Structure, variation, and systematic implications of the hemipenes of liolaemid lizards (Reptilia: Liolaemidae)
We reported 42 characters, the majority not published previously. We constructed a metatree based on previously proposed phylogenetic studies and optimized the hemipenial characters in this topology. Among the most informative characters are presence or absence of flounces or calyces on the sulcate face, ornamentation of the apex, presence or absence of an asulcate face prominence, and presence of a thickening on the proximal region of the asulcate face. Furthermore, we performed a phylogenetic analysis exclusively with the hemipenial characters, not with the intention of making a phylogeny based on this single set of char...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 9, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: M. Quipildor A.S. Quinteros F. Lobo Source Type: research

Critical snow density threshold for Dall ’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli)
We examined the effect of snow density, snow depth, and snow hardness on sinking depths of Dall’s sheep tracks encountered in Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Snow depth was a poor predictor of sinking depths of sheep tracks (R2 = 0.02, p = 0.38), as was mean weighted hardness (R2 = 0.09, p = 0.07). Across competing models, top layer snow density (0–10 cm) and sheep age class were the best predictors of track sink depths (R2 = 0.58). Track sink depth decreased with increasin g snow density, and the snowpack supported the mass of a sheep above a density threshold of 329 ± 18 kg...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Kelly J. Sivy Anne W. Nolin Christopher L. Cosgrove Laura R. Prugh Source Type: research

Climate and habitat influences on bee community structure in Western Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The persistence of pollinators in a given habitat is determined in part by traits that affect their response to environmental variables. Here, we show that climate and habitat features are the main drivers of trait distribution in bees across spatially separated habitats. We determined that trait and clade filtering results in bee assemblages in Western Canada exhibiting clustering that is correlated with differences in temperature, humidity, and rainfall. Phylogenetic signals were detected in all traits associated with pollinator life-history strategies, including phenology. ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Soraya Villalobos Jana C. Vamosi Source Type: research

Elk (Cervus elaphus) railway mortality in Ontario
This study gathered important information about an under-studied aspect of wildl ife–human conflicts and provides a basis for the investigation of other species that may be affected by railways. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 4, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J.N. Popp J. Hamr C. Chan F.F. Mallory Source Type: research

Effect of forager density on feeding rates in spring-staging Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) using different foraging modes
We examined the influence of the density of foragers on feeding rates of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766)) while using different foraging modes at a spring stopover site in Delaware Bay, USA. Using dynamic estimates of interindividual distances obtained at short intervals of time, we explored how forager density affected feeding rates when Semipalmated Sandpipers used visual pecking or tactile probing. Pecking rate significantly increased with interindividual distances, whereas probe rate was not affected by density. Our study also showed that in fast-moving foragers, such as Semipalmated Sandpipe...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 4, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Ivana Novcic Guy Beauchamp Source Type: research

Fatty acids in an iteroparous fish: variable complexity, identity, and phenotypic correlates
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Ecologists often focus on summarized composition when assessing complex, multivariate phenotypes such as fatty acids. Increasing complexity in fatty acid composition may offer benefits to individuals that may not be recognized by assessing mean fatty acid identity. We quantified fatty acid identity and complexity in the egg and muscle of spawning female yellow perch (Perca flavescens (Mitchill, 1814)) exposed to three overwinter thermal regimes (4, 8, and 13 °C) to evaluate (i) thermal regulation of fatty acid complexity, (ii) fatty acid complexity and identity differences...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 4, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Zachary S. Feiner Robert K. Swihart David P. Coulter Tomas O. H öök Source Type: research

Contrasts in body size and growth suggest that high population density results in faster pace of life in Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. We studied the correlates of population density and body size, growth rates, litter size, and group size in Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis (Ogilby, 1838)) at two study sites with contrasting population densities. Group size, litter size, and the probability of recapture were independent of study site. However, body size differed between the two study sites, suggesting that population density may affect life-history traits in social mole-rats. At the low-density site (0.13 groups/ha), individuals were significantly larger and subordinate males showed higher growth rat...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: K.T. Finn D.M. Parker N.C. Bennett M. Z öttl Source Type: research

The impact of acute salinity exposure and temperature on the survival, osmoregulation, and hematology of juvenile shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Juvenile shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum Lesueur, 1818) were exposed to seawater and freshwater for 24 h to evaluate the osmoregulatory capabilities over a seasonal temperature gradient (5, 10, 15, 20 °C). Additionally, juveniles were exposed to 5 °C seawater and freshwater over 72 h to evaluate survival and osmoregulatory capacity under cold water conditions. Osmoregulatory capability was evaluated using standard metrics: survival rate, mass loss, plasma chloride ion (Cl–) concentrations, os molality, oxygen-carrying variables, and energy metabolites....
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Adam T. Downie Hannah Wallace Samantha Taylor James D. Kieffer Source Type: research

First full annual cycle tracking of a declining aerial insectivorous bird, the Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor), identifies migration routes, nonbreeding habitat, and breeding site fidelity
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Over one third of North American bird species are in decline, and for many species, we still lack fundamental biogeographic information such as migration routes and nonbreeding areas. Identifying causes of declines is limited because tracking many species throughout their annual cycle with high precision and accuracy is challenging. Common Nighthawks (Chordeiles minor (J.R. Forster, 1771)) have declined throughout much of their range and have yet to have their migratory and nonbreeding areas identified and characterized. We tracked Common Nighthawks by deploying a new 3.5 g Pi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J.W. Ng E.C. Knight A.L. Scarpignato A.-L. Harrison E.M. Bayne P.P. Marra Source Type: research

Primary study of seroprevalence to virus pathogens in wild felids of South Primorie, Russia
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Seroprevalence to nine different virus pathogens was estimated for Russian big cats (Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica Temminck, 1844) and far-eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis (Schiegel, 1857))) in Southern Primorie, Russia (n = 25), in 2008 –2016. Serum samples from smaller cats (Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758)) and far-eastern wildcat (leopard cat) (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus (Elliot, 1871))) were also tested for these pathogens (n = 19) during the same period. Felids of Russian Southern Primorie showed seropreval ence to eight out of ni...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: S.V. Naidenko J.A. Hernandez-Blanco E.V. Pavlova M.N. Erofeeva P.A. Sorokin M.N. Litvinov A.K. Kotlyar N.S. Sulikhan V.V. Rozhnov Source Type: research

First study on lipid dynamics during the female reproductive cycle of Polybetes pythagoricus (Araneae: Sparassidae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Spiders are valuable to humans, not only for their role in health but also as biologic pest controllers. In oviparous species, lipids are the main energy source for embryo development and the growth and survival of larvae. Using the spider Polybetes pythagoricus (Holmberg, 1875) as an experimental model, we studied the fluctuations in lipids and fatty acids occurring in tissues related to vitellogenesis. Different reproductive stages (previtellogenesis, early vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis, and postvitellogenesis) were determined histologically. Gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: S. Romero A. Laino F. Arrighetti M. Cunningham C.F. Garcia Source Type: research

Fragmentation alters home range and movements of the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss and among reptiles has been attributed as a cause of species decline. The negative effect of habitat fragmentation has also been shown to be worse for species that are habitat specialists. The Dunes Sagebrush Lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus Degenhardt and Jones, 1972) is a species that specializes on the shinnery oak (Quercus havardii Rydb.) sand-dune landform of the Mescalero –Monahans Sandhills ecosystem in western Texas and eastern New Mexico, USA. This landform has been fragmented by roads and well pads used ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 22, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Megan E. Young Wade A. Ryberg Lee A. Fitzgerald Toby J. Hibbitts Source Type: research

Echolocation: a personal historical perspective
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The remarkable ability of echolocating bats to use echoes of emitted sounds as a substitute for vision is one of the most fascinating stories in neuroethology. Based in part on personal experience, the author discusses key discoveries in the early decades after the discovery of the phenomenon by Griffin and Galambos in 1941. Advances in our understanding of this remarkable phenomenon illustrate well the importance of comparative approaches, technological advances, and the synergistic interaction between behavior and electrophysiology. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 22, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Alan D. Grinnell Source Type: research

Where beavers (Castor canadensis) build: testing the influence of habitat quality, predation risk, and anthropogenic disturbance on colony occurrence
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Species distributions are shaped by numerous factors that vary in importance across spatiotemporal scale. Understanding drivers of the distribution of North American beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl, 1820) is paramount given their profound influence on ecological communities. Our objectives were to evaluate the influence of habitat quality, risk of gray wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) predation, and anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of beaver colonies in northeast British Columbia (BC), Canada. We used mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression to model the occur...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 21, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: M.A. Mumma M.P. Gillingham C.J. Johnson K.L. Parker Source Type: research

Maternal restraint stress during pregnancy negatively affects behaviors and antioxidant capacity of offspring rats (Rattus norvegicus)
This study evaluated the effect of maternal restraint stress during the gestation period on behaviors, biochemical parameters, and antioxidant capacities of offspring rats (Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout,1769)) at weaning age. Behaviors, plasma biochemical indices, and antioxidant ability of the liver, soleus muscle, and gastrocnemius muscle of mother and (or) offspring rats were analyzed. Significant increases were found in the immobility and swinging behavior frequencies of offspring male rats; no difference was found in behaviors of female rats. The antioxidant indices including superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide synthas...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 17, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Chao Yin Guofu Wang Shixing Gao Yanping Huang Ruqian Zhao Xiaojing Yang Source Type: research

Aggression and plasma testosterone in male golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in response to encounters with receptive vs. nonreceptive females
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Exposure to sexual stimuli can lead to increased aggression in male mammals, but it is unclear whether the aggression is related to the receptiveness of the females. Interactions with receptive females elicit testosterone (T) pulses that are important for sexual behaviors. We investigated the effects of male –female interactions on subsequent aggressive behaviors and T responses in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus (Waterhouse, 1839)). Three groups (n = 18, 17, and 18) of males were exposed to receptive females, nonreceptive females, and blank (control), respectiv...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 16, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Xin Zhao Dingzhen Liu Source Type: research

Determinants of home range size and space use patterns in a protected wolf (Canis lupus) population in the central Apennines, Italy
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Large carnivores are amongst the most susceptible species to human activities, and human-modified environments pose a threat to carnivore conservation. Wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) in the central Apennines, Italy, have coexisted with humans since historic times and represent a good case study to assess their spatiotemporal response to anthropogenic factors. From 2008 to 2010, we investigated the spatial behavior of wolves (seven wolves in five packs and six floaters) in the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park. Orographically corrected annual home ranges of resident w...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 16, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: S. Mancinelli L. Boitani P. Ciucci Source Type: research

BatScope manages acoustic recordings, analyses calls, and classifies bat species automatically
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. BatScope is a free application for processing acoustic high-frequency recordings of bats. It can import data, including meta-data information, from recorders such as Batlogger. The resulting content can be filtered visually as spectrograms or according to data fields and can be displayed. Automated processing includes detecting and extracting of echolocation calls, filtering noise, and measuring statistical parameters. Calls are classified to species by statistically matching to a reference database. A weighted list of classifiers helps to assign the most likely species per ca...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: M.K. Obrist R. Boesch Source Type: research

Water exchange relationships predict overwintering behavior in hatchling turtles
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Neonatal ectotherms face a wide range of environmental hazards because of the diverse habitats that they inhabit and their small body sizes; this is especially true among turtles that live in temperate zones and experience cold winter conditions after hatching. Such hatchlings must balance challenges involving desiccation, freezing, and predation, among other threats. Turtle hatchlings either overwinter in water, terrestrially in relatively shallow nests, terrestrially deep below nests, or terrestrially outside of the nest entirely, and these different microhabitats are associ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: M.P. Figueras B.A. Bastarache R.L. Burke Source Type: research

Trophic ecology of nonanadromous rainbow trout in a post-glacial lake system: partial convergence of adfluvial and fluvial forms
This study augments knowledge of partial migration and trophic divergence within populations. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 1, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: M.C. Arostegui T.P. Quinn Source Type: research

In-flight social calls: a primer for biologists and managers studying echolocation
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 8, Page 787-800, August 2018. Recent technological advances have permitted collection of immense data sets through automated recordings that are primarily aimed at capturing bat echolocation. Analyses of echolocation calls are used to identify species, relative abundance, and some aspects of behaviour, such as foraging or commuting. Here we propose that social calls recorded in flight are also valuable tools for understanding bat ecology and behaviour. First, we examine how and why the acoustic structure of social calls differ from echolocation. Differences in form make social c...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 31, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: K.M. Bohn E.H. Gillam Source Type: research

Heavier rumen –reticulum organs in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is consistent with dietary bulk not quality
We examined differences in mass of the rumen–reticulum organs in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) from two sites in Texas, USA, with different diet types. Specifically, at one site deer were fed a pelleted ration and at the other site deer consumed a natural browse diet. Accounting for body mass, deer consuming the browse diet had rumen–reticulum organ masses that were about 1.7 times heavier than deer consuming the pelleted diet. Deer consuming the browse diet also had lower diet quality, as indexed by crude protein concentration, than deer consuming the pelleted diet. The digesta ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 31, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: F.W. Weckerly G. Bhaskar A. Duarte R.S. Luna H.D. Starns Source Type: research

Winter irruptive Snowy Owls (Bubo scandiacus) in North America are not starving
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Winter irruptions, defined as irregular massive movement of individuals over large distances, have been linked to food supply. Two hypotheses have been put forward: the “lack-of-food” suggests that a shortage of food forces individuals to leave their regular winter range and the “breeding output” suggests that unusually large food supplies during the preceding breeding season allows production of a large number of offspring dispersing in winter. According t o the breeding output hypothesis, irruptive Snowy Owls (Bubo scandiacus (Linnaeus, 1758)) in east...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 31, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: T. Curk T. McDonald D. Zazelenchuk S. Weidensaul D. Brinker S. Huy N. Smith T. Miller A. Robillard G. Gauthier N. Lecomte J.-F. Therrien Source Type: research

Growth rate and condition of walleye (Sander vitreus), sauger (Sander canadensis), and dwarf walleye in a large Canadian lake
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The second largest inland walleye (Sander vitreus (Mitchill, 1818)) and sauger (Sander canadensis (Griffith and Smith, 1834)) fishery in Canada is found in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba. To manage the fishery for a sustainable future, the growth and condition of these fish must be understood. Objectives were to (1) examine baseline growth and condition of walleye and sauger in Lake Winnipeg, (2) evaluate variation between the North and South basins, and (3) contribute observational findings on the distribution of dwarf walleye. Gill nets were set to catch walleye, sauger, and dwarf ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 29, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: K.T. Sheppard B.J. Hann G.K. Davoren Source Type: research

Kinematic performance and muscle activation patterns during post-freeze locomotion in the Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Wood Frogs (Rana sylvatica LeConte, 1825 = Lithobates sylvaticus (LeConte, 1825)) exhibit one of the most extreme freeze tolerance responses found in vertebrates. While extensive work is continuing to resolve the physiological mechanisms involved, few have studied the effects of freezing on locomotor performance. The ability to mount an appropriate locomotor response is vital, as locomotion can affect both survivorship and reproductive success. To investigate how the biomechanical processes during locomotion are altered following freezing, stroke cycle timings and kinematic pe...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 28, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Javier H. Santos-Santos Brett M. Culbert Emily M. Standen Source Type: research

American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryos tightly regulate intracellular pH during a severe acidosis
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Crocodilian nests naturally experience high CO2 (hypercarbia), which leads to increased blood Pco2 and reduced blood pH (pHe) in embryos; their response to acid –base challenges is not known. During acute hypercarbia, snapping turtle embryos preferentially regulate tissue pH (pHi) against pHe reductions. This is proposed to be associated with CO2 tolerance in reptilian embryos and is not found in adults. In the present study, we investigated pH regulation in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin, 1802)) embryos exposed to 1 h of hypercarbia hypoxia (13 k...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 28, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: R.B. Shartau D.A. Crossley Z.F. Kohl R.M. Elsey C.J. Brauner Source Type: research

Survival and habitat use of sympatric lagomorphs in bottomland hardwood forests
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Lagomorphs are important consumers and prey in ecosystems worldwide, but have declined due to land use changes and habitat loss, and such losses may be exacerbated for specialist species. We compared survival and habitat use of two closely related lagomorphs, the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman, 1837)), a bottomland hardwood (BLH) forest specialist, and the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen, 1890)), a habitat generalist. We tested whether survival and habitat use differed between radio-collared swamp rabbits (n = 129) and eastern cottontails (n...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 28, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J.C. Crawford C.K. Nielsen E.M. Schauber Source Type: research

American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryos tightly regulate intracellular pH during a severe acidosis
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Crocodilian nests naturally experience high CO2 (hypercarbia), which leads to increased blood Pco2 and reduced blood pH (pHe) in embryos; their response to acid –base challenges is not known. During acute hypercarbia, snapping turtle embryos preferentially regulate tissue pH (pHi) against pHe reductions. This is proposed to be associated with CO2 tolerance in reptilian embryos and is not found in adults. In the present study, we investigated pH regulation in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin, 1802)) embryos exposed to 1 h of hypercarbia hypoxia (13 k...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 28, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: R.B. Shartau D.A. Crossley Z.F. Kohl R.M. Elsey C.J. Brauner Source Type: research

Survival and habitat use of sympatric lagomorphs in bottomland hardwood forests
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Lagomorphs are important consumers and prey in ecosystems worldwide, but have declined due to land use changes and habitat loss, and such losses may be exacerbated for specialist species. We compared survival and habitat use of two closely related lagomorphs, the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman, 1837)), a bottomland hardwood (BLH) forest specialist, and the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen, 1890)), a habitat generalist. We tested whether survival and habitat use differed between radio-collared swamp rabbits (n = 129) and eastern cottontails (n...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 28, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J.C. Crawford C.K. Nielsen E.M. Schauber Source Type: research

Seasonal changes in digestive enzymes in five bird species
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Most animals must cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions, including variations in food availability and composition. Accordingly, it is expected that most species should exhibit reversible seasonal phenotypic adjustments in their physiology. Here, we assessed seasonal variation in the activity of three digestive enzymes (sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N) in one omniviorous bird species (Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis (P. L. Statius M üller, 1776))), three granivorous bird species (Black-chinned Siskin (Carduelis barbata (Molina, 1...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 26, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Natalia Ramirez-Otarola Daniel E. Naya Pablo Sabat Source Type: research

Comparative bite force in two syntopic murids (Rodentia) suggests lack of competition for food resources
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Closely related syntopic species have been shown to avoid competition by differentiating in the type of food they process. This can be achieved by changes in size or in the masticatory apparatus that produce modifications in bite force. The wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus (Linnaeus, 1758)) and Western Mediterranean mouse (Mus spretus Lataste, 1883) are two murid rodent species found in syntopy in the south of France. We measured bite force in wild specimens of both species to test for differences in performance. Despite its greater body mass, the wood mouse showed only slightl...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 26, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Samuel Ginot Camille Le No ëne Jacques Cassaing Source Type: research

A landscape genetic analysis of swamp rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus) suggests forest canopy cover enhances gene flow in an agricultural matrix
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat loss and fragmentation pose a continued and immediate threat to wildlife and create a persistent need for ecological information at the landscape scale to guide conservation efforts. Landscape features influence population connectivity for many species and genetic analyses can be employed to determine which of these features are most important. Because population connectivity through dispersal is important to the persistence of swamp rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman, 1837)) at the northern edge of their range, we used a landscape genetic approach to relate gene f...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 26, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Leah K. Berkman Clayton K. Nielsen Charlotte L. Roy Edward J. Heist Source Type: research

Assortative pairing by telomere length in King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and relationships with breeding success
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Telomeres are noncoding genetic repeats protecting the ends of linear chromosomes. Long telomeres are often associated with high individual survival, and interindividual variation in telomere length has recently been proposed as a proxy for individual quality. Therefore, one might expect individuals of either sex with long telomeres to be of higher intrinsic quality and to be preferred in the context of mate choice. Thus, in sexually monomorphic species where individuals discriminate mates on the basis of signals of intrinsic quality, mate choice should lead to assortative pai...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 26, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Quentin Schull Vincent A. Viblanc F. Stephen Dobson Jean-Patrice Robin Sandrine Zahn Robin Cristofari Pierre Bize Fran çois Criscuolo Source Type: research

A landscape genetic analysis of swamp rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus) suggests forest canopy cover enhances gene flow in an agricultural matrix
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat loss and fragmentation pose a continued and immediate threat to wildlife and create a persistent need for ecological information at the landscape scale to guide conservation efforts. Landscape features influence population connectivity for many species and genetic analyses can be employed to determine which of these features are most important. Because population connectivity through dispersal is important to the persistence of swamp rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus (Bachman, 1837)) at the northern edge of their range, we used a landscape genetic approach to relate gene f...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 26, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Leah K. Berkman Clayton K. Nielsen Charlotte L. Roy Edward J. Heist Source Type: research

Assortative pairing by telomere length in King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and relationships with breeding success
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Telomeres are noncoding genetic repeats protecting the ends of linear chromosomes. Long telomeres are often associated with high individual survival, and interindividual variation in telomere length has recently been proposed as a proxy for individual quality. Therefore, one might expect individuals of either sex with long telomeres to be of higher intrinsic quality and to be preferred in the context of mate choice. Thus, in sexually monomorphic species where individuals discriminate mates on the basis of signals of intrinsic quality, mate choice should lead to assortative pai...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 26, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Quentin Schull Vincent A. Viblanc F. Stephen Dobson Jean-Patrice Robin Sandrine Zahn Robin Cristofari Pierre Bize Fran çois Criscuolo Source Type: research

Comparative bite force in two syntopic murids (Rodentia) suggests lack of competition for food resources
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Closely related syntopic species have been shown to avoid competition by differentiating in the type of food they process. This can be achieved by changes in size or in the masticatory apparatus that produce modifications in bite force. The wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus (Linnaeus, 1758)) and Western Mediterranean mouse (Mus spretus Lataste, 1883) are two murid rodent species found in syntopy in the south of France. We measured bite force in wild specimens of both species to test for differences in performance. Despite its greater body mass, the wood mouse showed only slightl...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 26, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Samuel Ginot Camille Le No ëne Jacques Cassaing Source Type: research

Seasonal changes in digestive enzymes in five bird species
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Most animals must cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions, including variations in food availability and composition. Accordingly, it is expected that most species should exhibit reversible seasonal phenotypic adjustments in their physiology. Here, we assessed seasonal variation in the activity of three digestive enzymes (sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N) in one omniviorous bird species (Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis (P. L. Statius M üller, 1776))), three granivorous bird species (Black-chinned Siskin (Carduelis barbata (Molina, 1...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 26, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Natalia Ramirez-Otarola Daniel E. Naya Pablo Sabat Source Type: research

Hunting associations of American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) revealed by camera trapping
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Interspecies foraging associations occur in a wide variety of vertebrate taxa and are maintained through gains in foraging efficiency and (or) predator avoidance. Despite their advantages, foraging associations often are variable in space and time and benefits may not accrue equally to all participants. In mammals, interspecies associations between solitary mammalian carnivores are rare. Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and American badgers (Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777)) occasionally form hunting associations in pursuit of ground squirrels (Spermophilus armatus Kennicott, 1...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 19, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Daniel Thornton Arthur Scully Travis King Scott Fisher Scott Fitkin John Rohrer Source Type: research

The influence of turbidity and water temperature on black fly species in the middle and lower Orange River, South Africa
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Water clarity in the Orange River of South Africa alternates between highly turbid and clearer conditions. Multiple ecological effects result from this that affect aquatic community structure and species composition, including switching of dominant black fly species and growth of benthic algae. Fourteen sites in the middle and lower Orange River were sampled for black fly species and abundances, presence of benthic algae, and water quality and turbidity seasonally between November 2015 and December 2016. Logistic regression models, time series analyses, and multivariate ordina...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 19, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: N.A. Rivers-Moore R.W. Palmer Source Type: research

Distribution and frequency of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) populations of southwestern Nova Scotia (Canada)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The Atlantic blue mussel (Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758) exhibits doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Females are usually homoplasmic for a female-transmitted mt genome (the F type) and males are heteroplasmic for an F type and a male-transmitted mt genome (the M type). F types can undergo “role-reversal” events, resulting in new male-transmitted mtDNA genomes known as recently masculinized (RM) types that co-occur in populations with evolutionarily older standard-male (SM) types. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that RM types periodically rep...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 19, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Donald T. Stewart Marion Sinclair-Waters Alexandra Rice Ryan A. Bunker Brent M. Robicheau Sophie Breton Source Type: research

Manual analysis of recorded bat echolocation calls: summary, synthesis, and proposal for increased standardization in training practices
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Automated recording units are frequently used for passive acoustic monitoring of taxa, including bats. Detection and species-level identification of bat echolocation calls using manual techniques is a common practice, often supplementing automated analysis by software. However, few standardized protocols exist for manual analysis, which is challenging for novices and impedes comparisons among research groups. In this two-part review, I first summarize and synthesize current approaches to manual call analysis. Three observations about the processes used to conduct manual call i...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 19, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: E.E. Fraser Source Type: research

Distribution and frequency of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) populations of southwestern Nova Scotia (Canada)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The Atlantic blue mussel (Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758) exhibits doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Females are usually homoplasmic for a female-transmitted mt genome (the F type) and males are heteroplasmic for an F type and a male-transmitted mt genome (the M type). F types can undergo “role-reversal” events, resulting in new male-transmitted mtDNA genomes known as recently masculinized (RM) types that co-occur in populations with evolutionarily older standard-male (SM) types. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that RM types periodically rep...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 19, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Donald T. Stewart Marion Sinclair-Waters Alexandra Rice Ryan A. Bunker Brent M. Robicheau Sophie Breton Source Type: research

The influence of turbidity and water temperature on black fly species in the middle and lower Orange River, South Africa
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Water clarity in the Orange River of South Africa alternates between highly turbid and clearer conditions. Multiple ecological effects result from this that affect aquatic community structure and species composition, including switching of dominant black fly species and growth of benthic algae. Fourteen sites in the middle and lower Orange River were sampled for black fly species and abundances, presence of benthic algae, and water quality and turbidity seasonally between November 2015 and December 2016. Logistic regression models, time series analyses, and multivariate ordina...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 19, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: N.A. Rivers-Moore R.W. Palmer Source Type: research

Are 3 minutes good enough for obtaining baseline physiological samples from teleost fish?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. A prerequisite to studying the physiological status of wild animals is the ability to obtain blood samples that reflect the condition prior to capture or handling. Based on research in avian taxa, it is recommended that such samples be obtained within 3 min of capture; however, this guideline has not been validated in wild teleosts. The present study addresses the time course of physiological changes in a number of blood metrics across six species of freshwater fish. Fishes were caught using a standardized angling protocol and held in a water-filled trough prior to the collect...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 18, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Michael J. Lawrence Sofia Jain-Schlaepfer Aaron J. Zolderdo Dirk A. Algera Kathleen M. Gilmour Austin J. Gallagher Steven J. Cooke Source Type: research

The effect of habitat on the breeding season survival of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Great Lakes region
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Modeling the effect of habitat on animal survival is critical for understanding population dynamics and developing effective habitat management strategies. Despite the importance of this information, knowledge of survival –habitat associations are often lacking, particularly for waterfowl species. Here we evaluated female Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758) survival during the breeding season in relation to habitat conditions within each individual’s home range. We implanted telemetry transmitters and tra cked 283 female Mallards across nine study sites in ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 18, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Ryan A. Boyer John M. Coluccy Robert A. Montgomery Kyle M. Redilla Scott R. Winterstein Source Type: research

Living on a catfish: nested occupation of ectosymbiotic chironomids on host body
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Symbiotic species often have preferential attachment sites on their host body and thus some sites may only be occupied if the supposed best sites are already occupied. Alternatively, colonization may be similar in all sites, but removal may differ among them. Both mechanisms might generate a nested pattern. Moreover, the host size can alter the quality of the site for symbiotic occupation; for instance, by increasing the area and anchorage structures or reducing removal. We predicted that the spatial distribution of the ectosymbiotic chironomid Ichthyocladius lilianae Mendes, ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 18, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Renato B. Dala-Corte Adriano S. Melo Source Type: research

The role of sensory modalities in producing nonconsumptive effects for a crayfish –bass predator–prey system
This study aimed to determine whether a hierarchy in the reliance upon sensory modalities exists in the rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus (Girard, 1852) = Faxonius rusticus (Girard, 1852)) for predator detection and if this hierarchy is altered across different senso ry environments (flowing and nonflowing environments). Rusty crayfish were exposed to largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède, 1802)) odor in either a flowing or nonflowing arena where behavior was recorded under different sensory lesions. Linear mixed models were conducted to determine t he impact of lesions, flowing environments, and...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 18, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Jessica L. Clark Paul A. Moore Source Type: research

Effect of geographic location and sexual dimorphism on shield shape of the Red Sea hermit crab Clibanarius signatus using the geometric morphometric approach
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The hermit crab Clibanarius signatus Heller, 1861 inhabits varied intertidal habitats of the Red Sea coast, such as rocky shores and mangrove littoral salt marshes. Shield-shape variation among three populations of C. signatus was analyzed with geometric morphometric methods. Shape variation was studied through multivariate analyses using configurations aligned by the generalized Procrustes analysis. Shape variation was explored through principal component analysis. The ordination of the populations and the sexes was investigated using discriminant analysis of canonical variab...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 18, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Tarek G. Ismail Source Type: research

Adrenocortical and bioenergetic responses to cold in laboratory-born northern red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) from two populations in south Siberia, Russia
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. In animal populations inhabiting ecologically suboptimal environmental conditions, phenotypical shifts in physiological traits responsible for coping with environmental challenges can be expected. If such variations are of heritable origin, then they will manifest themselves even in individuals bred in captivity. In laboratory-born red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus (Pallas, 1779)) originating from a population with constantly low density, maximum cold-induced metabolic rates were higher than in voles from a high-density population, similar to the data obtained on wild-caught in...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 18, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: I.A. Polikarpov T.V. Titova E.Yu. Kondratyuk E.A. Novikov Source Type: research