The bitter end: primate avoidance of caterpillar-infested trees in a central Amazon flooded forest
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Animal –plant interactions are often mediated by chemical compounds. It has been widely reported that herbivore damage to plants induces chemical defenses which may then affect subsequent interactions with both invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores. Our study investigated the effects of the interaction between larvae of an unidentified nymphalid butterfly and the tanimbuca tree (Buchenavia ochroprumna Eichl.; Combretaceae) on subsequent folivory by a primate, the golden-backed uacari (Cacajao ouakary (Spix, 1823); Pitheciidae). Primate-feeding observations, records of t...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Allana A. Negreiros Adrian M. Pohlit Fabricio Baccaro H éctor H.F. Koolen Adrian A. Barnett Source Type: research

Habitat type influences parasite load in Algerian Psammodromus (Psammodromus algirus) lizards
This study con tributes to the identification of ecosystems and habitats that are most sensitive to prevalence and intensity of infection by parasites. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J. Carbayo J. Mart ín E. Civantos Source Type: research

Resource selection by coyotes (Canis latrans) in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem: effects of anthropogenic fires and landscape features
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 2, Page 165-171, February 2019. Prescribed fire is used to restore and maintain fire-dependent forest communities. Because fire affects food and cover resources, fire-mediated resource selection has been documented for many wildlife species. The first step in understanding these interactions is to understand resource selection of the predators in a fire-maintained system. We attached GPS radio collars to 27 coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and examined resource selection relative to fire-maintained vegetation types, years since fire, anthropogenic features that facilitate presc...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: E.R. Stevenson M.A. Lashley M.C. Chitwood J.E. Garabedian M.B. Swingen C.S. DePerno C.E. Moorman Source Type: research

Identifying attributes associated with brown bear (Ursus arctos) road-crossing and roadkill sites
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 2, Page 156-164, February 2019. Habitat fragmentation caused by transportation infrastructure is an issue of growing concern worldwide. We show how secondary roads may affect landscape permeability for brown bears (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758). We focused on identifying environmental variables that govern the selection of road-crossing zones by bears (crossing model). We also investigated whether variables that characterize road-crossing zones differ from those that are typical for bear –vehicle collision sites (collision model). The study area was located in north-central...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: S. Find ’o M. Skuban M. Kajba J. Chalmers M. Kala š Source Type: research

Ontogeny of the skull of the Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger) (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae)
We describe the formation of the chondrocranium and the ossification pattern of the skull of the Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger (Spix, 1825)). The embryos were cleared and double-stained with Alizarin Red S and Alcian Blue 8GX. Additionally, they were visualized by histological hematoxylin and eosin staining and computed tomography imaging. The chondrocranium of M. niger comprised the nasal capsule, orbitotemporal, and optic –occipital regions. Its development began at stage 9, with the chondrification of the acrochordal cartilage, trabeculae, and mandibular cartilage. The optic capsule was formed in the caudolater...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: L.G. Vieira A.L.Q. Santos L.Q.L. Hirano L.T. Menezes-Reis J.S. Mendon ça A. Sebben Source Type: research

Comparison of the nutritional value and fatty acid composition of milk from four South American camelid species
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The nutritional value, whey protein, and the fatty acid (FA) composition of milk from four South American camelids (SAC) (vicuna, Vicugna vicugna (Molina, 1782); alpaca, Vicugna pacos (Linnaeus, 1758); guanaco, Lama guanicoe (M üller, 1776); llama, Lama glama (Linnaeus, 1758)) were evaluated and compared with milk from old-world camelids. Samples were collected from healthy animals from the northwest (llama, alpaca, and vicuna) and Patagonia (guanaco) areas of Argentina. Gross composition of milk from SAC showed a higher protein, lactose, and lipid content than camel milk...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Mirta. A. Medina Guido A. Van Nieuwenhove Patricia Luna Pizarro Carina P. Van Nieuwenhove Source Type: research

Seasonal demography of the threatened Montevideo Redbelly Toad (Melanophryniscus montevidensis) in a protected area of Uruguay
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Estimates of demographic parameters are scarce for Neotropical amphibians, a concerning fact because this region has the highest proportion of threatened amphibians in the world. We conducted a 3-year study where we applied a robust capture –mark–recapture design to assess the importance of breeding and non-breeding activity patterns over the survival rates, detection probabilities, and abundances of the Montevideo Redbelly Toad (Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Philippi, 1902)), a threatened anuran from Uruguay. The best models gro uped seasons into hot and cold pe...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: C. Bardier N. Mart ínez-Latorraca J.L. Porley S.V. Bortolini N. Cabrera Alonzo R. Maneyro L.F. Toledo Source Type: research

Twenty-six years (1990 –2015) of monitoring annual recruitment of the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Rideau River, a small river system in Eastern Ontario, Canada
This study is unique because it provides a thorough understanding of the 26 years of invasion history of the zebra mussel in a small river system. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: A.L. Martel J.B. Madill Source Type: research

Comparison of the nutritional value and fatty acid composition of milk from four South American camelid species
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The nutritional value, whey protein, and the fatty acid (FA) composition of milk from four South American camelids (SAC) (vicuna, Vicugna vicugna (Molina, 1782); alpaca, Vicugna pacos (Linnaeus, 1758); guanaco, Lama guanicoe (M üller, 1776); llama, Lama glama (Linnaeus, 1758)) were evaluated and compared with milk from old-world camelids. Samples were collected from healthy animals from the northwest (llama, alpaca, and vicuna) and Patagonia (guanaco) areas of Argentina. Gross composition of milk from SAC showed a higher protein, lactose, and lipid content than camel milk...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Mirta. A. Medina Guido A. Van Nieuwenhove Patricia Luna Pizarro Carina P. Van Nieuwenhove Source Type: research

Seasonal demography of the threatened Montevideo Redbelly Toad (Melanophryniscus montevidensis) in a protected area of Uruguay
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 2, Page 131-141, February 2019. Estimates of demographic parameters are scarce for Neotropical amphibians, a concerning fact because this region has the highest proportion of threatened amphibians in the world. We conducted a 3-year study where we applied a robust capture –mark–recapture design to assess the importance of breeding and non-breeding activity patterns over the survival rates, detection probabilities, and abundances of the Montevideo Redbelly Toad (Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Philippi, 1902)), a threatened anuran from Uruguay. The best models gro upe...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: C. Bardier N. Mart ínez-Latorraca J.L. Porley S.V. Bortolini N. Cabrera Alonzo R. Maneyro L.F. Toledo Source Type: research

Mortality assessment of moose (Alces alces) calves during successive years of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) epizootics in New Hampshire and Maine (USA)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Populations within ecological communities constantly fluctuate due to a multitude of interactions that can be influenced by climate change. Moose (Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758)) populations in northern New Hampshire and western Maine, subunits of the largest regional moose population in the continental United States, are suspected to be declining due to increasing frequency of winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus Packard, 1869) epizootics that cause>50% late-winter mortality of 9- to 12-month-old calves. To investigate this hypothesis, we collected general health measurements...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 26, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: H. Jones P. Pekins L. Kantar I. Sidor D. Ellingwood A. Lichtenwalner M. O ’Neal Source Type: research

Population genetic structure and assessment of allochronic divergence in the Macoun ’s Arctic (Oeneis macounii) butterfly
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Patterns in the genetic variation of species can be used to infer their specific demographic and evolutionary history and provide insight into the general mechanisms underlying population divergence and speciation. The Macoun ’s Arctic (Oeneis macounii (W.H. Edwards, 1885); MA) butterfly occurs across Canada and parts of the northern United States in association with jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon). MA’s current distribution is highly fragmented, and the extent of reproductive isolation among allopatric popula...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 25, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: A.E. Gradish N. Keyghobadi F.A.H. Sperling G.W. Otis Source Type: research

Taphonomy of Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis) pellets from the Chafarinas islands (Spain)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Fish are consumed by many predators in addition to humans. Identifying the agent responsible for an archaeological fish bone accumulation is a crucial yet far from straightforward task in the absence of diagnostic criteria. It is for this reason that exploring the features of fish bone collections produced by animals constitutes a key issue of archaeozoological research. In this paper, one such study is presented for the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis J.F. Naumann, 1840). A total of 48 pellets were collected in a colony of the species on two islands of the Chafarinas ar...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 25, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Emilie Guillaud Arturo Morales-Mu ñiz Eufrasia Rosell ó-Izquierdo Philippe B éarez Source Type: research

The reproductive pattern of the Gerbilliscus cf. leucogaster (Rodentia: Muridae) from Namibia
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Very little is known about the reproductive biology of the Gerbilliscus cf. leucogaster (Peters, 1852) despite its wide distribution throughout the southern African subregion. Body mass, reproductive tract morphometrics, and gonadal histology were studied over 12 months in wild caught Gerbilliscus cf. leucogaster from the central part of Namibia to gain insights into the reproductive pattern of this species. The number of Graafian follicles and corpora lutea in 93 females increased at the end of the dry period (September) and throughout the wet months of the year (October &nda...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 25, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Sachariah P. Muteka Christian T. Chimimba Armanda D. Bastos Nigel C. Bennett Source Type: research

Do House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) add spider egg cases to their nests for heterospecific cleaning?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, 1809) regularly add spider egg cases (Arachnida: Araneae) to their nests, which may be an example of heterospecific cleaning. This behavior involves one animal employing another to remove parasites from their nests. In House Wren nests, juvenile spiders hatching from egg cases may facilitate the reduction of mites that feed on nestlings. We tested this ectoparasite reduction hypothesis by monitoring House Wren nests for spider egg cases and by collecting completed nests to compare the number of spider egg cases and Dermanyssus hirundini...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 25, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: C.L. Gable T.J. Underwood G.P. Setliff Source Type: research

Population genetic structure and assessment of allochronic divergence in the Macoun ’s Arctic (Oeneis macounii) butterfly
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 2, Page 121-130, February 2019. Patterns in the genetic variation of species can be used to infer their specific demographic and evolutionary history and provide insight into the general mechanisms underlying population divergence and speciation. The Macoun ’s Arctic (Oeneis macounii (W.H. Edwards, 1885); MA) butterfly occurs across Canada and parts of the northern United States in association with jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon). MA’s current distribution is highly fragmented, and the extent of reproductive iso...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 25, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: A.E. Gradish N. Keyghobadi F.A.H. Sperling G.W. Otis Source Type: research

Taphonomy of Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis) pellets from the Chafarinas islands (Spain)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 2, Page 100-111, February 2019. Fish are consumed by many predators in addition to humans. Identifying the agent responsible for an archaeological fish bone accumulation is a crucial yet far from straightforward task in the absence of diagnostic criteria. It is for this reason that exploring the features of fish bone collections produced by animals constitutes a key issue of archaeozoological research. In this paper, one such study is presented for the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis J.F. Naumann, 1840). A total of 48 pellets were collected in a colony of the species on tw...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 25, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Emilie Guillaud Arturo Morales-Mu ñiz Eufrasia Rosell ó-Izquierdo Philippe B éarez Source Type: research

Effects of territorial status and life history on Sandhill Crane (Antigone canadensis) population dynamics in south-central Wisconsin, USA
This study also highlights the value of collecting demographic data for all population segments, from which one can derive reproductive output or growth rate. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 11, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Michael E. Wheeler Jeb A. Barzen Shawn M. Crimmins Timothy R. Van Deelen Source Type: research

Effects of territorial status and life history on Sandhill Crane (Antigone canadensis) population dynamics in south-central Wisconsin, USA
This study also highlights the value of collecting demographic data for all population segments, from which one can derive reproductive output or growth rate. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 11, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Michael E. Wheeler Jeb A. Barzen Shawn M. Crimmins Timothy R. Van Deelen Source Type: research

Temperature, wind, vegetation, and roads influence incubation patterns of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) in the Nebraska Sandhills, USA
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Avian incubation involves behavioral decisions that must balance trade-offs between the incubating bird ’s survival and current and future reproductive success. We evaluated variation in incubation off-bout duration and frequency among Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus (Brewster, 1885)) in the Nebraska Sandhills, USA. Greater Prairie-Chicken life history favors incubation behavio rs that prioritize success of the current breeding attempt over adult survival. Previous observations suggest incubating females make these behavioral decisions based on ambi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 30, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Ian R. Hoppe Jocelyn O. Harrison Edward J. Raynor IV Mary Bomberger Brown Larkin A. Powell Andrew J. Tyre Source Type: research

Predictors of nestling survival during harsh weather events in an aerial insectivore, the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Extreme weather events influence the population dynamics of wild animals. For organisms whose food source is affected by environmental conditions, such as aerial insectivorous birds, periods of inclement weather can have devastating effects. Here, we examine predictors of survival of individual nestlings and whole broods in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot, 1808)) during an extreme, 2-day harsh weather event in central British Columbia, Canada, which co-occurred with experimental reduction of nest ectoparasite loads using an antiparasite drug (ivermectin) or heat-t...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 30, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Ilsa A. Griebel Russell D. Dawson Source Type: research

Temperature, wind, vegetation, and roads influence incubation patterns of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) in the Nebraska Sandhills, USA
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 2, Page 91-99, February 2019. Avian incubation involves behavioral decisions that must balance trade-offs between the incubating bird ’s survival and current and future reproductive success. We evaluated variation in incubation off-bout duration and frequency among Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus (Brewster, 1885)) in the Nebraska Sandhills, USA. Greater Prairie-Chicken life history favors incubation behavio rs that prioritize success of the current breeding attempt over adult survival. Previous observations suggest incubating females make these behavi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 30, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Ian R. Hoppe Jocelyn O. Harrison Edward J. Raynor IV Mary Bomberger Brown Larkin A. Powell Andrew J. Tyre Source Type: research

Predictors of nestling survival during harsh weather events in an aerial insectivore, the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 2, Page 81-90, February 2019. Extreme weather events influence the population dynamics of wild animals. For organisms whose food source is affected by environmental conditions, such as aerial insectivorous birds, periods of inclement weather can have devastating effects. Here, we examine predictors of survival of individual nestlings and whole broods in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot, 1808)) during an extreme, 2-day harsh weather event in central British Columbia, Canada, which co-occurred with experimental reduction of nest ectoparasite loads using an antiparasite...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 30, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Ilsa A. Griebel Russell D. Dawson Source Type: research

Acoustic detections of Arctic marine mammals near Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 1, Page 72-80, January 2019. The Arctic marine environment is changing rapidly through a combination of sea ice loss and increased anthropogenic activity. Given these changes can affect marine animals in a variety of ways, understanding the spatial and temporal distributions of Arctic marine animals is imperative. We use passive acoustic monitoring to examine the presence of marine mammals near Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada, from October 2016 to April 2017. We documented bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus Linnaeus, 1758) and beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 28, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: W.D. Halliday M.K. Pine S.J. Insley R.N. Soares P. Kortsalo X. Mouy Source Type: research

Effects of parental and nest-site characteristics on nestling quality in the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 97, Issue 1, Page 63-71, January 2019. Natal environment and parental quality can influence offspring phenotype, including physiological and morphological traits. We investigated how offspring morphology and feather corticosterone (CORTf; a physiological index of allostatic load) may be related to nest environment and parental characteristics by cross-fostering 3-day-old nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor (Vieillot, 1808)) between quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and plywood nest boxes that differed in microclimate. We evaluated the relative importance of natal influenc...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 28, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Ilsa A. Griebel Graham D. Fairhurst Tracy A. Marchant Robert G. Clark Source Type: research

Endozoochory by granivorous rodents in seed dispersal of green fruits
In this study, we tracked fruit removal of the tara vine (Actinidia arguta (Siebold& Zucc.) Planch. Ex Miq.) and variegated kiwi vine (Actinidia kolomikta (Rupr.& Maxim.) Maxim.) in a temperate forest and presented fruits to the granivorous rodents Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus (Laxmann, 1769)), Korean field mouse (Apodemus peninsulae (Thomas, 1907)), and gray red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus (Sundevall, 1846) = Myodes rufocanus (Sundevall, 1846)) in the laboratory to answer this question. Seeds were collected from rodent feces to see the effects of gut passage on seed germination to determine the rol...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 28, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Yueqin Yang Yihao Zhang Yinhua Deng Xianfeng Yi Source Type: research

LPS-induced alterations in reproductive organs and liver pigmentation in the toad Rhinella diptycha (Bufonidae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Anurans can be naturally infected by the bacterium Escherichia coli (Migula, 1895) Castellani and Chalmers, 1919, which contain lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in their external membrane. LPS affects reproductive functions in mammals and extracutaneous pigmentary system of anurans. Besides the functional gonad, bufonid amphibians have an undeveloped female organ (Bidder ’s organ), whose function is poorly known. We aimed to investigate the effects of LPS on testis and Bidder’s organ germ cells and on liver pigmentation in the toad Rhinella diptycha (Cope, 1862). Animals ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 28, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: L.S. Gregorio J.S. Freitas L. Franco-Belussi C. De Oliveira Source Type: research

Microscopy and development of a remarkable pitted quill from the thin-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the quill surface from the thin-spined porcupine (Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818)) has several regional cuticular patterns of which the most expansive is highly pitted with 4 μm wide pores leading to pits, which in turn communicate circumferentially via tunnels to neighboring pits. The cell unit of the pitted layer is a hexagonal or pentagonal prism, the “pitted fibrillous cuticular cell” (PFCC), which has a superficial pitted cuticular scale derived part with an un derlying part packed with fine fibrils and the nucle...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 24, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: David M. Chapman Gast ón A.F. Giné Uldis Roze Source Type: research

Assessment of diet composition of free-ranging addax antelopes (Addax nasomaculatus) by the combination of microhistological procedures and n-alkanes and long-chain alcohols as fecal markers
This study assessed the diet composition of free-ranging addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus (de Blainville, 1816)). Samples collected during the spring season were analyzed using microhistological procedures along with n-alkanes and long-chain alcohols as fecal markers. Twelve animals were monitored and fresh fecal samples were collected daily during a 7-day period. Diet composition estimates obtained by both methods were similar and indicate that Stipagrostis pungens (Desf.) De Winter was the main diet component followed by Fagonia glutinosa Delile, Helianthemum kahiricum Delile, and Hammada schmittiana (Pomel.) Botsch. ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 24, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Hicham Seri Mohsen Chammem Severiano Silva Miguel Rodrigues Touhami Khorchani Luis Ferreira Source Type: research

Positive correlation between dispersal and body size in Green Frogs (Rana clamitans) naturally colonizing an experimental landscape
We examined three dispersal–phenotype correlations in Green Frogs (Rana clamitans Latreille, 1801 = Lithobates clamitans (Latreille, 1801)). Two were in traits that have been previously tied to fitness (body size and body condition), while a third (relative hindlimb leng th) has been linked to movement performance. We constructed a spatially dispersed array of experimental ponds in close proximity to source ponds known to support Green Frog breeding populations. Over the course of two breeding seasons (four sampling periods), we measured phenotypes of all Green Frog s that had colonized the experimental ponds and a s...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 22, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: C.A. Searcy B. Gilbert M. Krko šek L. Rowe S.J. McCauley Source Type: research

Annual cycle of White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca) in eastern North America: migratory phenology, population delineation, and connectivity
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Understanding full annual cycle movements of long-distance migrants is essential for delineating populations, assessing connectivity, evaluating crossover effects between life stages, and informing management strategies for vulnerable or declining species. We used implanted satellite transmitters to track up to 2 years of annual cycle movements of 52 adult female White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca (Linnaeus, 1758)) captured in the eastern United States and Canada. We used these data to document annual cycle phenology; delineate migration routes; identify primary areas used ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 22, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: D.E. Meattey S.R. McWilliams P.W.C. Paton C. Lepage S.G. Gilliland L. Savoy G.H. Olsen J.E. Osenkowski Source Type: research

Periphyton consumption by an invasive snail species is greater in simplified than in complex habitats
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat complexity may stabilize consumer –resource interactions and reduce the probability of invasion in aquatic habitats. We tested the hypotheses that (i) higher habitat complexity reduces resource consumption independently of grazer species, but that (ii) invasive grazers have a greater influence on decreasing resources independently of habitat complexity. We performed an experiment using artificial substrates to simulate different complexity levels. We evaluated Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Müller, 1774) and Aylacostoma chloroticum Hylton Scott, 1954 consumpti...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 20, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Rafael Prandini Tramonte Nicolli Cristina Os ório Fl ávio Henrique Ragonha Gisele Daiane Pinha Liliana Rodrigues Roger Paulo Mormul Source Type: research

Quantification of 27 yolk steroid hormones in seven shrubland bird species: interspecific patterns of hormone deposition and links to life history, development, and predation risk
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Steroid hormones play critical organizational and activational roles during vertebrate development, impacting everything from sexual differentiation to metabolic activity. For oviparous species such as birds, these hormones are transferred from female to egg during follicle maturation, and differences in relative and absolute concentrations of the steroid hormones may reflect differences in life history, developmental, and ecological conditions. Prior work on yolk steroid hormones has focused on a handful of candidate hormones (e.g., testosterone, androstenedione, and corticos...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 20, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: L. Merrill S.J. Chiavacci R.T. Paitz T.J. Benson Source Type: research

How plastic is migratory behavior? Quantifying elevational movement in a partially migratory alpine ungulate, the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 12, Page 1385-1394, December 2018. Migratory species face well-documented global declines, but the causes of these declines remain unclear. One obstacle to better understanding these declines is uncertainty surrounding how migratory behavior is maintained. Most migratory populations are partially migratory, displaying both migrant and resident behaviors. Theory only provides two possible explanations for this coexistence of migration and residency: either these behaviors are fixed at the individual level or both behaviors are part of a single conditional strategy in which an ind...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 20, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: D.B. Spitz M. Hebblewhite T.R. Stephenson D.W. German Source Type: research

Learning to listen: a primer on bat echolocation research
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 17, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: R. Mark Brigham Source Type: research

Pleistocene glacial cycles and physical barriers influence phylogeographic structure in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a widespread North American passerine
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 12, Page 1366-1377, December 2018. The nonmigratory Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus (Linnaeus, 1766)) has a continent-wide distribution extending across large parts of North America. To investigate the phylogeographic structure and verify possible refugia during the last glacial maximum, we sequenced a 678 bp region of the mitochondrial control region from 633 Black-capped Chickadees at 35 sites across North America and performed paleoecological distribution modeling. Two genetically distinct groups were found using multiple analyses: one in Newfoundland (Canada) an...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 16, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J. Hindley B.A. Graham T.M. Burg Source Type: research

Relationship of baseline and maximum glucocorticoid concentrations to migration propensity: a field test with wild subadult brown trout (Salmo trutta)
In this study, we evaluated whether baseline and poststressor GC hormone concentrations predicted migration strategy (i.e., resident or migrant) and successful seaward migration in a partially migrating population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758). Baseline (N = 99) or poststressor (N = 102) plasma cortisol concentrations were obtained from brown trout and they were tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) and released in a natural Danish stream. Subsequently, fish were tracked with PIT reader systems and the stream was resampled for resident individuals. GC levels were not found to be associate...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 15, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: S.M.R. Jain-Schlaepfer J.D. Midwood M.H. Larsen K. Aarestrup G.D. King C.D. Suski S.J. Cooke Source Type: research

Worms make risky choices too: the effect of starvation on foraging in the common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Species should avoid risks to protect accumulated fitness. However, when faced with starvation, organisms may accept risks to enhance future reproductive opportunities. We investigated the effect of starvation on risk-taking behaviour in the common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758). Lumbricus terrestris are negatively phototactic annelids that feed on decaying plant matter at the soil surface. Feeding in high-light conditions is a potentially riskier choice, given the threats of visual predators and desiccation. We predicted that starvation in L. terrestris would...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 14, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: P. Sandhu O. Shura R.L. Murray C. Guy Source Type: research

Geographic variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism of North American Ratsnakes (Pantherophis spp. s.l.)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Because body size affects nearly all facets of an organism ’s life history, ecologists have long been interested in large-scale patterns of body-size variation, as well as why those large-scale patterns often differ between sexes. We explored body-size variation across the range of the sexually dimorphic Ratsnake complex (species of the genus Pantherophis Fitzinger, 1843 s.l.; formerly Elaphe obsoleta (Say in James, 1823)) in North America. We specifically explored whether variation in body size followed latitudinal patterns or varied with climatic variables. We found th...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 7, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Brett A. DeGregorio Gabriel Blouin-Demers Gerardo L.F. Carfagno J. Whitfield Gibbons Stephen J. Mullin Jinelle H. Sperry John D. Willson Kenny Wray Patrick J. Weatherhead Source Type: research

On two species of Riocypris (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from northern Patagonia and their relation to Eucypris fontana: implications in paleoenvironmental reconstructions
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 8, Page 801-817, August 2018. Two species of ostracods new to Patagonia, Argentina, are described. One of them, Riocypris whatleyi sp. nov., is described for the first time, and the second, Riocypris sarsi (Daday, 1902) comb. nov., is reallocated from genus Eucypris to genus Riocypris. Inter- and intra-specific variations in shape, size, and sexual dimorphism were evaluated based on geometric morphometric analysis. Moreover, morphological and morphometric comparative analyses were applied to re-examine living and quaternary specimens recovered from previous studies. Based on the...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 6, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: C.A. Coviaga A.P. P érez L.Y. Ramos P. Alvear G.C. Cusminsky Source Type: research

Physical tidepool characteristics affect age- and size-class distributions and site fidelity in tidepool sculpin (Oligocottus maculosus)
In this study, we investigate the influence of physical pool characteristics on the site fidelity and population distribution of tidepool sculpin (Oligocottus maculosus Girard, 1856). We assessed short-term recapture of marked individuals and size-class distribution among four pool sets. The proportion of adults varied between pools primarily in association with water temperature and pool volume. Smaller adult and larger juvenile fish occupied warmer, small-volume pools, whereas larger adults occupied larger, cooler pools. Between 24% and 56% of marked fish were recaptured, with a higher probability of recapture in pools w...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: S.J.S. Wuitchik L.D. Harder C.A. Meschkat S.M. Rogers Source Type: research

Chromatic variability and sexual dimorphism in the rocky lizard Phymaturus verdugo
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The genus Phymaturus comprises lizards that inhabit cold environments at high altitudes or latitudes. Phymaturus verdugo Cei and Videla, 2003 is characterized by cephalic melanism, which is interpreted as a character present only in males and associated with sexual dimorphism. Using spectrophotometry and photography, we demonstrate that this species has high chromatic variability and that melanism is also present in females. By comparing colour variables on 15 patches of the body, we find significant differences between sexes in all patches, indicating strong sexual dichromati...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: V. Corbal án N. Vicenzi D.L. Moreno Az ócar S. Literas Source Type: research

Historical distributions of bobcats (Lynx rufus) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) suggest no range shifts in British Columbia, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Species across the planet are shifting their ranges in response to climate change and habitat loss. However, range shifts may vary, with populations moving in some areas but remaining stable in others; the conditions that encourage range stability rather than range shifts are poorly known. Bobcats (Lynx rufus (Schreber, 1777)) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis Kerr, 1792) are congeneric mesocarnivores with wide ranges across North America and range overlap in southern boreal and montane forests (the southern edge for lynx and the northern edge for bobcat). The ranges of both sp...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: T. Gooliaff K.E. Hodges Source Type: research

Endure your parasites: Sleepy Lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) movement is not affected by their ectoparasites
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Movement is often used to indicate host vigour, as it has various ecological and evolutionary implications, and has been shown to be affected by parasites. We investigate the relationship between tick load and movement in the Australian Sleepy Lizard (Tiliqua rugosa (Gray, 1825)) using high resolution GPS tracking. This allowed us to track individuals across the entire activity season. We hypothesized that tick load negatively affects host movement (mean distance moved per day). We used a multivariate statistical model informed by the ecology and biology of the host and parasi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Patrick L. Taggart Stephan T. Leu Orr Spiegel Stephanie S. Godfrey Andrew Sih C. Michael Bull Source Type: research

Influence of the timing of weaning on growth and survival of juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)
In this study, we tested whether late weaning (at settlement (W0) and groups maintained on co-feeding for 1 month (W1), two months (W2), or 3 months (W3) after settlement) could improve juvenile survival and l ipid composition. Our results demonstrated that maintaining co-feeding beyond the larval stage was essential for after-settlement survival. Juveniles co-fed until 90 days after settlement were 32.5% heavier. Analyses of fatty acid trophic markers suggested that juveniles preferentially fed on enrich ed rotifers rather than inert food. No pigmentation or fin erosion problems were observed in any of the weaning treatme...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: M. B élanger F. Turcotte R. Tremblay Y. Lambert M.K. Litvak C. Audet Source Type: research

Clear diel patterns in breeding calls of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) at Hornby Island, British Columbia, Canada
In this study, tide level did not have a significant effect on calling rate, and female foraging behavior was not monitored. One acoustic observation of mammal-eating killer whale (Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758)) calls was followed by 48 h of decreased calling rate. We infer that predation risk influences the temporal pattern of male calling at this location and suggest further study to support this hypothesis. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Katrina Nikolich H éloïse Frouin-Mouy Alejandro Acevedo-Guti érrez Source Type: research

Evaluation of the combined temperature and relative humidity preferences of the Colombian terrestrial salamander Bolitoglossa ramosi (Amphibia: Plethodontidae)
This study was performed in a field location in the municipality of L íbano, Tolima, Colombia. There, on different nights, we collected 84 adult B. ramosi and carried out the preference experiments, using aluminum troughs with different thermal and RH gradients. We found that between high temperature and high RH, B. ramosi preferred high RH. However, B. ramosi select ed high temperatures when the gradient had a high RH and low temperatures when the gradient had a low RH. These results show that B. ramosi is able to thermoregulate and hydroregulate. Nevertheless, hydroregulation seems to be more important than thermo...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: C.A. Galindo E.X. Cruz M.H. Bernal Source Type: research

Home-range size and fidelity of two sympatric Martes species
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Determining variation in home-range behavior and the factors shaping this variation is crucial to better understand the biology of species and thus improve their management and conservation. We investigated age and sex variations in the home-range and core-area sizes, as well as fidelity to home range, of the stone marten (Martes foina (Erxleben, 1777)) and the European pine marten (Martes martes (Linnaeus, 1758)) in a rural area (Bresse, France) over several seasons. As expected, pine martens had larger home ranges and core areas than stone martens. Sex differences were also ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 3, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: J. Larroque S. Ruette J.M. Vandel S. Devillard Source Type: research

Experimental removal reveals only weak interspecific competition between two coexisting lizards
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Competition for resources is an important mechanism that shapes ecological communities. Interspecific competition can affect habitat selection, fitness, and abundance in animals. We used a removal experiment and mark –recapture to test the hypothesis that competition with the larger and more abundant Striped Plateau Lizard (Sceloporus virgatus H.M. Smith, 1938) limits habitat selection, fitness, and abundance in Ornate Tree Lizards (Urosaurus ornatus (Baird in Baird and Girard, 1852)). Ornate Tree Lizards in t he plots where Striped Plateau Lizards were removed switched ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 27, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: James E. Paterson Stacey L. Weiss Gabriel Blouin-Demers Source Type: research

Metabolic phenotype is not associated with vulnerability to angling in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 11, Page 1264-1271, November 2018. Prior work has described a link between an individual ’s metabolic rate and a willingness to take risks. One context in which high metabolic rates and risk-prone behaviors may prove to be maladaptive is in fish that strike fishing lures only to be captured by anglers. It has been shown that metabolic phenotype may be altered by angling; however, litt le work has assessed metabolic rate in fish and its relationship to angling vulnerability in a realistic angling trial. To address this, we subjected a set of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macroc...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 14, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Michael J. Louison J.A. Stein C.D. Suski Source Type: research