The gastropod foregut — evolution viewed through a developmental lens
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Comparative data on the developing gastropod foregut suggest that this multicomponent feeding complex consists of two developmental modules. Modularity is revealed by delayed development of the buccal cavity and radular sac ( “ventral module”) relative to the dorsal food channel (“dorsal module”) in gastropods with feeding larvae compared with those that may have never had a feeding larval stage. If nonfeeding larvae like those of extant patellogastropods and vetigastropods are ancestral for gastropods, then the uncoupling and heterochronic offset of do...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 2, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) from littoral and limnetic habitats differ in stress responsiveness independent of environmental complexity and presence of conspecifics
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. In the face of a changing world, there has been increasing interest in the behavioural and physiological responses of wild animals to stressors. Many factors can influence stress responsiveness, but two that have not been extensively studied during the stress-induced phase are environmental complexity and the presence of conspecifics. Using wild pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus (L., 1758)) collected from limnetic and littoral sites, we tested whether glucose and cortisol were affected by environmental complexity and the density of conspecifics during the period of maximum...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Black bear (Ursus americanus) functional resource selection relative to intraspecific competition and human risk
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The spatial scales at which animals make behavioral trade-offs is assumed to relate to the scales at which factors most limiting resources and increasing mortality risk occur. We used global positioning system collar locations of 29 reproductive-age female black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in three states to assess resource selection relative to bear population-specific density, an index of vegetation productivity, riparian corridors, or two road classes of and within home ranges during spring –summer of 2009–2013. Female resource selection was best expla...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - February 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Ossicle development of the crinoid Florometra serratissima through larval stages
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Crinoids are the oldest living class of echinoderm and sister group to the remaining eleutherozoan clade and so are key to discussions on the evolution and development of the echinoderm skeleton. Here we present the intraspecific variation of ossicle development of the feather star Florometra serratissima (A.H. Clark, 1907) during its three larval stages: doliolaria, cystidean, and early pentacrinoid. To induce settlement, larvae were cultured on a sea table in glass bowls containing coralline algae. The soft tissues of 60 larvae were dissolved to isolate and to observe the os...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 31, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Evaluation of alternative prey-, predator-, and ratio-dependent functional response models in a zooplankton microcosm
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. There is strenuous debate among ecologists regarding the inclusion of predator density into the originally prey-dependent functional response. We provided comprehensive empirical comparisons of alternative functional response models for the predatory ostracod Heterocypris incongruens (Ramdohr, 1808) and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (Pallas, 1766) as its prey in small freshwater microcosms. Prey killed was measured at factorial combinations of four predator densities and five prey densities, and was recorded at 3 min intervals over 60 min experiments. To support the pote...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 31, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Christina M. Prokopenko Katrine Turgeon John M. Fryxell Source Type: research

Space use by gray wolves (Canis lupus) in response to simulated howling: a case study and a call for further investigation
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Simulated wolf howling sessions are a popular ecotourism activity, but no exhaustive evaluation has been made on their potential impacts on wolf ecology. We evaluated the effects of simulated wolf howling sessions on the space use of gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) in the Montmorency Forest (Quebec, Canada). Although we equipped 22 individuals with GPS collars from 2005 to 2008, only four wolves could potentially hear our 20 simulated howls (July to October 2008). We used power analyses to select two spatiotemporal scales of analysis with sufficient location data to investi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Mathieu Leblond Christian Dussault Martin-Hugues St-Laurent Source Type: research

Rapid body color brightening is associated with exposure to a stressor in an Anolis lizard
We examined factors influencing body coloration in the Water Anole (Anolis aquaticus Taylor, 1956), a lizard possessing color-changing stripes along the length of its body. We quantified the color of three body regions (the eye stripe, lateral stripe, and dorsum) before and after exposure to a mild stressor (handling and restraint). Based on current understanding of the genus Anolis Daudin, 1802, we hypothesized that exposure to a stressor would generate genus-typical skin darkening (i.e., increased melanism). Contrary to expectations, stress consistently brightened body coloration: eye and lateral stripes transitioned fro...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 10, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Jane F.F. Boyer Lindsey Swierk Source Type: research

Site fidelity and movement of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western Gulf of Alaska as revealed by photo-identification
We describe feeding-site fidelity in terms of the rate of annual return by individual humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781)) to Kodiak Archipelago and Shumagin Islands feeding areas and the rate of exchange between these Gulf of Alaska feeding aggregations. Individual whales were photo-identified in both regions between 1999 and 2015 during vessel surveys, either throughout the feeding season (Kodiak region) or in brief 7- to 10-day windows (Shumagin Islands). Feeding-site fidelity was assessed in terms of individuals ’ annual return rate, sighting interval, total number of years sighted, and movem...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 10, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Briana H. Witteveen Kate M. Wynne Source Type: research

Latitudinal temperature-dependent variation in timing of prey availability can impact Pacific seabird populations in Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. We modelled how nestling growth rates of Cassin ’s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas, 1811)) varied with timing of peak copepod prey availability at two breeding colonies in British Columbia: on Triangle Island, in the California Current Ecosystem, and Frederick Island, in the Gulf of Alaska Ecosystem. We used time series of nestling grow th rates and estimated the seasonal timing of peak biomass of the copepod Neocalanus cristatus (Krøyer, 1848) using a temperature-dependent phenology equation. We developed a single model to examine intercolony differences ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 4, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: D.F. Bertram A. Harfenist L.L.E. Cowen D. Koch M.C. Drever J.M. Hipfner M.J.F. Lemon Source Type: research

Observation of a p < 10 –9 life-history event: implications of record-late caribou birth on ungulate reproductive ecology and field studies
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Life-history traits in temperate ungulates are highly seasonal, with events corresponding to the seasonal availability of resources. An important example is birth date, with later-born individuals typically having reduced survival compared with those born earlier in the season. Ungulates, especially those whose offspring are at their mother ’s heel soon after birth, are typically born in a narrow window of time in late May–early June. In Newfoundland, mean birth date in caribou (Rangifer tarandus (L., 1758); n = 1175) was 31 May. Here, we document a sighting of a c...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 4, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: M. Bonar M.P. Laforge E. Vander Wal Source Type: research

Cascading community and ecosystem consequences of introduced coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in tropical islands
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Biological invasions are a pervasive and dominant form of anthropogenic disturbance. However, we seldom have the opportunity to evaluate the long-term, indirect, and often slow-moving cascading effects of invasions at the community and ecosystem scale. Here we synthesize the collective knowledge from 10 years of study on the influence of the deep historical introduction of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.) across a series of islets at Palmyra Atoll. Through a suite of pathways, we find this palm drives near-complete ecosystem state change when it becomes dominant. Abiotic cond...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 23, 2016 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Metapopulation dynamics and space use by reintroduced elk (Cervus elaphus) in central Ontario
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Understanding population structure and resource selection is essential for wildlife management and conservation. We assessed the population structure of elk (Cervus elaphus L.,1758) in central Ontario. We used fuzzy and hierarchical cluster analyses to elucidate elk population structure based on spatial data collected from 41 radio-collared elk. We assessed space use between core and satellite subpopulations with the minimum convex polygon (MCP) and fixed kernel methods. Both fuzzy and hard clustering indicated that elk in this part of central Ontario occur in a metapopulation...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 23, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: D. McGeachy J. Hamr F.F. Mallory Source Type: research

Nest-site preference and reproductive performance of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in historically extant and colonist shrub species
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Many studies report mixed results on the influence of invasive plants on native animals, partly due to uncertainties about habitat preference and reproductive performance in native animals before and after plant invasion. We used vegetation surveys 20 years apart and 18 years of breeding data from Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia (A. Wilson, 1810)) to compare nest-site preference and reproductive performance during the colonization of Mandarte Island, British Columbia, by one shrub species native to the region but historically absent from the island (red elderberry, Sambucus r...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 21, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: M.D. Crombie R.R. Germain P. Arcese Source Type: research

Does riparian disturbance alter stream amphibian antipredator behaviors?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Ecological traps occur when a species makes maladaptive habitat-selection decisions. Human-modified environments including deforested riparian habitats can change how organisms respond to environmental cues. Stream amphibians alter their habitat selection in response to abiotic cues associated with riparian clearing, but little research exists to determine if behavioral shifts to abiotic cues may make them more susceptible to predation. To evaluate if deforested habitats create ecological traps, we studied habitat-selection behavior of larval Black-bellied Salamander (Desmogna...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 21, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: A.N. Liford K.K. Cecala Source Type: research

Note of appreciation / Note de reconnaissance
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 16, 2016 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

The pattern of reproduction in the mole-rat Heliophobius from Tanzania: do not refrain during the long rains!
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The genus Heliophobius Peters, 1846 comprises at least six cryptic, topotypical species in the Heliophobius argenteocinereus Peters, 1846 species complex. The current study investigated the breeding patterns of a wild-caught population from Tanzania where the putative species Heliophobius argenteocinereus emini Noack, 1894 resides. Individuals were collected on a monthly basis for an entire calendar year. Assessment of f œtus presence, gonadal histology, reproductive-tract morphometrics in combination with gonadal steroid (plasma progesterone and œstradiol-17β...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 14, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: M.K. Ngalameno A.D.S. Bastos G. Mgode N.C. Bennett Source Type: research

Rh glycoprotein immunoreactivity in the skin and its role in extrabranchial ammonia excretion by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in fresh water
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Aquatic organisms employ various strategies to excrete ammonia across the gills, skin, and (or) renal routes. During three different stages of their life cycle, we hypothesized that the basal vertebrate sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758) used the skin as a route for ammonia excretion. Measurements of ammonia excretion using divided flux chambers revealed that extrabranchial sites (skin plus renal) of ammonia excretion were quantitatively more important in larval sea lampreys, but following metamorphosis, the gills became the dominant route of excretion in juvenile sea l...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 13, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: S.D. Blair M.P. Wilkie S.L. Edwards Source Type: research

Ecological limits to local species richness in Dusky Salamanders (genus Desmognathus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Species richness commonly varies with elevation, but in many montane regions, the greatest number of species occurs at mid-elevations. A recent regional analysis showed this pattern in Appalachian salamanders of the genus Desmognathus Baird, 1850. The authors proposed that the phylogenetic niche conservatism of these salamanders causes species to accumulate at intermediate elevations, which are characterized by the ancestral climate for the genus. They further suggested that physiological tolerances limit dispersal into higher or lower elevations. We tested this hypothesis usi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 12, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Carlos D. Camp Jessica A. Wooten Sean P. Graham Thomas K. Pauley Source Type: research

Spring emergence of Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina): influences of individual variation and scale of temperature correlates
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Many organisms spend considerable time in dormancy to avoid stressful environmental conditions. Understanding the timing and triggers of dormancy behavior is critical for understanding an animal ’s life history and behavior. Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina (L., 1758)) avoid winter temperatures by burrowing into the soil and remaining dormant. Identifying the proximate environmental cues that trigger emergence can improve conservation efforts by reducing potential aboveground turtl e mortality. During a 17-year study, half of all variation in emergence timing was ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 12, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Brett A. DeGregorio Tracey D. Tuberville Robert A. Kennamer Bess B. Harris I. Lehr Brisbin Source Type: research

Richness and zoogeography of ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) in eastern Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Managers and policymakers in eastern Canada embrace science-based management of nonindigenous species and may benefit from having comprehensive regional species checklists at subnational jurisdictional levels. In this paper, regional checklists provide an account of the richness of ascidians in eastern Canada. Records of 58 ascidians resulted from reviewing 108 published sources, accessing data from two online databases, and collecting some common indigenous ascidian specimens. Analysis comparing the similarity of species among nine regions indicates that there is greater simi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Kevin C.K. Ma Don Deibel Kenneth K.M. Law Mai Aoki Cynthia H. McKenzie Maria L.D. Palomares Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Using climate, energy, and spatial-based hypotheses to interpret macroecological patterns of North America chelonians
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 24, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Joshua R. Ennen Mickey Agha Wilfredo A. Matamoros Sarah C. Hazzard Jeffrey E. Lovich Source Type: research

Social cues may advertise habitat quality to refuge-seeking conspecifics
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Individuals travelling through landscapes may use the presence of conspecifics to evaluate habitat quality. Juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L., 1758) are usually territorial and exhibit some degree of density-dependent regulation in wild populations. They are also vulnerable to heat stress and may need to locate a thermal refuge to offset metabolic costs above certain temperature thresholds. During July 2010, a heat wave resulted in water temperatures in the Miramichi River system exceeding 30 °C. During this period, salmon parr were observed aggregating in cold-wate...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 22, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: C.K. Elvidge E.L.L. Cooke R.A. Cunjak S.J. Cooke Source Type: research

The presence of parasitic mites on small mammals in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Here we identify, for the first time, a generalist orange parasitic mite found on multiple small-mammal species in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Results from 18S rRNA sequencing suggest that these mites may belong to the family Trombiculidae (Acari: Trombidiformes), although morphological and additional genetic analyses are needed to confirm this identification. The presence of these mites was associated with lower body condition in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Erxleben, 1777)), suggesting that these mites may be a detriment to fitness i...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 11, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Colleen B. Bobbie Elliott Schmidt Janet Foley Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde Source Type: research

Climate factors related to localized changes in snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) occupancy
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Information on climate that influences snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) can inform adaptation strategies. We identified climate factors correlated with localized changes in occupancy of snowshoe hares in Michigan, USA. A change in occupancy occurred if a site ( ∼7.5 ha) knowingly occupied by hares sometime in the past became unoccupied. We used local ecological knowledge to map sites where hares historically occurred and to assign a year of last-known occupancy. At 134 historically occupied sites, we conducted snow track surveys in 2013 to determine curr en...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 10, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: D.M. Burt G.J. Roloff D.R. Etter Source Type: research

Avian predators transmit fear along the air –water interface influencing prey and their parental care
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 94, Issue 12, Page 863-870, December 2016. The nonconsumptive consequences of predators on prey behavior, survival, and demography have recently garnered significant attention by ecologists. However, the impacts of top predators on free-ranging prey are challenging to evaluate because the most common fright response for prey is to leave the area of risk. Additionally, the top-down impacts of avian predators on aquatic environments are surprisingly overlooked. Here we investigated the nonconsumptive effects of avian predators on parental care in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus (L., 1758)) th...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 10, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Austin J. Gallagher Michael J. Lawrence Sofia M.R. Jain-Schlaepfer Alexander D.M. Wilson Steven J. Cooke Source Type: research

Announcement / Communiqu é
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 10, 2016 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Spatial distribution of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) diving for Canadian populations helps identify important seasonal foraging areas
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. In Canada, narwhals (Monodon monoceros L., 1758) are divided into the Baffin Bay (BB) and northern Hudson Bay (NHB) populations. Satellite tracking of 21 narwhals from BB and NHB provided information on their diving behaviour and was used to identify foraging regions. Previous research from hunted narwhals indicated that narwhals in both populations depend on benthic prey to meet their dietary needs. To evaluate home ranges and define areas important for benthic foraging, we conducted kernel density analysis on narwhal locations and focused on areas where deep diving occurs, a...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 3, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: C.A. Watt J.R. Orr S.H. Ferguson Source Type: research

A systematic review on the behavioural responses of wild marine mammals to noise: the disparity between science and policy
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 94, Issue 12, Page 801-819, December 2016. Noise can cause marine mammals to interrupt their feeding, alter their vocalizations, or leave important habitat, among other behavioural responses. The current North American paradigm for regulating activities that may result in behavioural responses identifies received levels (RL) of sound at which individuals are predicted to display significant behavioural responses (often termed harassment). The recurrent conclusion about the need for considering context of exposure, in addition to RL, when assessing probability and severity of behavioural r...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 2, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: C. Gomez J.W. Lawson A.J. Wright A.D. Buren D. Tollit V. Lesage Source Type: research

Seasonal niche partitioning and coexistence of amphimictic and parthenogenetic lineages of Heterocypris barbara (Crustacea: Ostracoda)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Sympatry of amphimictic and parthenogenetic lineages in species with mixed reproductive systems is rarely observed in nature. On Lampedusa Island (Pelagie Islands, Italy), amphimictic and parthenogenetic lineages of Heterocypris barbara (Gauthier and Brehm, 1928) co-occur in a temporary pond. Their sympatric persistence calls for an ecological differentiation. We investigated the role of seasonal variation of temperature and photoperiod conditions by two different approaches: microcosms set up by inundation of dry sediments from the temporary pond and life-table experiments. M...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 27, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: V. Rossi A. Martorella D. Scudieri P. Menozzi Source Type: research

Impacts of human hunting on spatial behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Predators can influence populations through top-down effects, but most large predators have been extirpated from the range of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)). Hunters have filled this predatory role, but also can indirectly influence prey species. Indirect behavioral responses can include altered resource selection, space use, or movement. Herein, we developed a controlled study that contained both temporal and spatial risk levels to assess how deer behavior changes relative to temporal periods of risk. Total distance travelled and microrange area...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 27, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Sierra A. Marantz Jed A. Long Stephen L. Webb Kenneth L. Gee Andrew R. Little Stephen Demarais Source Type: research

Long-term trends in fish community composition across coastal bays and lakes in the Lavaca –Colorado Estuary
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 94, Issue 12, Page 871-884, December 2016. Human impacts continue to alter community structure, emphasizing the need to understand how spatial and temporal variability in disturbance and conservation affect ecological communities to optimize management strategies. Here, we quantify fish species richness, diversity, and community structure across five coastal bays and lakes in the Lavaca –Colorado Estuary, Texas, over 30 years to investigate spatial and temporal variability in species assemblages, and the potential effects of resource management. Results suggest that fish communities...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 21, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Philip Matich William B. Godwin Mark Fisher Source Type: research

No evidence of hyperphagia during prehibernation in a northern population of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. During autumn, temperate bats must deposit fat stores for hibernation. Populations at high latitudes face four challenges: a shorter active season and shorter nights during the active season (less time to accumulate fat), a longer hibernation period (larger fat store needed), and colder nights (reduced prey availability). Mating also occurs during the prehibernation period, placing time constraints for mating and fattening on northern populations. We tested the hypothesis that these factors constrain prehibernation foraging in northern populations of little brown bats (Myotis ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 18, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: L.P. McGuire K.A. Muise A. Shrivastav C.K.R. Willis Source Type: research

Environmental correlates and energetics of winter flight by bats in southern Alberta, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Winter activity of bats is common, yet poorly understood. Other studies suggest a relationship between winter activity and ambient temperature, particularly temperature at sunset. We recorded echolocation calls to determine correlates of hourly bat activity in Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada. We documented bat activity in temperatures as low as −10.4 °C. We observed big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1796)) flying at colder temperatures than species of Myotis bats (genus Myotis Kaup, 1829). We show that temperature and wind are important...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 16, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: B.J. Kl üg-Baerwald L.E. Gower C.L. Lausen R.M. Brigham Source Type: research

Comparative thermal biology and depth distribution of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) in an urban harbour of the Laurentian Great Lakes
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Understanding how individuals are distributed in space and time, as well as how they interact with dynamic environmental conditions, represent fundamental knowledge gaps for many fish species. Using acoustic telemetry tags, we monitored the temperatures and depths used by northern pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides (Lacep ède, 1802)) in Toronto Harbour (Lake Ontario). Northern pike and largemouth bass had similar thermal experiences throughout the year, except during summer, when northern pike were observed in cooler waters than large...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 6, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Tyler B. Peat Lee F.G. Gutowsky Susan E. Doka Jonathan D. Midwood Nicholas W.R. Lapointe Bogdan Hlevca Mathew G. Wells Rick Portiss Steven J. Cooke Source Type: research

Effect of nutritional stress and sex on melanotic encapsulation rate in the sexually size dimorphic Cook Strait giant weta (Deinacrida rugosa)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Nutritional condition and sex are known to influence efficacy and investment in immune function. A poor diet is costly to immune function because it limits the resources (e.g., protein) available to effector systems (e.g., melanotic encapsulation), whereas males and females are expected to differ in how they allocate resources to fitness-related traits. Males are expected to invest less in immunity, and more in mating, than females, but this pattern could be reversed if fitness is more condition-dependent in males than in females. I tested the effects of nutritional condition ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 6, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Clint D. Kelly Source Type: research

Inuit Knowledge of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) foraging ecology in Nunavik (Arctic Quebec), Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 94, Issue 10, Page 713-726, October 2016. The beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776)) is expected to be influenced by changes in the environment. In Nunavik, the Arctic region of Quebec, Nunavimmiut (Inuit of Nunavik) have depended on beluga for centuries, developing an extensive understanding of the species and its ecology. Forty semidirective interviews were conducted with Inuit hunters and Elders from four Nunavik communities, who had a range of 28 –47 years of beluga hunting experience. Interviews followed an ethnocartographic format and were analyzed using a mixed m...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 5, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: K. Breton-Honeyman M.O. Hammill C.M. Furgal B. Hickie Source Type: research

Adaptations of large marsupials to survival in winter snow cover: locomotion and foraging
This study examines morphological aspects of locomotion of these three herbivorous marsupials in snow. The wombat is the best adapted to snow, with quadrupedal gait and an expanded home range allowing it to locate and feed on the same plant groups as it does at lower elevation. Wallabies are poorly adapted to locomotion in snow, but the browsing swamp wallaby is able to maintain its dietary habit by feeding on exposed shrubs in deep snow, whereas the red-necked wallaby, which depends more on grazing, appears constrained to areas where snow is shallow. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 4, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: K. Green Source Type: research

Seeking sanctuary: the neonatal calving period among central mountain woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)
We examined a long-term GPS-collar data set (1998–2014) collected from 81 adult female caribou in two central mountain herds in A lberta and British Columbia, Canada. Although we were unable to validate our results with aerial surveys and pregnancy tests, our estimates of parturition rates, survival rates, calving dates, and habitat selection were consistent with previous studies. We identified 83 calving sites. Female caribou selected calving sites and postparturition habitat on high-elevation ridgetops with gradual slopes and avoided anthropogenic linear features. Female caribou displayed low fidelity to interannua...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 30, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: B.R. Nobert S. Milligan G.B. Stenhouse L. Finnegan Source Type: research

Living apart and having similar trouble: are frog helminth parasites determined by the host or by the habitat?
We described and compared the helminth communities of 50 L. chaquensis and 40 L. podicipinus collected concurrently from two different study sites in Brazil’s Pantanal floodplain. Similarities in the prevalence and mean abundance of helminths were higher am ong allopatric populations of the same species than among sympatric populations of different species. The effects of host species, size, and habitat on helminth composition were significant. The amount of variance in the helminth community composition explained by host species and size was greater t han that explained by host habitat. These results indicate that t...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 30, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: K.M. Campi ão O.T. Dias R.J. Silva V.L. Ferreira L.E.R. Tavares Source Type: research

Was Gordon Robilliard right? Integrative systematics suggest that Dendronotus diversicolor (multicolor frond-aeolis) is a valid species
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Nudibranch molluscs of the genus Dendronotus Alder and Hancock, 1845 are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. Taxonomic studies on the genus Dendronotus have been problematic due to high variability in the colour pattern of many species, as well as in the external morphology and anatomy. In the present paper, we studied specimens of Dendronotus from northern Pacific presumably belonging to the species Dendronotus albus MacFarland, 1966 (white frond-aeolis). Molecular and morphological data revealed the existence of two distinct species among the material examined: D....
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 29, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: I. Ekimova Á. Valdés D. Schepetov A. Chichvarkhin Source Type: research

The eggs of the apple snail Pomacea maculata are defended by indigestible polysaccharides and toxic proteins
This study characterized ∼99% of egg composition and identified multiple potential defenses, provided not only by proteins but also by polysaccharides. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that reserve sugars may be involved in defenses, giving further insight into the unusual reproductive strategy of these well-defended snail eggs. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 12, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: M.L. Giglio S. Ituarte M.Y. Pasquevich H. Heras Source Type: research

Is reproduction of male eastern rock sengis (Elephantulus myurus) from southern Africa affected by photoperiod?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Many mammals use the change in day length to time physiological and behavioural activities on a seasonal basis. Particularly, mammals from temperate regions use photoperiod to regulate reproductive functions; however, information on the role of photoperiod in small mammals from the tropics and subtropics is scarce. We studied the response of the reproductive system of male eastern rock sengis (Elephantulus myurus Thomas and Schwann, 1906) from southern Africa to photoperiods of differing length. Elephantulus myurus breeds seasonally during the spring and summer months of the s...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 10, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: K. Medger C.T. Chimimba N.C. Bennett Source Type: research

Short-term stress: effects on cortisol levels and carotenoid spots in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Earlier studies have shown that the carotenoid pigmentation in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus (L., 1758)) is connected to stress responsiveness. These studies also suggested that the pigmentation is dynamic and can change quickly. Therefore, we wanted to investigate the effect of a short-term stressor on the number of carotenoid spots before and after certain time intervals after the stressor. Individuals were exposed to a net-restraint stressor for 1 min and then assigned a recovery time of either 0, 1, 2, 8, or 24 h. Photographs were taken before the stressor and after the ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 7, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Tobias Backstr öm Kajsa Johansson Eva Br ännäs Jan Nilsson Carin Magnhagen Source Type: research

Diet and prey size selectivity of Semipalmated Plovers (Charadrius semipalmatus) in coastal Georgia
We examined diet of nonbreeding Semipalmated Plovers (Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825) in the Cumberland Island estuary, Georgia, USA, through fecal sample analysis. We also examined prey size selectivity by Semipalmated Plovers for the most common prey item found in the fecal samples, which are polychaetes in the family Nereidae (= Nereididae). We compared the size distribution of polychaetes in Semipalmated Plover fecal samples from salt marshes and mudflats with the size distribution of polychaetes sampled from the two habitats. Semipalmated Plovers foraging on mudflats had less variable diets than those foragin...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 6, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Melissa Rose Lisa Pollock Erica Nol Source Type: research

Activity of eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) during the summer and fall
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Measuring activity of small mammals in the field is challenging because they are often out of view. We used a novel method, based on temperatures of collar radio transmitters, to quantify the proportion of time eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus (L., 1758)) spent active, curled up resting, and torpid during the summer and fall of 2 years in southern Quebec. Time active over the 24 h day was lower in a nonmast (8%) than a mast (26%) year. In the mast year, activity varied strongly from a low of 7% during the summer lull to a high of 35% in the fall. Chipmunks that exploited a f...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 17, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: S.E. LaZerte D.L. Kramer Source Type: research

Linking time budgets to habitat quality suggests that beavers (Castor canadensis) are energy maximizers
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. According to optimal foraging theory, consumers make choices that maximize their net energy intake per unit of time. We used foraging theory as a framework to understand the foraging behaviour of North American beavers (Castor canadensis Kuhl, 1820), an important herbivore that engineers new habitats. We tested the hypothesis that beavers are energy maximizers by verifying the prediction that they allocate time to foraging activities independently of habitat quality in Kouchibouguac National Park of Canada in New Brunswick, where nearly five decades of unabated colonization by...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 12, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Daniel Gallant Lisa L éger Éric Tremblay Dominique Berteaux Nicolas Lecomte Liette Vasseur Source Type: research

Variable effects of snow conditions across boreal mesocarnivore species
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Mesocarnivores are increasingly recognized as key drivers of community dynamics, but the effects of bottom-up and abiotic factors on mesocarnivore populations remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of snow conditions, prey abundance, and habitat type on the distribution of five sympatric mesocarnivore species in interior Alaska using repeated snow-track surveys and occupancy modelling. Snow depth and snow compaction were the best predictors of mesocarnivore occupancy, with differential effects across species. Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and red foxes (Vulpes ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 7, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: C.B. Pozzanghera K.J. Sivy M.S. Lindberg L.R. Prugh Source Type: research

The physiology of juvenile shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) during an acute saltwater challenge
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. One-year-old shortnose sturgeons (Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur, 1818) were exposed to seawater (32 ppt) and brackish water (16 and 24 ppt) for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h and % body mass loss, plasma ions, energy metabolites, and oxygen-carrying variables were measured to evaluate survival and the physiological response to the acute salinity challenges. Survival in seawater was poor and plasma ion concentration was elevated in seawater. In sturgeons exposed to 24 ppt brackish water, ion concentrations remained elevated for 48 h, but began to decrease by 72 h. Fish exposed to 16 ppt...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 7, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Adam T. Downie James D. Kieffer Source Type: research

NMR-based metabolomics reveals compartmental metabolic heterogeneity in liver of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)
This study examined the homogeneity of the metabolic profile in liver of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus (L., 1758)) using a NMR-based metabolomics approach. For the analysis, whole liver samples were cut into four parts along the direction of gall bladder and at right angles to this, and metabolites in each part of the liver were extracted and analyzed by multivariate and univariate data analyses. Although the multivariate model was not significant due to variation within the data, the metabolic differences in polar portion of liver extract between the parts were seen, indicating non-homogeneity of Arctic char liver. Ther...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 28, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: K. Cheng L. Wagner J. Pickova A.A. Moazzami Source Type: research

The effect of a single prerelease exposure to conspecific alarm cue on poststocking survival in three strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Significant resources go toward rearing and stocking fish globally, yet poststocking survival is often low, largely due to high predation rates on hatchery-reared fish. Antipredator behavior has been enhanced in many species through exposure to chemical cues that simulate predation events, but the implementation of such protocols may be logistically challenging. It has been suggested that a single exposure of hatchery fish to chemical cues while en route to stocking locations may be sufficient to enhance antipredator behavior and improve survival. We tested whether a one-time ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 28, 2016 Category: Zoology Authors: Christopher J. Kopack E. Dale Broder Eric R. Fetherman Jesse M. Lepak Lisa M. Angeloni Source Type: research