A 50-year conundrum is conclusively solved: nudibranchs Dendronotus albus (= D. diversicolor) and Dendronotus robilliardi are valid species with compelling evidence from type materials, bibliographic sources, and molecular data
In this study, we present compelling evidence for the first time, including morphological and molecular data as well as a study of type materials, to definitively conclude that Dendronotus albus MacFarland, 1966 was misidentified in the publication of G.A. Robilliard (1970; Veliger, 12: 433 –479). This caused the long-term incorrect application of the characters of the real D. albus sensu F.M. MacFarland (1966; Mem. Calif. Acad. Sci. 6: 1–546) (which is still circulated in the literature) to a completely different, though externally similar, species incorrectly named “D. albus” in G.A. Robilliard (1...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 2, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Alexander Martynov Karin Fletcher Tatiana Korshunova Source Type: research
Size and shape assortative mating in Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Assortative mating is hypothesized to be a product of sexual selection, mating constraints, or temporal autocorrelation. I test these hypotheses in the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman, 1841), a sexually size dimorphic invasive insect pest in North America, by measuring the size and shape of bodies and wings of pair members in a wild population. Because male P. japonica prefer to mate with larger females and larger males outcompete rivals for mating opportunities, sexual selection is expected to produce size-related assortative mating. The current study did not suppor...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 24, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Clint D. Kelly Source Type: research
Inadequate treatment of taxonomic information prevents replicability of most zoological research
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. We evaluated the quality of information about taxonomic identifications in 710 papers published in seven zoological journals in 2017. We found that only 10.7% of papers cited identification methods, 29.2% made available specimen-level material for later verification, and 6.9% indicated taxon concepts applied to studied animals. Only 4.0% provided details about all three practices, while almost two-thirds provided none. Invertebrate papers were more likely than vertebrate papers to provide identification methods and deposit vouchers, but taxon concepts were rarely provided, and...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 19, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: S.K. Monckton S. Johal L. Packer Source Type: research
Transgenerational plasticity mediates temperature effects on fitness in the water flea Daphnia magna
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Phenotypic plasticity is an important way by which organisms respond to changes in their local environment, but it is not clear whether parents can buffer the negative impacts of high temperature on offspring fitness. To investigate this question, we exposed the water flea Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 and their offspring to either low (15 °C) or high (25 °C) temperature in a crossed factorial design. High parental temperature reduced the age and size at reproductive maturation and resulted in smaller mean clutch size, regardless of offspring temperature. This suggests th...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 18, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Gustavo S. Betini Xueqi Wang John M. Fryxell Source Type: research
Body size of ectotherms constrains thermal requirements for reproductive activity in seasonal environments
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Body size may influence ectotherm behaviour by influencing heating and cooling rates, thereby constraining the time of day that some individuals can be active. The time of day at which turtles nest, for instance, is hypothesized to vary with body size at both inter- and intra-specific levels because large individuals have greater thermal inertia, retaining preferred body temperatures for a longer period of time. We use decades of data on thousands of individual nests from Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada, to explore how body size is associated with nesting behaviour in Painted ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Jared W.H. Connoy Jessica A. Leivesley Ronald J. Brooks Jacqueline D. Litzgus Njal Rollinson Source Type: research
Persistence of pelvic spine polymorphism in a panmictic population of brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) in Alberta, Canada
In this study, we assessed whether reproductive isolation may be involved in the persistence of within-lake polymorphism in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans (Kirtland, 1840)). We studied populations of brook stickleback in central Alberta, Canada, that are polymorphic for pelvic reduction (i.e., presence –absence of pelvic spines). We investigated the persistence of the pelvic polymorphisms over 40 generations in five lakes. We found that, of the five populations examined, the frequencies of pelvic phenotypes have remained unchanged in three populations, the polymorphism has persisted with signifi cantly changed ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: J. Lowey Q. Cheng S.M. Rogers J.A. Mee Source Type: research
Stable isotopic signatures in modern wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) hairs as telltale biomarkers of nutritional stress
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Assessing the challenges faced by wildlife populations is key to providing effective management but is problematic when dealing with populations in remote locations. Analyses of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition (expressed as δ13C and δ15N values) of sequentially grown tissues, such as hairs, can be used to track changes in the eco-physiology of organisms. We generated δ13C and δ15N values from sequentially sampled (n = 465) hairs taken from wood bison (Bison bison athabascae Rhoads, 1898) (n = 27). Samples were take n from individuals ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 19, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Juliette Funck Cade Kellam C. Tom Seaton Matthew J. Wooller Source Type: research
Nest-site selection of a subarctic-breeding shorebird: evidence for tree avoidance without fitness consequences
We examined nest-site selection in Dunlin (Calidris alpina hudsonia (Todd, 1953)), a shorebird that nests in open fen habitats in the Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, region. Our objective was to determine whether this species avoids treed habitats and the possible fitness consequences for this. We examined the role of vegetative horizontal and vertical concealments on nest-site selection and nest fate. Dunlin selected nest sites with lower densities of trees than present at unused sites (40 m radius). Both horizontal and vertical concealments were significantly greater at nests than at unused sites, and horizontal concealment...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 6, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: G.I. Holmes L. Koloski E. Nol Source Type: research
An experimental test of the ecological mechanisms driving density-mediated carry-over effects in a seasonal population
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Carry-over effects occur when past experience influences current individual performance. Although variation in conspecific density in one season has been shown to carry over to influence dynamics in the following season, the proximate ecological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. One hypothesis is that high density decreases food availability, resulting in poor physiological condition, which in turn compromises performance the next season. Alternatively, high conspecific density could also lead to a high degree of antagonistic interactions, decreasing the amount of ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 6, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Joseph B. Burant Aidan Griffin Gustavo S. Betini D. Ryan Norris Source Type: research
Effects of bird feeder density on the foraging behaviors of a backyard songbird (the House Finch, Haemorhous mexicanus) subject to seasonal disease outbreaks
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Provisioning of wildlife, such as backyard bird feeding, can alter animal behavior and ecology in diverse ways. For species that are highly dependent on supplemental resources, it is critical to understand how variation in the degree of provisioning, as occurs naturally across backyards, alters wildlife behavior and ecology in ways potentially relevant to disease spread. We experimentally manipulated feeder density at suburban sites and tracked local abundance, foraging behaviors, body mass, and movement in House Finches (Haemorhous mexicanus (P.L. Statius M üller, 1776))...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 5, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: M.A. Aberle K.E. Langwig J.S. Adelman D.M. Hawley Source Type: research
Look both ways: factors affecting roadkill probability in Blue-black Grassquits (Volatinia jacarina)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The contribution of roads to human economic and social development contrasts with its impact on the environment and wildlife. One of the most significant impacts of roads is wildlife –vehicle collisions. Millions of individuals from numerous species are killed annually around the world. Here we investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of road killing on a small neotropical bird, the Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766)). We used a data set of roadkil l records collected between 2010 and 2015 to test the hypotheses that roadkills are concentrate...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 5, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: C.M. Soares R.I. Dias Source Type: research
Habitat use of co-occurring burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) in southeastern Ontario, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The coexistence of closely related species plays an important role in shaping local diversity. However, competition for shared resources can limit the ability of species to coexist. Many species avoid the costs of coexistence by diverging in habitat use, known as habitat partitioning. We examine patterns of habitat use in seven co-occurring species of burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775), testing the hypothesis that Nicrophorus species partition resources by occupying distinct habitats. We surveyed Nicrophorus abundance and 54 habitat characteristics at 100 rand...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 5, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: K.W. Burke J.D. Wettlaufer D.V. Beresford P.R. Martin Source Type: research
Foraging behaviour of four avian species feeding on the same temporarily available prey
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Low tide events provide terrestrial predators with ephemeral, but predictable and abundant sources of prey. Understanding the relationships between tidal cycles, prey availability, and predator abundances is vital to characterizing the ecological relationship between terrestrial predators and their marine prey. Here, we describe the foraging tactics of four common bird species in western North America — Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766)), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias Linnaeus, 1758), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens J.F. Naumann, 1840), ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 5, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: N.S.B. Houpt A.P.H. Bose T. Warriner N.A.W. Brown J.S. Quinn S. Balshine Source Type: research
Spatial genetic structure in the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) across the Namaqualand and western Fynbos areas of South Africa — a mitochondrial and microsatellite perspective
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 98, Issue 8, Page 557-571, August 2020. The interplay between biotic and abiotic environments is increasingly recognized as a major determinant of spatial genetic patterns. Among spatial genetic studies, saxicolous or rock-dwelling species remain underrepresented in spite of their strict dependence on landscape structure. Here we investigated patterns and processes operating at different spatial (fine and regional scales) and time scales (using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers) in the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766)). Our focus was on the western seaboard of South Afr...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - May 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: J.H. Visser T.J. Robinson B. Jansen van Vuuren Source Type: research
Absence of genetic structure reflects post-glacial history and present-day host use in Mapleleaf (Quadrula quadrula) mussel from Manitoba, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Our study documents and analyzes the absence of genetic diversity and structure of the Mapleleaf (Quadrula quadrula (Rafinesque, 1820)) (Bivalvia: Unionidae) mussel in the Lake Winnipeg, Assiniboine River, and Red River drainages (Manitoba, Canada). Previous studies have revealed patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the Mississippi and Ohio river drainages, as well as in the Laurentian Great Lakes drainage. Genotypes from six variable microsatellite loci showed that the Q. quadrula population in Manitoba was significantly differentiated from the population in the Gre...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - May 30, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: N.M. VanTassel C.E. Beaver D.A. Watkinson T.J. Morris D.T. Zanatta Source Type: research
To feed or flee: early life-history behavioural strategies of juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) during risk-sensitive foraging
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Balancing foraging opportunities with predation risk can promote complex behavioural strategies in juvenile fishes, particularly in northern temperate environments with short growing seasons. To test how predation experience may influence foraging effort and risk assessment of juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817), flight response and substrate preference behavioural measurements were taken during critical life periods of early exogenous feeding ( ∼60 days post fertilization (dpf)) and pre-winter (∼160 dpf). Lake sturgeon were placed in arenas ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - May 20, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: F. Bjornson M. Earhart W.G. Anderson Source Type: research
A new species of Bolitoglossa (Amphibia: Plethodontidae) from the central highlands of Guerrero, Mexico
We describe a new species of salamander of Bolitoglossa (Oaxakia) Parra-Olea, Garc ía-París and Wake, 2004 from the cloud forests of the central portion of the Sierra Madre del Sur highlands in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Bolitoglossa coaxtlahuacana sp. nov. is currently known only from the type locality and can be differentiated from other members of the group by morphologic al, coloration, and molecular evidence. With the description of this new taxon, the number of species in the subgenus Oaxakia increases to six. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - May 8, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Ricardo Palacios-Aguilar Antonio Yolocalli Cisneros-Bernal J. Diego Arias-Montiel Gabriela Parra-Olea Source Type: research
Age, growth, and population assessment of grass pickerel (Esox americanus vermiculatus) in two northern populations
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Age assessment was conducted on the at-risk grass pickerel (Esox americanus vermiculatus Lesueur, 1846) in southern Ontario, Canada (the northern edge of the species ’ range), to better understand population dynamics. Cleithral age assessment revealed different age distributions between two sample years; the first year characterized by old, large individuals and the second year characterized by mostly young of the year. Back-calculated lengths at age were used to develop the von Bertalanffy growth relationships and estimates of ultimate length. Growth rates were substant...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - April 28, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: J.E. Colm J.M. Casselman N.E. Mandrak Source Type: research
Isotopic niche of the American pika (Ochotona princeps) through space and time
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Anthropogenic climate change is influencing the ecology and distribution of animals. The American pika (Ochotona princeps (Richardson, 1828)) is considered a model species for studying the effects of climate on small alpine mammals and has experienced local extirpation across its range. Using stable isotope analysis of two seasonal molts and bone collagen, we characterize the isotopic carbon and nitrogen niche of pika populations across their range and through time. We find pika isotopic diet to be stable across both time and space compared with other animals and considering t...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - April 23, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: M.L. Westover K.A. Lizewski K.B. Klingler F.A. Smith Source Type: research
Multiple nutritional currencies shape pregnancy in a large herbivore
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Nutritional condition embodies environmental conditions experienced by animals with survival and reproductive consequences. Body fat is often associated with ungulate fecundity; however, other nutritional currencies may limit fecundity. Using data from 129 moose (Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758)) monitored over 429 moose-years, we examined the limiting role of multiple nutritional currencies on pregnancy rates while concurrently assessing the influence of age and prior reproduction. Females tended to be pregnant in successive years, suggesting differences in individual or habitat ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - April 21, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: J.R. Newby N.J. DeCesare Source Type: research
Variability in anuran advertisement call: a multi-level study with 15 species of monkey tree frogs (Anura, Phyllomedusidae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Understanding the variability of acoustic signals is a first important step for the comprehension of the evolutionary processes that led to current diversity. Herein, we evaluate the variability of the advertisement call of the phyllomedusid species from the genera Phyllomedusa Wagler, 1830 and Pithecopus Cope, 1866 at different levels: intra-individual, intra-population, inter-population, intra-species, and inter-specific. An analysis of coefficients of variation showed a continuum of variability between the acoustic parameters analyzed, from static to highly dynamic. The maj...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - April 3, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: David L. R öhr Felipe Camurugi Gustavo B. Paterno Marcelo Gehara Flora A. Junc á Guilherme F.R. Álvares Reuber A. Brand ão Adrian A. Garda Source Type: research
Age and growth variability of the yellow clam (Mesodesma mactroides) in two populations from Argentina: implications under climate change
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Morphometric relationships and age and growth rates of the yellow clam (Mesodesma mactroides Reeve, 1854 = Amarilladesma mactroides (Reeve, 1854)) were compared in two populations from Argentina: Santa Teresita (36 °32′00″S) and Mar del Plata (37°57′52″S). The Santa Teresita clams were heavier (shell, soft parts) than the Mar del Plata clams. Cross sections stained with Mutvei’s solution and acetate peels revealed an internal shell growth pattern of well-defined slow-growing translucent bands and a lternating fast-growing opaque bands. Tra...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - April 3, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: M.C. Risoli A. Baldoni J. Gim énez B.J. Lomovasky Source Type: research
Differential modulation after feeding in different salinities and response to abscisic acid (ABA) and extracellular Ca2+ of aminopeptidase N (APN) activity in the hepatopancreas of the intertidal euryhaline crab Neohelice granulata
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Modulation of aminopeptidase N (APN) activity in the digestive tract by various factors would be important to adjust digestive and absorptive processes under different physiological and (or) environmental conditions. We studied the postprandial responses at different salinities and the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and extracellular Ca2+ on APN activity in the hepatopancreas (the main site for nutrient digestion and absorption) of the model species Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851). Enzyme activity was determined at different times (0, 24, 48, and 72 h) after feeding in crabs a...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 27, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: M.S. Michiels G.R. Daleo A.A. L ópez Mañanes Source Type: research
Taxonomy and distribution of bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops) in Australian waters: an osteological clarification
This study highlights the importance of large sample size, multiple analytical methods, and extensive geographical coverage when undertaking taxonomic studies. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 26, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: M. Jedensj ö C.M. Kemper M. Milella E.P. Willems M. Kr ützen Source Type: research
Satellite cell division and fiber hypertrophy alternate with new fiber formation during indeterminate muscle growth in juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Age-dependent changes in muscle fiber size, myonuclear domain volume, fiber-end-terminal configuration, fiber and fish growth, and stem cell or satellite cell (SC) number and proliferation were investigated in developing lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens Rafinesque, 1817) to characterize indeterminate muscle growth during early life. We hypothesized that up to 29 months post hatch (MPH), SC numbers and mitotic activity, the mitotic cycle duration of SCs, fiber morphology, and the volume of cytoplasmic domains around fiber nuclei would change during periods of fiber hypertrop...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 26, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: A. Hiebert J.E. Anderson Source Type: research
Experimentally addressing and evaluating the impact of human activities on marine organisms
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 25, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: A. Kurt Gamperl Source Type: research
A review of Canadian Arctic killer whale (Orcinus orca) ecology
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The killer whale (Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758)) is a widely distributed marine predator with a broad ecological niche at the species level with evidence of specialization and narrow ecological niches among populations. Their occurrence in Canadian Arctic waters is limited by sea ice and it has been suggested that climate warming, which has caused increases in the area of ice-free water and duration of the ice-free season, has led to an increased killer whale presence during the open-water period. In this review, we summarize our knowledge of Canadian Arctic killer whale demog...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 16, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: K.J. Lefort C.J.D. Matthews J.W. Higdon S.D. Petersen K.H. Westdal C.J. Garroway S.H. Ferguson Source Type: research
Using reintroduction to elucidate breeding system, breeding phenology, and infanticide for a solitary carnivore (fisher, Pekania pennanti)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Breeding systems affect the timing of reproduction, spacing patterns and social organization, individual fitnesses, and population sizes. For many species, information on breeding systems and mating is limited or untested in wild populations, resulting in management actions that are incompletely informed. We used photographic data collected on a reintroduced fisher (Pekania pennanti (Erxleben, 1777)) population in northern California, USA, to test hypotheses about the breeding system, the timing of breeding, and the potential for male infanticide. We documented fishers of both...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 13, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: K.P. Smith A.N. Facka R.A. Powell Source Type: research
Parasite-modified behaviour in non-trophic transmission: trematode parasitism increases the attraction between snail intermediate hosts
This study demonstrates that echinostome trematodes alter snail behaviour by changing navigational choices in uninfected potential hosts through a chemical communication mechanism. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 13, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: L.K. Eliuk S. Brown R.C. Wyeth J.T. Detwiler Source Type: research
Water mould exposure induces enzymatic antioxidant defences in embryos of the Two-colored Oval Frog (Elachistocleis bicolor) (Anura: Microhylidae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 98, Issue 6, Page 411-416, June 2020. Water moulds are pathogens of amphibian eggs and embryos. However, little is known about oxidant or antioxidant status of amphibians in response to stress caused by water moulds. We exposed embryo stages of Two-colored Oval Frogs (Elachistocleis bicolor (Gu érin-Méneville, 1838)) to a Saprolegnia-like species of water mould to explore homeostatic adjustments by the shifting of oxidative stress markers. We also tested whether water mould infection affected survivorship, hatching time, and morphology of hatching embryos. We found that the ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 12, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: R. Ghirardi J. Cazenave J.A. L ópez C.E. Antoniazzi M.G. Perotti Source Type: research
Behavioral phenotype does not predict habitat occupancy or angling capture of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)
The objective of this study was to determine the influences of behavior types and habitat on angling vulnerability of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides (Lacep ède, 1802)) — a sit-and-wait predator. Behavior assays quantified individual activity and boldness, then experimental angling took place in ponds with two habitat treatments: (1) structured habitat with artificial structures present and (2) open habitat with no structures added. Two anglers deter mined which individual largemouth bass were vulnerable to capture across the two contexts. In contrast with previous studies involving active foragers, beh...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 12, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: T.D. Keiling M.J. Louison C.D. Suski Source Type: research
Male mating success is related to body condition and stress-induced leukocyte response in an anuran with scramble competition
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Competition among males can be a decisive factor for successful mating in anuran explosive breeders with a male-biased population sex ratio. The Yungas Red-belly Toad (Melanophryniscus rubriventris (Vellard, 1947)) is an explosive breeder where males exhibit a classic scramble competition. We studied the body size, body condition, and stress-induced leukocyte response of M. rubriventris males under natural scenarios of scramble competition. We hand-captured adult males (categorised as single, in pairs, or in mating balls) and determined their body mass and length, body conditi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 10, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: M.S. Gast ón M. Vaira Source Type: research
Olfactory epithelium ontogenesis and function in postembryonic North American Bullfrog (Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana) tadpoles
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. During metamorphosis, the olfactory system remodelling in anuran tadpoles — to transition from detecting waterborne odorants to volatile odorants as frogs — is extensive. How the olfactory system transitions from the larval to frog form is poorly understood, particularly in species that become (semi-)terrestrial. We investigated the ontogeny and function of the olfact ory epithelium of North American Bullfrog (Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana Shaw, 1802) tadpoles at various stages of postembryonic development. Changes in sensory components observable at the epithelial...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 10, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: J.L. Heerema S.J. Bogart C.C. Helbing G.G. Pyle Source Type: research
A game of patience between predator and prey: waiting for opponent ’s action determines successful capture or escape
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. When predator and prey animals face each other, preemptive actions by both sides are considered to mediate successful capture or escape. However, in spite of the general presumption, some animals, such as predatory snakes and their frog prey, occasionally remain motionless or move slowly for a while before striking or escaping, respectively. To clarify the possible advantages of this behaviour, we examined interactions between Japanese Four-lined Ratsnakes (Elaphe quadrivirgata (H. Boie, 1826)) and Black-spotted Pond Frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell, 1861)), focusin...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 10, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Nozomi Nishiumi Akira Mori Source Type: research
Factors driving sexual dimorphism and colour variability in the Achala Copper Lizard (Pristidactylus achalensis), an endemic species to the highland mountains in central Argentina
We examined sex differences in the Achala Copper Lizard (Pristidactylus achalensis (Gallardo, 1964)), an endemic species from the highest part of mountains of central Argentina. Over 4 years, we explored sex-specific variation in body size, head size, interlimb length, and body colouration. Furthermore, we evaluated how these traits varied temporally, and we also explored whether the spatial distribution of individuals is explained by variation in these traits. We found that P. achalensis is a species with sexual dimorphism in multiple characters, including body size, head size, and colouration. Interestingly, some traits ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 7, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: S. Naretto M. Chiaraviglio Source Type: research
Acute physiological response by the plethodontid salamander Eurycea cirrigera (Southern Two-lined Salamander) to predation stress from alarm chemicals and predator kairomones
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Plethodontid salamanders may reduce predation risk via behavioral responses to predator kairomones and alarm chemicals from injured salamanders. However, it not known whether such predator cues prompt acute physiological responses, which may enhance arousal and the physical ability to escape from a predator. I examined whether predator chemical cues elicit an acute cardiac response in Eurycea cirrigera (Green, 1831) (Southern Two-lined Salamander). I compared heart rates before and after exposure to the odor of the large predatory Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini de Manoncourt and ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 7, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: G.A. Marvin Source Type: research
Multi-scale foraging decisions made by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in summer
We examined woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin, 1788)) selection of foraging locations across two spatiotemporal scales to test whether selection patterns between them were consistent (scaling-up) or different (hierarchical) to determine which framework most accurately describes their foraging behaviour. Seven adult female woodland caribou were equipped with GPS telemetry radio collars outfitted with high-definition video cameras that recorded woodland caribou foraging choices throughout the summer. Fine-scale data from videos combined with direct measurements in the field along movement trajectories obtai...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 6, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: E.P. McNeill I.D. Thompson P.A. Wiebe G.M. Street J. Shuter A.R. Rodgers J.M. Fryxell Source Type: research
Not all ponds are created equal: long-term beaver (Castor canadensis) lodge occupancy in a heterogeneous landscape
This study identified habitat features selected by a relatively long-lived, colonial species, and how selection influenced site occupancy over varying spatial scales. Remote sensing and field data provided spatial and temporal coverage of four measures of occupancy. Models of occupancy over an 11-year period, combined with environmental variables, identified features influencing occupancy, abandonment, and recolonization at 30, 50, and 100 m scales. Unlike many studies, % deciduous was a poor predictor of occupancy. Instead, pond area, % grassland, distance to a pond that was active at least once, and standard deviation (S...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - March 6, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: G.A. Hood Source Type: research
Spatial genetic structure of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) at the northern limit of their native range
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The Canadian Rocky Mountains are one of the few places on Earth where the spatial genetic structure of wide-ranging species has been relatively unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance. We characterized the spatial genetic structure of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis Shaw, 1804) in the northern portion of their range. Using microsatellites from 1495 individuals and mitochondrial DNA sequences from 188 individuals, we examined both broad- and fine-scale spatial genetic structure, assessed sex-biased gene flow within the northern portion of the species ra...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 22, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Samuel Deakin Jamieson C. Gorrell Jeffery Kneteman David S. Hik Richard M. Jobin David W. Coltman Source Type: research
Is the Mahali mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus mahali) a spontaneous or induced ovulator?
This study set out to determine whether female Mahali mole-rats are induced or spontaneous ovulators once separated from the reproductive suppression of the breeding female. Fifteen separated females were subjected to three treatments: housed separately without a male (A), allowed chemical, but not physical, contact with a vasectomised male (NPC), and placed in direct contact with a vasectomised male (PC). Urine was collected from all females under each treatment every 2 days for 40 days. Only females housed in the PC treatment exhibited heightened progesterone concentrations and corpora lutea of ovulation in the ovaries. ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 20, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: D.W. Hart K. Medger B. van Jaarsveld N.C. Bennett Source Type: research
In Memoriam / In Memoriam
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 20, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: James J. Germida Suzanne Kettley Source Type: research
Evaluating policy-relevant surrogate taxa for biodiversity conservation: a case study from British Columbia, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Conservation efforts often lead to a small proportion of species receiving a disproportionate amount of attention. This bias in funding may help or hinder broader goals of biodiversity conservation depending on the surrogacy value of the well-funded species. Surrogate species are selected to represent other taxa in a shared environment when it would be costly or impractical to obtain information on individual taxa. We compared the surrogacy value of common groups of taxa implicated in conservation — game species, carnivores, non-game species, and other species. Using a p...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 19, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Sarah Falconer Adam T. Ford Source Type: research
Low wolverine (Gulo gulo) density in a national park complex of the Canadian Rocky Mountains
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Large carnivores are sensitive to human-caused extirpation due to large home ranges, low population densities, and low reproductive rates. Protected areas help maintain populations by acting as sources, but human-caused mortality, habitat displacement, and edge effects occurring at protected area boundaries may reduce that function. The national parks Banff, Yoho, and Kootenay in the Canadian Rocky Mountains are refugia for large carnivores, including wolverines (Gulo gulo (Linnaeus, 1758)). Despite growing conservation concern, empirical baseline population data for wolverine...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 16, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: M. Barrueto M.A. Sawaya A.P. Clevenger Source Type: research
Demographics of injuries indicate sexual coercion in a population of Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 98, Issue 4, Page 269-278, April 2020. Sexually coercive reproductive tactics are widespread among animals. Males may employ specialized structures to harass, intimidate, or physically harm females to force copulation, and injuries to the head and neck are reported in taxa with sexually coercive mating systems. The mating tactics of Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta (Schneider, 1783)) are typically described as involving male courtship and female choice. In contrast, female Painted Turtles in our study population display injuries on the head and neck indicative of bite wounds inflicted by ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 16, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: P.D. Moldowan R.J. Brooks J.D. Litzgus Source Type: research
Interpreting empirical estimates of experimentally derived physiological and biological thermal limits in ectotherms
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Whole-organism function is underpinned by physiological and biological processes, which respond to temperature over a range of time scales. Given that environmental temperature controls biological rates within ectotherms, different experimental protocols are needed to assess the ability of organisms to withstand extreme weather events versus gradual temperature change. Here we emphasize the importance of time in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes, and as an experimental parameter that is key when interpreting physiology studies reporting thermal limits. We discuss h...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 10, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: A.E. Bates S.A. Morley Source Type: research
Estimating critical habitat based on year-round movements of the endangered Jefferson Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum) and their unisexual dependents
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat protection is a key component of endangered species conservation, but critical habitat designations are often based on limited data or habitat use during only a portion of a species ’ life cycle. Protected habitat around breeding pools for the endangered Jefferson Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green, 1827)) and their unisexual dependents (Ambystoma laterale – (2) jeffersonianum) is based upon limited movement data from primarily spring and summer seasons. Furthermor e, despite their treatment as distinct species under Canada’s Species at Risk ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 31, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: S.G. Van Drunen J.E. Linton J.P. Bogart J. McCarter H. Fotherby A. Sandilands D.R. Norris Source Type: research
Acoustic vs. photographic monitoring of gray wolves (Canis lupus): a methodological comparison of two passive monitoring techniques
In this study, we compared estimates of occupancy and detectability between ARUs and remote cameras for gray wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) in northern Alberta, Canada. We found ARUs to be comparable with cameras in their detectability and occupancy of wolves, despite only operating for 3% of the time that cameras were active. However, combining cameras and ARUs resulted in the highest detection probabilities for wolves. These advances in survey technology and statistical methods provide innovative avenues for large-mammal monitoring that, when combined, can be applied to a broad spectrum of conservation and managemen...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 29, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Laura Garland Andrew Crosby Richard Hedley Stan Boutin Erin Bayne Source Type: research
Evaluating trade-offs between forage, biting flies, and footing on habitat selection by wood bison (Bison bison athabascae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat selection is a behavioural process that ultimately affects animal fitness. Forage availability and predation risk are often studied in the context of habitat selection for large ungulates, while other biological and environmental factors such as insect harassment and footing are less studied. Here we examine trade-offs in summer habitat selection between forage availability for wood bison (Bison bison athabascae Rhoads, 1898) with that of biting-fly harassment and soil firmness, which affects activity budgets and predation risk, respectively, and contrast this to winte...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 28, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: R.J. Belanger M.A. Edwards L.N. Carbyn S.E. Nielsen Source Type: research
Does temporal variation in predation risk affect antipredator responses of larval Indian Skipper Frogs (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis)?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Predation risk varies on a moment-to-moment basis, through day and night, lunar and seasonal cycles, and over evolutionary time. Hence, it is adaptive for prey animals to exhibit environment-specific behaviour, morphology, and (or) life-history traits. Herein, the effects of temporally varying predation risk on growth, behaviour, morphology, and life-history traits of larval Indian Skipper Frogs (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider, 1799)) were studied by exposing them to no risk, continuous, predictable, and unpredictable risks at different time points. Our results show that ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 19, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: S.C. Supekar N.P. Gramapurohit Source Type: research
The potential antifeedant activity of lichen-forming fungal extracts against the invasive Spanish slug (Arion vulgaris)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The protection of horticultural crops from slug feeding can be achieved using slug pellets; however, application of molluscicides is not always safe for the environment. There is a need for alternative methods to reduce the palatability of crop plants. Chemical properties of secondary compounds from lichens influence the feeding behaviour of slugs. Liquid extracts of three lichen species (Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F.H. Wigg., Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar& V ězda, and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf) were applied to three different crops and tested for their antifeed...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 19, 2020 Category: Zoology Authors: Maksims Zolovs Iveta Jakub āne Jelena Kirilova Inese Kivleniece Rolands Moisejevs Jelena Ko ļesnikova Digna Pil āte Source Type: research