three environments with different rain volume and vegetation types to verify if PL is correlated with rainfall and if there are differences in the PL on bats within...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 4, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Eder Barbier Gustavo Graciolli Enrico Bernard Source Type: research

Does donor group size matter? The response of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) to disturbance cues from conspecific and heterospecific donors
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Prey are under immense pressure to make context-specific, behavioural decisions. Prey use public information to reduce the costs associated with making inappropriate decisions. Chemical cues are commonly used by aquatic vertebrates to assess local threats and facilitate behavioural decision making. Previous studies on chemosensory assessment of risk have largely focused on damage-released alarm cues, with the cues released by disturbed or stressed prey (i.e., disturbance cues) receiving less attention. Disturbance cues are “early-warning signals” common among aquat...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 4, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Jack A. Goldman Annick Singh Ebony E.M. Demers Laurence E.A. Feyten Grant E. Brown Source Type: research

Cold temperature tolerance of albino rainbow shark (Epalzeorhynchos frenatum), a tropical fish with transgenic application in the ornamental aquarium trade
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Application of fluorescent protein transgenesis has commercial use for the ornamental aquarium trade by creating new colour phenotypes in various species. To determine the potential for transgenic ornamental aquarium fish to overwinter in Canada, the minimum temperature tolerance of albino rainbow shark (Epalzeorhynchos frenatum (Fowler, 1934)) was estimated to complement a previous study examining cold tolerance of zebrafish (Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822)), black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895)), and tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona (Bleeker, 1855)). Rainbow shark...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 4, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: R.A. Leggatt Source Type: research

Biogeography and adaptations of torquaratorid acorn worms (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta) including two new species from the Canadian Arctic
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 11, Page 1221-1229, November 2018. The enteropneust family Torquaratoridae, discovered in 2005, has the fewest species of the four living families. It is composed of seven species that live on the cold, deep-sea floor. Torquarator bullocki Holland, Clague, Gordon, Gebruk, Pawson and Vecchione, 2005 was the first species described and collected from the Northeastern Pacific. Two new species of Torquaratoridae were collected from the Eastern Pacific and described as Tergivelum baldwinae Holland, Jones, Ellena, Ruhl and Smith, 2009 and Allapasus aurantiacus Holland, Kuhnz and Osbor...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 9, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Noura Jabr Philippe Archambault Christopher B. Cameron Source Type: research

Appointment of a new Deputy Executive Editor-in-Chief
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 11, Page iii-iii, November 2018. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 9, 2018 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Quantifying partial migration with sex-ratio balancing
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Partial migration, the phenomenon in which animal populations are composed of both migratory and nonmigratory individuals, is widespread among migrating animals. The proportion of migrants in these populations has direct influences on population genetics and dynamics, ecosystem dynamics, mating systems, evolution, and responses to environmental change, yet there are very few studies that measure the proportion of migrants. This is because existing methods to estimate the proportion of migrants are time-consuming and expensive. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for est...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 9, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Haley A. Ohms Alix I. Gitelman Chris E. Jordan Dave A. Lytle Source Type: research

Extreme climatic variability during migration invokes physiological and dietary plasticity among spring migrating ducks
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Environmental stochasticity encountered during migration can have negative consequences for individuals and population demographics through direct reductions in survival or cross-seasonal impacts. We took advantage of substantial interannual variation in spring migration conditions over a 4 year field study to examine physiological and dietary variation among two species of migrant ducks. We collected female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis (Eyton, 1838)) and Blue-winged Teal (Spatula discors (Linnaeus, 1766)) during spring migration and measured lipid and protein reserves, an ind...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 9, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Adam K. Janke Michael J. Anteau Joshua D. Stafford Source Type: research

Autophagy and apoptosis in starved and refed Neocaridina davidi (Crustacea, Malacostraca) midgut
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Adult specimens of the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi Bouvier, 1904 (Crustacea) were starved for 7, 14, and 21 days. Specimens from the first and second experimental group were collected for the studies. The majority of animals starved for 21 days died. Additionally, some specimens from each group were refed for 4, 7, and 14 days. The epithelium of the midgut, which is composed of the intestine and hepatopancreas, was analyzed. While the epithelium of the intestine is formed by D- and R-cells, the epithelium of the hepatopancreas has R-, B-, and F-cells. Autophagy and ap...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 9, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: A. W łodarczyk S. Student M. Rost-Roszkowska Source Type: research

Dynamics of small-mammal communities along an elevational gradient
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Elevation is one of the most important natural gradients that is strongly shaping communities across relatively small areas. However, few studies have followed the temporal dynamics of elevational patterns, even in organisms for which population and community fluctuations have been extensively studied, such as rodents. Here we report the multiannual dynamics of small-mammal communities along an elevational gradient in the Southern Carpathians. During a 5-year survey, we conducted live-trapping in forested and shrubby habitats, at elevations between 820 and 2040 m. We used part...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 9, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: A.M. Benedek I. S îrbu Source Type: research

The role of feeding strategy in the tolerance of a terrestrial salamander (Plethodon cinereus) to biogeochemical changes in northern hardwood forests
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. We investigated whether the trophic ecology of an apex predator is influenced by ecosystem-level nutrient depletion. The feeding behavior and nutrient assimilation of a terrestrial salamander, Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)), was surveyed along a gradient of forest biogeochemistry. Recent studies have documented populations of these salamanders in forests with low-pH soils that were long thought to be fatal. One mechanism that may enable P. cinereus to tolerate acid-impaired habitats is its generalist life history. We sampled diet, invertebrate...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 8, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: C.A. Bondi C.M. Beier M.K. Fierke P.K. Ducey Source Type: research

Testing Rensch ’s rule in Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus, a seed-feeding beetle infesting Leucaena leucocephala plants
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Rensch ’s rule states that males vary more in size than females when body size increases. The main cause of Rensch’s rule has been credited to sexual selection. However, different degrees of plasticity between the sexes have also been proven to be useful for describing variations in sexual size dimorph ism, particularly within an intraspecific context. For insects, in general, this rule has rarely been tested within species. Here, we tested whether Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer, 1907) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) followed Rensch’s rule w...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 8, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: M.N. Rossi E.B. Haga Source Type: research

Population genetics reveal Myotis keenii (Keen ’s myotis) and Myotis evotis (long-eared myotis) to be a single species
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 3, Page 267-279, March 2019. Recognizing delineations of gene flow among groups of animals can be challenging but is necessary for conservation and management. Of particular importance is the identification of species boundaries. Several physical and genetic traits have been used with mixed success to distinguish Myotis keenii (Merriam, 1895) (Keen ’s myotis) and Myotis evotis (H. Allen, 1864) (long-eared myotis), but it is unclear whether species distinction is biologically warranted. We generated 12–14 microsatellite locus genotypes for 275 long-eared Myotis repres...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 8, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Cori L. Lausen Michael Proctor David W. Nagorsen Doug Burles David Paetkau Erin Harmston Karen Blejwas Purnima Govindarajulu Laura Friis Source Type: research

Risk allocation: acute and chronic predator exposure have contrasting effects on Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) singing behaviour
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Increasing the danger posed by predators may cause prey animals to alter their behaviour. For example, they may be more vigilant and so feed more slowly. Breeding male Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia (A. Wilson, 1810)) spend much time in conspicuous, loud song, which is an important behaviour for territorial defense and for mate attraction. We measured their singing behaviour in relation to both chronic (active Cooper ’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii (Bonaparte, 1828)) nest nearby) and acute (playback of hawk calls) predator exposure. We found that proximity to a Cooper&rsqu...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 8, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Anne Margaret Ellison Ron Ydenberg Source Type: research

The underwater vocal complexity of seals (Phocidae) is not related to their phylogeny
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Closely related mammalian species often make similar vocalizations, but this is not so with the underwater calls of the true seals. Some seal species have diverse underwater vocal repertoires, whereas others only make pulsed calls. Vocal complexity scores of underwater calls of 13 seal species were compared with their phylogeny and life-history traits. Waveform types, repertoire sizes, repetition and rhythm patterns, and frequency and duration measures (15 attributes, scaled 0 to 1) were summed to give a vocal complexity score. The lowest complexity group use low frequency, bu...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J.M. Terhune Source Type: research

Body size, not age, predicts parasite load in Clark ’s Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus clarkii)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Determining the factors that influence parasite load is a fundamental goal of parasitology. Body size often influences parasite load in reptiles, but it is unclear whether higher levels of parasitism are a result of greater surface area of individuals (a function of size) or of longer periods of exposure to parasites (a function of age). Using skeletochronology in a wild population of Clark ’s Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus clarkii Baird and Girard, 1852), we tested the hypotheses that (i) larger individuals have higher parasite loads due to increased surface area available f...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: H.V. Watkins G. Blouin-Demers Source Type: research

Do diets vary over large spatial or temporal ranges? A test using interannual and interpopulation data on Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) diets
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Animal diets may vary spatially or temporally as resource availability vary. Diets of species with extensive geographic ranges often span multiple habitats, thus their diets may vary accordingly. Temporal diet variation is rarely explored because most diet studies are short term; this is problematic for long-lived species where individuals may persist as prey availability changes. We analyzed diet variation in Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin (Schoepf, 1793)), which inhabits nearly 70  000 km of United States Atlantic coastline, spanning 16.5°N latitude an...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Kayleigh Rose Erazmus Miranda P. Figueras Luca Luiselli Russell L. Burke Source Type: research

The underwater vocal complexity of seals (Phocidae) is not related to their phylogeny
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Closely related mammalian species often make similar vocalizations, but this is not so with the underwater calls of the true seals. Some seal species have diverse underwater vocal repertoires, whereas others only make pulsed calls. Vocal complexity scores of underwater calls of 13 seal species were compared with their phylogeny and life-history traits. Waveform types, repertoire sizes, repetition and rhythm patterns, and frequency and duration measures (15 attributes, scaled 0 to 1) were summed to give a vocal complexity score. The lowest complexity group use low frequency, bu...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J.M. Terhune Source Type: research

Body size, not age, predicts parasite load in Clark ’s Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus clarkii)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Determining the factors that influence parasite load is a fundamental goal of parasitology. Body size often influences parasite load in reptiles, but it is unclear whether higher levels of parasitism are a result of greater surface area of individuals (a function of size) or of longer periods of exposure to parasites (a function of age). Using skeletochronology in a wild population of Clark ’s Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus clarkii Baird and Girard, 1852), we tested the hypotheses that (i) larger individuals have higher parasite loads due to increased surface area available f...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: H.V. Watkins G. Blouin-Demers Source Type: research

Do diets vary over large spatial or temporal ranges? A test using interannual and interpopulation data on Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) diets
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Animal diets may vary spatially or temporally as resource availability vary. Diets of species with extensive geographic ranges often span multiple habitats, thus their diets may vary accordingly. Temporal diet variation is rarely explored because most diet studies are short term; this is problematic for long-lived species where individuals may persist as prey availability changes. We analyzed diet variation in Diamondback Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin (Schoepf, 1793)), which inhabits nearly 70  000 km of United States Atlantic coastline, spanning 16.5°N latitude an...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Kayleigh Rose Erazmus Miranda P. Figueras Luca Luiselli Russell L. Burke Source Type: research

Effects of an introduced, novel prey on diet and reproduction in the diet-specialist European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Diet specialization has important consequences for how individuals or species deal with environmental change that causes changes in availability of prey species. We took advantage of a “natural experiment” — establishment of a commercial insect farm — that introduced a novel prey item, black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758)), to the diet-specialist European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758). We investigated evidence for individual diet specializat ion (IDS) and the consequences of diet specialization and exploitation of novel p...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 2, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: T.D. Williams A. Cornell C. Gillespie A. Hura M. Serota Source Type: research

The pattern of reproduction in the Libyan jird (Meriones libycus; Rodentia: Muridae) from central Saudi Arabia in the absence of rainfall
This study strengthens the findings that changes in rainfall and temperature in dry deserts are critical cues for the onset of reproduction in small mammals. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: D.W. Hart A.A. Alghamdi N.C. Bennett O.B. Mohammed N.M. Amor A.N. Alagaili Source Type: research

Male and female pups of the highly sexually dimorphic northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) differ slightly in body size
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. In mammals, males generally are larger than females, though such sexual-size differences have been documented primarily in adults and are relatively poorly known in early life. We studied sexual-size differences in pups of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris (Gill, 1866)), which in adulthood is one of the most sexually dimorphic mammals. We studied body size at birth and weaning, at Islas San Benito, Mexico, at the southernmost limit of the species ’ breeding range. Males were 10% heavier and 2% longer than females at birth. Sexes did not differ significa...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: E. Salogni F. Galimberti S. Sanvito E.H. Miller Source Type: research

The pattern of reproduction in the Libyan jird (Meriones libycus; Rodentia: Muridae) from central Saudi Arabia in the absence of rainfall
This study strengthens the findings that changes in rainfall and temperature in dry deserts are critical cues for the onset of reproduction in small mammals. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: D.W. Hart A.A. Alghamdi N.C. Bennett O.B. Mohammed N.M. Amor A.N. Alagaili Source Type: research

Male and female pups of the highly sexually dimorphic northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) differ slightly in body size
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. In mammals, males generally are larger than females, though such sexual-size differences have been documented primarily in adults and are relatively poorly known in early life. We studied sexual-size differences in pups of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris (Gill, 1866)), which in adulthood is one of the most sexually dimorphic mammals. We studied body size at birth and weaning, at Islas San Benito, Mexico, at the southernmost limit of the species ’ breeding range. Males were 10% heavier and 2% longer than females at birth. Sexes did not differ significa...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: E. Salogni F. Galimberti S. Sanvito E.H. Miller Source Type: research

The diet of free-ranging male Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the eastern Bering Sea: a retrospective analysis based on stomach contents of an endangered pinniped
This study illuminates historical diet and foraging locations of endangered western U.S. stock Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)). Prey were identified from stomachs of 22 males collected in the eastern Bering Sea from the ice edge in March 1985 and nearshore St. Paul Island in September –October 1985 and 1986. Percent frequency of occurrence (PFO) and percent number (PN) were highest for walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814; PFO 69%, PN 15%, mean length 17 cm), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1847; PFO 62%, PN 16%, mean lengt h 26 cm), short...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 30, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: E.H. Sinclair W.A. Walker P.J. Gearin Source Type: research

Hemipenes eversion behavior: a new form of communication in two Liolaemus lizards (Iguania: Liolaemidae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Males of several animals have intromittent organs and may use these in a communicative context during sexual or intrasexual interactions. In some lizards, hemipenes eversion behavior have been observed, and the aim of this study is to find out whether this behavior is functionally significant under a communicative approach. Here, we investigated the eversion of hemipenes in the Light Blue Lizard (Liolaemus coeruleus Cei and Ortiz-Zapata, 1983) and in the Valley Lizard (Liolaemus quilmes Etheridge, 1993) by filming the response of male focal lizards in different experimental se...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 10, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: M.R. Ruiz-Monachesi A. Paz M. Quipildor Source Type: research

The bitter end: primate avoidance of caterpillar-infested trees in a central Amazon flooded forest
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Animal –plant interactions are often mediated by chemical compounds. It has been widely reported that herbivore damage to plants induces chemical defenses which may then affect subsequent interactions with both invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores. Our study investigated the effects of the interaction between larvae of an unidentified nymphalid butterfly and the tanimbuca tree (Buchenavia ochroprumna Eichl.; Combretaceae) on subsequent folivory by a primate, the golden-backed uacari (Cacajao ouakary (Spix, 1823); Pitheciidae). Primate-feeding observations, records of t...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Allana A. Negreiros Adrian M. Pohlit Fabricio Baccaro H éctor H.F. Koolen Adrian A. Barnett Source Type: research

Habitat type influences parasite load in Algerian Psammodromus (Psammodromus algirus) lizards
This study con tributes to the identification of ecosystems and habitats that are most sensitive to prevalence and intensity of infection by parasites. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J. Carbayo J. Mart ín E. Civantos Source Type: research

Ontogeny of the skull of the Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger) (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae)
We describe the formation of the chondrocranium and the ossification pattern of the skull of the Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger (Spix, 1825)). The embryos were cleared and double-stained with Alizarin Red S and Alcian Blue 8GX. Additionally, they were visualized by histological hematoxylin and eosin staining and computed tomography imaging. The chondrocranium of M. niger comprised the nasal capsule, orbitotemporal, and optic –occipital regions. Its development began at stage 9, with the chondrification of the acrochordal cartilage, trabeculae, and mandibular cartilage. The optic capsule was formed in the caudolater...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: L.G. Vieira A.L.Q. Santos L.Q.L. Hirano L.T. Menezes-Reis J.S. Mendon ça A. Sebben Source Type: research

Resource selection by coyotes (Canis latrans) in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem: effects of anthropogenic fires and landscape features
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Prescribed fire is used to restore and maintain fire-dependent forest communities. Because fire affects food and cover resources, fire-mediated resource selection has been documented for many wildlife species. The first step in understanding these interactions is to understand resource selection of the predators in a fire-maintained system. We attached GPS radio collars to 27 coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and examined resource selection relative to fire-maintained vegetation types, years since fire, anthropogenic features that facilitate prescribed burning, and other lands...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: E.R. Stevenson M.A. Lashley M.C. Chitwood J.E. Garabedian M.B. Swingen C.S. DePerno C.E. Moorman Source Type: research

Identifying attributes associated with brown bear (Ursus arctos) road-crossing and roadkill sites
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat fragmentation caused by transportation infrastructure is an issue of growing concern worldwide. We show how secondary roads may affect landscape permeability for brown bears (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758). We focused on identifying environmental variables that govern the selection of road-crossing zones by bears (crossing model). We also investigated whether variables that characterize road-crossing zones differ from those that are typical for bear –vehicle collision sites (collision model). The study area was located in north-central Slovakia. To identify road-cr...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: S. Find ’o M. Skuban M. Kajba J. Chalmers M. Kala š Source Type: research