Affinities of the alleged earliest Cambrian gastropod Aldanella
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 91, Issue 12, Page 914-923, December 2013. Unlike true Palaeozoic gastropods, but similar to some coeval hyoliths, the cup-like hemispherical embryonic shell of Aldanella attleborensis (Shaler and Foerste, 1888) from the earliest Cambrian (early Tommotian) Erkeket Formation of northern Siberia bears a mucro. Also, the pattern of mortality, with right-skewed distribution and a peak at about 1.0 mm diameter, is not similar to that of early Palaeozoic gastropods; there is no evidence of metamorphosis that would end the pelagic larval stage of ontogeny. Specimens of larger size are rar...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 30, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Ecological correlates of stress for a habitat generalist in a biofuels landscape
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 853-858, e-First articles. Understanding the success of habitat generalist species requires knowledge of how individuals respond to stressors that vary across habitats within landscapes. Habitat structure can affect stress by altering predation risk, conspecific densities, and densities of heterospecific competitors. Increased demand for biofuels will alter habitat structure for species in agroecosystems worldwide. We measured stress responses of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner, 1845)), a widespread habitat generalist, in a biofuels landscape. We quantifi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 29, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Local and migratory movements of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) satellite-tracked in the North Atlantic Ocean
This study provides the first detailed description of routes used by North Atlantic humpback whales towards multiple feeding destinations. Additionally, it corroborates previous research showing that individuals from multiple feeding grounds migrate to the Antilles for the breeding season. This study indicates that North Atlantic humpbacks use an area broader than the existing boundaries of marine mammal sanctuaries, which should provide justification for their expansion. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 26, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Elevated levels of δ15N in riverine Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta): trophic enrichment or anthropogenic input?
We examined nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in duckweed (genus Lemna L.) and in Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta (Schneider, 1783)) in aquatic ecosystems expected to be differentially affected by agricultural activity and denitrification of inorganic fertilizer. Across sites, C. picta δ15N was strongly correlated with Lemna δ15N and was elevated in sites influenced by agricultural activity. Furthermore, trophic position of turtles was not associated with δ15N but was consistent with expected values for primary consumers in freshwater systems, indicating that differences in tissue δ15N coul...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 26, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Population fluctuations and distribution of staging Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) in North America
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 906-913, e-First articles. Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis Brehm, 1831) use saline ecosystems throughout much of their life cycle, and greater than 90% of the North American population stage during fall at two hypersaline lakes. At one of these lakes, Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, a commercial harvest of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906) cysts occurs during fall and may impact Eared Grebe populations. We used photo surveys on the other hypersaline lake, Mono Lake, California, and on the GSL, as well as aerial counts on the GSL, to describe populati...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 26, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Moose (Alces alces) predation by eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) and eastern coyote × eastern wolf (Canis latrans × Canis lycaon) hybrids
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 91, Issue 11, Page 837-841, November 2013. It has been widely assumed that coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) are incapable of killing adult moose (Alces alces (L., 1758)) and previous studies of coyote predation support this assumption. However, eastern coyotes and eastern coyote × eastern wolf (Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775) are larger than western coyotes and appear to rely on larger prey in some areas. We used a combination of GPS telemetry, genetic analysis, and field investigation to test the hypothesis that eastern coyotes and coyote × wolf hybrids are capable of pr...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 24, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

White, brite, and brown adipocytes: the evolution and function of a heater organ in mammals
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Brown fat is a specialized heater organ in eutherian mammals. In contrast to the energy storage function of white adipocytes, brown adipocytes dissipate nutrient energy by uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which depends on uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1, as well as UCP2 and UCP3, belong to the family of mitochondrial carriers inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane for metabolite trafficking between the matrix and the intermembrane space. UCP1 transports protons into the mitochondrial matrix when activated by a rise in free fatty acid level...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 21, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

White, brite, and brown adipocytes: the evolution and function of a heater organ in mammals
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-12, e-First articles. Brown fat is a specialized heater organ in eutherian mammals. In contrast to the energy storage function of white adipocytes, brown adipocytes dissipate nutrient energy by uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which depends on uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1, as well as UCP2 and UCP3, belong to the family of mitochondrial carriers inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane for metabolite trafficking between the matrix and the intermembrane space. UCP1 transports protons into the mitochondrial matrix when activated by a...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 21, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Spatial dynamics of the rise and fall of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 767-774, e-First articles. Understanding the relationship between abundance and distribution is central to ecology but may require broad-scale observations, especially for long-lived, mobile animals like caribou (Rangifer tarandus (L., 1758)). We tested the link between demography and spatial ecology of Newfoundland caribou, coincident with their numerical growth (1980s, 1990s) and decline (2000s). We analysed site fidelity, rate of movements, timing of migration, and population organization from telemetry observations of more than 600 adult females. Site fidelity ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 18, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Re-evaluating niche conservatism versus divergence in the Woodland Salamander genus Plethodon: a case study of the parapatric members of the Plethodon glutinosus species complex
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 883-892, e-First articles. The Woodland Salamander genus Plethodon Tschudi, 1838, consists of terrestrial lungless salamanders, has been cited as an exemplar of a lineage characterized by niche conservatism. This conclusion has contributed to broader hypotheses dealing with the role of niche conservatism in speciation and the maintenance of species diversity. We re-evaluated these salamanders using newly published techniques designed to detect niche conservatism versus niche divergence using computer-based niche modeling and spatial analysis within a phylogenetic f...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 18, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Widespread declines in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) continue in Alberta
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 872-882, e-First articles. Nowhere across Canada is the continued persistence of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin, 1788)) more uncertain than in Alberta due to widespread industrial development. A recent Government of Canada critical habitat review determined that habitat conditions within all Alberta boreal ecotype caribou ranges are unlikely or very unlikely to allow for self-sustaining caribou populations. This habitat-based assessment was based only indirectly on empirical population trends. Here, we estimated empirical population trend and g...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 15, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Staging ecology of Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) juveniles in the St. Lawrence River Estuary during fall migration
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 802-809, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 12, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) foraging with gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) off Vancouver Island, British Columbia
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 847-852, e-First articles. Seabirds are known to associate with marine mammals to facilitate prey capture. These occur when mammals either force prey near the surface or provide small scraps of larger prey victims. Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus (Lilljeborg, 1861)) have been observed to provide invertebrate prey to a variety of seabird species; however, there are no published reports of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus (Gmelin, 1789)) feeding in association with gray whales. We observed Marbled Murrelets foraging within several metres of gray whales ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 10, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Heritability of immunological characteristics in Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 789-794, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 9, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

The mode of ovulation in the Namaqua rock mouse, Micaelamys namaquensis
This study aims to determine whether the Namaqua rock mouse (Micaelamys namaquensis (A. Smith, 1834)) is a spontaneous or induced ovulator. Females were divided into three treatments differing in the degree of contact with a male. Namely, seven control females had no contact with a male; a further seven separated females had only chemical, auditory, and visual contact with a male; whereas six females had intermittent periods of full contact with a vasectomized male. Ovarian size, follicular development, and plasma progesterone concentrations were compared between the three treatments. Penile morphology was also investigate...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 2, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Population decline in semi-migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus): intrinsic or extrinsic drivers?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 820-828, e-First articles. Many populations of caribou (Rangifer tarandus (L., 1758)) across North America, including Newfoundland, are in a state of decline. This phenomenon may reflect continental-scale changes in either the extrinsic or the intrinsic factors affecting caribou abundance. We hypothesized that caribou decline reflected marked resource limitation and predicted that fluctuations should correspond to time-delayed density dependence associated with a decline in range quality and decadal trends in winter severity. By conducting time-series analysis usin...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 2, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Sexual dimorphism in an under-ice spawning fish: the burbot (Lota lota)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 732-740, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 28, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Lacking sensory (rather than locomotive) legs affects locomotion but not food detection in the harvestman Holmbergiana weyenberghi
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 726-731, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 27, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Physical condition of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in relation to road disturbance
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-4, e-First articles. Roads and their associated low-frequency noise have been linked with a reduction in abundance and density for many songbird species. However, a handful of species remain equally abundant in roadside habitats and nondisturbed areas. Abundance is a valuable baseline indicator of a species’ ability to adapt to habitats altered by roads, but does not directly ascertain whether health is affected in these species. Here we examine whether Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus (L., 1766)), a species that remains abundant near roads, ex...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 26, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

On the adaptive benefits of mammal migration
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Migration is well developed among mammals, but there has been little attempt to date to review common ecological constraints that may guide the evolution of migration among mammals, nor to consider its prevalence across different taxa. Here we review several alternate hypotheses for the evolution of migration in mammals based on improvements in energetic gain and mate-finding contrasted with reduction in energetic costs or the risk of predation and parasitism. While there are well-documented examples of each across the order Mammalia, the available evidence to date most ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 10, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

On the adaptive benefits of mammal migration
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-10, e-First articles. Migration is well developed among mammals, but there has been little attempt to date to review common ecological constraints that may guide the evolution of migration among mammals, nor to consider its prevalence across different taxa. Here we review several alternate hypotheses for the evolution of migration in mammals based on improvements in energetic gain and mate-finding contrasted with reduction in energetic costs or the risk of predation and parasitism. While there are well-documented examples of each across the order Mammalia, the av...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 10, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Spatial variation in the echolocation calls of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 795-801, e-First articles. We studied spatial variation in echolocation call structure of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus (LeConte, 1831)) by analysing calls recorded from free-flying individuals at 1 site in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, 1 site in Chautaqua, New York, and 20 sites along the Hudson River, New York. We controlled for factors that are often thought to lead to interspecific variation in echolocation calls (habitat, ontogeny, presence of conspecifics, recording techniques, ambient conditions), which allowed us to focus on the effect of spatial ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 10, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Conditional daily and seasonal movement strategies of male Columbia black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 679-688, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 6, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Maturation characteristics and life-history strategies of the Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 775-788, e-First articles. Lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) have persisted over millennia and now suffer a recent decline in abundance. Complex life histories may have factored in their persistence; anthropogenic perturbations in their demise. The complexity of life histories of lampreys is not understood, particularly for the anadromous Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus Gairdner, 1836. Our goals were to describe the maturation timing and associated characteristics of adult Pacific lamprey, and to test the null hypothesis that different life histories do not ex...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 6, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Exploring the mechanics of thunniform propulsion: a model study
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 91, Issue 10, Page 741-755, October 2013. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 31, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

How competitive trade-offs limit elevation ranges for temperate-breeding hummingbirds
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 717-725, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 31, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Population genetic structure of the endangered Butler’s Gartersnake (Thamnophis butleri): does the Short-headed Gartersnake (Thamnophis brachystoma) exist in Canada?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 810-819, e-First articles. Understanding population genetic structure is fundamental to conservation of endangered species. It is particularly important when working with species that are morphologically conserved because strong genetic divisions could represent cryptic species. Butler’s Gartersnake (Thamnophis butleri (Cope, 1889)) is an endangered species in Canada, having a fragmented distribution and being restricted to southwestern Ontario. Furthermore, it is difficult to distinguish morphologically from a closely related species, the Short-headed Garter...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 30, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Explaining covariation between endo- and ecto-parasites in spreadwing damselflies (Zygoptera: Lestidae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-5, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 14, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Wolverines (Gulo gulo luscus) on the Rocky Mountain slopes: natural heterogeneity and landscape alteration as predictors of distribution
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 706-716, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 12, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Evidence of social preferences in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-5, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 8, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Ecological correlates of variable organ sizes and fat loads in the most northerly wintering shorebirds
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 698-705, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 8, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Combined usage of stable isotopes and GPS-based telemetry to understand the feeding ecology of an omnivorous bird, the Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 689-697, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 1, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Effects of phenology and sex on social proximity in a gregarious ungulate
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 601-609, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 31, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

The distribution of sexual reproduction of the geographic parthenogen Eucypris virens (Crustacea: Ostracoda) matches environmental gradients in a temporary lake
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 91, Issue 9, Page 660-671, September 2013. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 31, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Changes in cultured dermal fibroblasts during early passages across five wild bird species
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 653-659, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 30, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Directional selection and repeatability in nest-site preferences of Semipalmated Plovers (Charadrius semipalmatus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 646-652, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 29, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Genetic relationships of North American bears (Ursus) inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphisms and mitochondrial DNA sequences
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 626-634, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 28, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Comparing growth and maturity of sympatric Atlantic (Gadus morhua) and Greenland (Gadus ogac) cod in coastal Newfoundland
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-6, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 28, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Moulting matters: the importance of understanding moulting cycles in bats when using fur for endogenous marker analysis
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 533-544, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 27, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Reduced dermal photosensitivity in juvenile sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) reflects life-history-dependent changes in habitat and behaviour
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 635-639, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 24, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Relationships between carotenoid-based female plumage and age, reproduction, and mate colour in the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-7, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 23, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Snails keep the pace: shift in upper elevation limit on mountain slopes as a response to climate warming
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-4, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 19, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

The role of calcium in constraining egg synthesis in the Audouin’s Gull (Ichthyaetus audouinii)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 640-645, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 19, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Assessing the effects of fish density, habitat complexity, and current velocity on interference competition between bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in an artificial stream
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 619-625, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 19, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Synchrony in the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle in northwestern North America, 1970–2012
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-11, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 13, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Importance of body size and hunting strategy during interactions between the Mexican red-rump tarantula (Brachypelma vagans) and the wolf spider Lycosa subfusca
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-9, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 6, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Responses of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) to acute food shortages in spring
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 610-618, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 6, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Acorn germination is not enhanced near cache sites relative to random locations
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 91, Issue 7, Page 529-532, July 2013. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 1, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Spring-loaded reproduction: effects of body condition and population size on fertility in migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 473-479, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 22, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research

Relative influence of weather and season on anuran calling activity
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 462-467, e-First articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 18, 2013 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research