Milk fatty acid composition of perinatal and foraging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus): examination from pup stomachs
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 2, Page 153-162, February 2018. To investigate the milk fatty acid composition of female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) between and within maternal states (i.e., perinatal or foraging), milk samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 via gastric intubation from Steller sea lion pups on a small rookery in the central Gulf of Alaska. Maternal states of lactating females were determined upon reuniting with their sampled pups via remotely operated video cameras on the rookery. Milk fatty acid composition between Steller sea lion maternal states was significantl...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 18, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: C.N. Miller L.K. Polasek A.C.M. Oliveira C.J. Frost J.M. Maniscalco Source Type: research

Does the number of genital organs matter? Case of the seal tapeworm Diphyllobothrium (syn. Diplogonoporus) tetrapterum (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea)
In this study, Diph. tetrapterum is redescribed on the basis of extensive, well-fixed material from the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus, 1758)) from Alaska, USA. A critical morphological and molecular study of comprehensive material from several hosts throughout the Northern Hemisphere is provided. As a result, Diplogonoporus mutabilis Belopolskaia, 1960 and Diplogonoporus violettae Yurakhno, 1986 become junior synonyms of Diph. tetrapterum. Our study provides evidence of intraspecific and even individual variability of Diph. tetrapterum in the number of genital complexes, thus making this generic feature ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Jes ús S. Hernández-Orts Tom áš Scholz Jan Brabec Tetiana Kuzmina Roman Kuchta Source Type: research

Effects of environmental variables on the calling behaviour of Northern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates pipiens) in Alberta, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 2, Page 163-169, February 2018. Breeding behaviour of Temperate Zone amphibians is influenced by environmental variables, but the initiation of calling (phenology) and influences on calling activity may vary with species and region. We investigated the influence of the timing of ice melt, water temperature, and photoperiod on the breeding phenology of the Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens (Schreber, 1782)) in southern Alberta, Canada, using automated recording units. We also examined the influence of wind speed, relative humidity, water temperature, and time of day on ca...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: M.D. Sommers L.A. Randall R.M.R. Barclay Source Type: research

Bats are still not birds in the digital era: echolocation call variation and why it matters for bat species identification
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The recording and analysis of echolocation calls are fundamental methods used to study bat distribution, ecology, and behavior. However, the goal of identifying bats in flight from their echolocation calls is not always possible. Unlike bird songs, bat calls show large variation that often makes identification challenging. The problem has not been fully overcome by modern digital-based hardware and software for bat call recording and analysis. Besides providing fundamental insights into bat physiology, ecology, and behavior, a better understanding of call variation is therefor...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Danilo Russo Leonardo Ancillotto Gareth Jones Source Type: research

Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) from the far north of Ontario: distribution, diversity, and diagnostics
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 2, Page 141-152, February 2018. Leeches have a worldwide distribution, yet numerous geographical regions remain to be adequately surveyed. Here, we present leech species records for one of these regions: the far north of Ontario, Canada. This region is primarily wetland habitat and includes two of Ontario ’s three ecozones. Morphological examinations, as well as a single instance of successful DNA amplification with subsequent molecular identification, allowed us to identify representatives of 12 species from two predatory families (Erpobdellidae and Haemopidae) and one pa...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 13, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Sarah V. Langer Kathryn A. Vezsenyi Danielle de Carle David V. Beresford Sebastian Kvist Source Type: research

Neighbouring plants and perception of predation risk modulate winter browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
This study demonstrates both neighbour effects and threat-sensitive foraging, phenomena that could interact and thus would benefit from being studied together to better represent trophic interactions in natural environments. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 13, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: E. Champagne L. Perroud A. Dumont J.-P. Tremblay S.D. C ôté Source Type: research

Benefits and drawbacks of determining reproductive histories for black bears (Ursus americanus) from cementum annuli techniques
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Recruitment is difficult to estimate but is essential for determining population trend. Recruitment in bears can be estimated from patterns in width of cementum annuli that indicate years with cubs. We evaluated reproductive history estimates from cementum annuli of 19  101 black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) collected over 20 years to determine the benefits and drawbacks of this technique for management agencies. The technique only worked to estimate reproductive histories for 25% of submitted samples, and 49% of samples with estimates contained uncerta in litt...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 13, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Maximilian L. Allen Bruce Kohn Nathan Roberts Shawn Crimmins Timothy R. Van Deelen Source Type: research

Extra-pair paternity in a long-distance migratory songbird beyond neighbors ’ borders and across male age classes
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Roughly 90% of socially monogamous bird species exhibit some degree of extra-pair paternity (EPP), although the extent and the underlying mechanisms vary among species. We analyzed spatial and demographic patterns of EPP over a 6 year period (2005 –2010) as part of a long-term population study of Canada Warblers (Cardellina canadensis (L., 1766)). We identified 12 microsatellite loci used to assess paternity for 185 nestlings from 61 nests. Extra-pair young (EPY) accounted for 41.6% of all nestlings and 57.4% of nests contained at least one EPY. Fewer than half of EPY we...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Leonard R. Reitsma James A. Jukosky Alexi J. Kimiatek Marrisa L. Goodnow Michael T. Hallworth Source Type: research

Stable isotope signatures of whisker and blood serum confirm foraging strategies for female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) derived from telemetry
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Recognizing the individual variability of foraging behaviour of marine predators is important for understanding their role in the marine ecosystem and identifying how species may respond to environmental variability or human impacts. This research examines stable isotope signatures ( δ13C and δ15N) of blood serum and whiskers from 22 female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri (Gray, 1844)) to determine if the isotopic composition of serum reflects foraging strategy, and whether serum and proximal whisker growth have similar signatures, therefore indicating th...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: B.L. Chilvers Source Type: research

Increased overwinter mortalities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns during a drought year
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 1, Page 55-61, January 2018. Mortality rates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780)) fawns have been quantified throughout North America. Few studies, however, have assessed cause-specific mortality of fawns after the first 3 months of life or during a severe weather event. During 2010 –2014, we captured and radio-tracked 93 fawns in southern and central Illinois and recorded 18 mortality events. In order of importance, survival rates were affected by days since capture, year of drought, age at capture, week after capture (1 or 0 indicator), and re...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 8, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Marie I. Tosa Matthew T. Springer Eric M. Schauber Clayton K. Nielsen Source Type: research

In silico analysis and effects of environmental salinity in the expression and activity of digestive α-amylase and trypsins from the euryhaline crab Neohelice granulata
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Studies on molecular characteristics and modulation of expression of α-amylase and trypsin in the hepatopancreas of intertidal euryhaline crabs are lacking. In this work, we cloned and studied by in silico approaches the characteristics of cDNA sequences for α-amylase and two trypsins isoforms, as well as the effect of environmental salinity, on gene expression and protein activities in the hepatopancreas of Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851), which is a good invertebrate model species. The cDNA sequence of α-amylase is 1637 bp long, encoding 459 amino acid res...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Antonela Asaro Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha Gonzalo Mart ínez-Rodríguez Juan Miguel Mancera Alejandra Antonia L ópez Mañanes Source Type: research

Contemporary range expansion of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) impacted by humans and snow cover
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Range expansions are key demographic events driven by factors such as climate change and human intervention that ultimately influence the genetic composition of peripheral populations. The expansion of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr, 1792) into Michigan has been documented over the past 200 years, indicating relatively new colonizations in northern Michigan. Although most contemporary expansions are a result of shifts in climate regimes, the opossum has spread beyond its hypothesized climate niche, offering an opportunity to examine the compounding influence t...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: L.L. Walsh P.K. Tucker Source Type: research

Overwintering Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pup growth and behavior prior to weaning
This study demonstrated that capture–recapture of Steller sea lion pups is possible, provided seasonal timing, locations, and age classes are carefully considered for their likelihood of capture success. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: M.J. Rehberg L.D. Rea C.A. Eischens Source Type: research

Survival and osmoregulation of the purple marsh crab (Sesarma reticulatum) at varying salinity and pH
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Overfishing of top predators along the western Atlantic coastline has led to a trophic cascade in salt marshes, with increases in herbivorous purple marsh crab (Sesarma reticulatum (Say, 1817)) abundances in North American estuaries leading to overgrazing of cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.) and shoreline erosion. To evaluate potential physiological limits on the range of S. reticulatum within an estuary, we evaluated survival and physiological tolerance of S. reticulatum from the Ashepoo –Combhee–Edisto (ACE) River Basin in South Carolina, USA, to combinat...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 26, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: C.A. Shaughnessy E.C. Anderson M. Kasparian J.M. LaMontagne J.S. Bystriansky Source Type: research

The influence of lake attributes and predatory bass on the distribution of northern crayfish (Orconectes virilis) in central New Hampshire
We examined multiple factors that may influence the distribution of northern crayfish (Orconectes virilis (Hagen, 1870)), an introduced species, in New Hampshire, USA. Sampling occurred July to August 2010 in 20 lakes. We tested catch per unit effort (CPUE) and body size of crayfish against lake trophic status, size, depth, and shoreline development, as well as substrate type. We also compared CPUE and body size in the presence or absence of known predators, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu Lacepède, 1802) and largemouth bass (Micro pterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802)). Crayfish body size was not strongly ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 23, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: N.C. Ramberg-Pihl K.L. Yurewicz T.R. Boucher Source Type: research

Snow conditions influence grey wolf (Canis lupus) travel paths: the effect of human-created linear features
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Although travel in deep snow imposes high energetic costs, animals can mitigate these costs through behavioural adaptations. For example, they can select habitats with shallower or more supportive snow. It is less well known, however, if animals select for favourable snow conditions at the scale of the step, i.e., along the travel paths themselves. We snow-tracked grey wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) over 187 km and used a paired design to compare snow conditions on travel paths to snow 1 m and 10 m away. Snow on travel paths was 3.2 cm shallower than measurements 1 m away, exce...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Amanda Droghini Stan Boutin Source Type: research

Increased diet breadth of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at their northern range limit: a multimethod approach
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The distribution of small mammals is constrained by extreme environmental demands and variable food supplies that are commonly incurred at northern latitudes. Little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte, 1831)) are at the northwestern limits of their range in Alaska (USA), where environmental demands are higher and prey availability is more seasonal than elsewhere in their range. We hypothesized that the little brown bat in interior Alaska has adjusted to these constraints by broadening its foraging niche, relative to that of southern conspecifics. We analyzed arthropod frag...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Rachel Shively Perry Barboza Patricia Doak Thomas S. Jung Source Type: research

Escape behavior of Side-blotched Lizards (Uta stansburiana) in response to model predators
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Few field studies have tested for geographic variation in escape behavior and even fewer have examined responses of prey to multiple predators despite most prey occurring in multipredator environments. We performed 458 escape trials on Side-blotched Lizards (Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard, 1852) from 10 populations that differed in predator abundances. We quantified escape behavior of Side-blotched Lizards when approached with one of two model predators: a lizard (Great Basin Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus bicinctores N.M. Smith and Tanner, 1972)) or a snake (Western Yellow-b...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: E.A. Wagner P.A. Zani Source Type: research

Short-term changes in spatial distribution pattern of an herbivore in response to accumulating snow
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Deep snow can reduce accessibility to vegetation and cover by herbivores by blanketing understory cover, yet simultaneously increase access to foliage at higher levels. Thus, snow depth fluctuation should lead to spatiotemporal variation in herbivore habitat use. We measured shifts in habitat use by snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) as a function of snow depth in an eastern Canadian boreal forest where snow depth often exceeds 1 m. We hypothesized that as snow accumulates, snowshoe hares shift from locations with dense vegetation just above ground to locations wi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Toshinori Kawaguchi Andr é Desrochers Source Type: research

Identification of distinct haemocyte populations from the freshwater bivalves swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea) and duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) using wheat-germ agglutinin
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Haemocytes play a major role in molluscs immunity. Functional studies are, however, impaired by limited available experimental tools to identify and sort distinct haemocyte populations. Therefore, using nonlethal methods, we aimed at evaluating whether lectin staining combined with flow cytometry could be used to distinguish circulating haemocyte populations from two freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae, the duck mussel (Anodonta anatina (L., 1758)) and the swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea (L., 1758)). Based on classical classification, haemocytes were distinguished as gran...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: M. Hinzmann M. Lopes-Lima F. Cerca A. Correia J. Machado M. Vilanova Source Type: research

Influence of prey size on reproduction among populations of Diamond-backed Watersnakes (Nerodia rhombifer)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Mean prey size often varies across landscapes, resulting in predator populations having differing access to energetic resources. Shifts in resource quality are likely to cause differences in energy allocation of reproduction. Thus, additional energy intake may lead to (i) increased offspring size, (ii) increased numbers of offspring, (iii) increased relative proportion of energy allocated to reproduction, (iv) increased absolute amount of energy allocated to reproduction or (v) increased energy allocated to growth of some other nonreproductive function, or (vi) some combinatio...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: J.D. Chamberlain I.T. Clifton M.E. Gifford Source Type: research

Stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino acids in a simplified food chain consisting of the green alga Chlorella spp., the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus, and the Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, 1846) is a keystone species in the food web of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystem. To study nutrient flow at intermediate and lower trophic levels, a controlled feeding experiment was carried out on a simplified food chain of the green alga Chlorella Beijerinck, 1890 – the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus Brodsky, 1962 – E. japonicus. For the whole organism, bulk δ13C was found to be enriched with escalating trophic level, although the intertrophic gap in δ13C was slightly lower than ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Hai-zhen Liu Lin Luo De-ling Cai Source Type: research

Bears napping nearby: daybed selection by brown bears (Ursus arctos) in a human-dominated landscape
In this study, we demonstrate which land-cover types and bear characteristics affect daybed selection in north-central Slovakia. We used the positional and activity data of 21 bears acquired by GPS –GSM telemetry to identify 3864 daybeds. By use of K-select analysis and linear mixed-effects modelling, we explored how bears chose these places for their daytime resting. The most important drivers for daybed selection were the presence of dense regenerating forests and forest–shrubbery belts in farmland. Bears avoided resting in older forests without suitable undergrowth. Females selected daybeds differently depen...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 17, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Michaela Skuban Slavom ír Find’o Mat úš Kajba Source Type: research

Living in a burned landscape: woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) use of postfire residual patches for calving in a high fire – low anthropogenic Boreal Shield ecozone
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) calculated that 55% of Saskatchewan ’s Boreal Shield has been disturbed by wildfire in the last 40 years. The 2012 Canadian Federal Recovery Strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin, 1788)) states that these large-scale natural disturbances can cause caribou to cease use of portions of their range. This assum ption neglects the potential habitat value of postfire residuals. We tested this assumption using 2 years of GPS data obtained from 56 female caribou to identify calving site selection. Seventy-nin...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 15, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: H.G. Skatter M.L. Charlebois S. Eftest øl D. Tsegaye J.E. Colman J.L. Kansas K. Flydal B. Balicki Source Type: research

Predation and food –weather interactions drive colony collapse in a managed metapopulation of Arctic Terns (Sterna paradisaea)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Seabirds are considered bioindicators of bottom-up ecosystem processes, owing to seabirds ’ dependence on marine prey. However, ground-nesting seabirds are susceptible to predation, which can limit their use as bioindicators. Machias Seal Island (MSI) supported the largest colony of Arctic Terns (Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan, 1763) in the Gulf of Maine metapopulation, but prolonged br eeding failure led ∼90% of terns to abandon the colony in 2006. We analyzed 12 years of food, weather, and predation data using logistic regression models to determine which had the st...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - August 14, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: L.C. Scopel A.W. Diamond Source Type: research

Costs and benefits of straight versus tortuous migration paths for Prairie Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis) in seminatural and human-dominated landscapes
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. An individual ’s migration path shape should affect its fitness, because patchily distributed features (e.g., prey) are encountered more often on straight than tortuous paths. We hypothesized that Prairie Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis (Rafinesque, 1818)) with straighter migration paths should have bett er body condition, because they encounter prey patches more frequently, and higher migration mortality, because they also encounter predators and hazardous human land uses more frequently, than individuals with tortuous paths. If true, then a straighter path shoul...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: A.E. Martin D. J ørgensen C.C. Gates Source Type: research

Biochemical and physiological parameters associated with Trypanosoma evansi prevalence in wild capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Parasites can be detrimental to the health of wildlife populations and may negatively affect several aspects of the life history of their hosts. Investigating host health, therefore, is key to understanding important mechanisms of the host –parasite interaction at the individual and population levels. Recently, we reported a prevalence of 10% of Trypanosoma evansi Steel, 1884 in a population of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L., 1766)) from Esteros del Iberá, Argentina; however, the impact of T. evansi infection on capybaras is unknown. The aim of this stud...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: A.T. Eberhardt P.M. Beldomenico L.D. Monje A.L. Racca Source Type: research

Hot bats go cold: heterothermy in neotropical bats
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Torpor is common in bats, but has historically been viewed as an energy-saving technique reserved for temperate and subarctic climates; however, torpor use is common across several tropical bat families. Central America hosts a great diversity of bats with approximately 150 species, yet data from this area are lacking compared with tropical Africa and Australia. We investigated thermoregulatory responses of bats from neotropical Belize and captured adult bats in the tropical forests of Lamanai Archeological Reserve, Belize. After a 12 h acclimation period, we recorded rectal t...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Zenon J. Czenze Miranda B. Dunbar Source Type: research

Population structure in two geographically sympatric and congeneric ectoparasites (Cimex adjunctus and Cimex lectularius) in the North American Great Lakes region
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Subdivided populations can be described by different models of population structure that reflect population organization, dynamics, and connectivity. We used genetic data to investigate population structure in two geographically sympatric, congeneric species of generalist ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. We characterized the spatial genetic structure of the eastern bat bug (Cimex adjunctus Barber, 1939), an understudied and fairly abundant species, using microsatellite markers at a spatial scale representing contemporary dispersal of the species. We found seven genetic c...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 27, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Benoit Talbot Maarten J. Vonhof Hugh G. Broders M. Brock Fenton Nusha Keyghobadi Source Type: research

Nesting stage and distance to refuge influence terrestrial nesting behavior of Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Theory predicts prey should flee to safety when the fitness benefits of flight meet or exceed the costs. Empirical work has shown the importance of predation risk (e.g., predator behavior, distance to refuge) to prey flight behavior. However, less is known about the influence of flight costs. We monitored nesting Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta (Schneider, 1783)) to examine their response to a human observer (potential predator) depending on the distance between a turtle and an observer, distance between a turtle and water (i.e., refuge), and nesting stage at the time of the ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 27, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: David M. Delaney Fredric J. Janzen Daniel A. Warner Source Type: research

Body-size and growth-rate divergence among populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Body size is one of the most perceptible traits of organisms and is an important fitness proxy in evolutionary studies. Oceanic threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L., 1758) have colonized and adapted to numerous freshwater habitats throughout the Holarctic since the most recent glacial retreat, giving us natural “replicates” of both convergent and divergent evolution. I observed considerable body-size variation among 22 threespine stickleback populations within a small region surrounding Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA. Larger bodied populations tended to have ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 27, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: J.L. Rollins Source Type: research

An assessment of the efficacy of rub stations for detection and abundance surveys of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Barbed and scented rub pads that rely on a cheek-rubbing behavioural response are a standard survey design that has been used extensively across the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis Kerr, 1792). However, there have not been any published studies evaluating the effectiveness of rub stations for detecting lynx by comparing other simultaneous survey methods. We used a combination of paired rub stations and remote cameras at 41 sites to compare detection probabilities between the two methods and conduct a mark –recapture population estimate of Canada lynx using rub stat...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 27, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Shannon M. Crowley Dexter P. Hodder Source Type: research

Diet of endangered Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Aleutian Islands: new insights from DNA detections and bioenergetic reconstructions
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The endangered western stock of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) still declines in the western Aleutian Islands and accurate diet information is vital to test leading hypotheses. We undertook the first bioenergetic diet reconstruction using both molecular and hard part prey identifications from>600 scats collected in March –April 2008 and 2012. Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Pallas, 1810)) remained a primary prey (17%–27% by energy), but large (mean 60 cm) Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus Tilesius, 1810) also emerged as importa...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 26, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Dominic Tollit Lowell Fritz Ruth Joy Kristi Miller Angela Schulze James Thomason William Walker Tonya Zeppelin Thomas Gelatt Source Type: research

Genetic population structure of fishers (Pekania pennanti) in the Great Lakes region: remnants and reintroductions
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 95, Issue 11, Page 869-876, November 2017. Reintroduction programs have been pivotal in augmenting populations of fishers (Pekania pennanti (Erxleben, 1777)) and re-establishing them to their former range in North America. The majority of reintroduction efforts in fishers have been considered demographically successful, but reintroductions can alter genetic population structure and success has rarely been evaluated in fishers from a genetic standpoint. We used microsatellite data (n = 169) to examine genetic population structure of fishers in the Great Lakes region and comment on the succ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Paul Hapeman Emily K. Latch Olin E. Rhodes Brad Swanson C. William Kilpatrick Source Type: research

The problems with pooling poop: confronting sampling method biases in wolf (Canis lupus) diet studies
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758) diet is commonly estimated via scat analysis. Several researchers have concluded that scat collection method can bias diet estimates, but none of these studies properly accounted for interpack, age class, and temporal variability, all of which could bias diet estimates. We tested whether different scat collection methods yielded different wolf diet estimates after accounting for these other potential biases. We collected scats (n = 2406) monthly from four packs via three scat collection methods (at home sites, at clusters of GPS locations, and oppor...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 20, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: T.D. Gable S.K. Windels J.G. Bruggink Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and partial migration in brown trout (Salmo trutta)
This study provides the first evidence that oxidative status is associated with migration strategy and timing, months in advance of the actual migration, and provides insight into the role of oxidative status in animal migration. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 20, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Kim Birnie-Gauvin Kathryn S. Peiman Martin H. Larsen Henrik Baktoft Kim Aarestrup William G. Willmore Steven J. Cooke Source Type: research

The effects of roads on habitat selection and movement patterns of the American badger subspecies Taxidea taxus jacksoni in Ontario, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Road mortality is identified as a threat to American badger (Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777)) populations across Canada. Understanding habitat selection and movement in relation to roads is therefore vital to their conservation. Using telemetry data and road-kill locations of badgers in southwestern Ontario, we examined the relationship between habitat selection, movement patterns, and roads at three spatial scales. At the study-area scale, we assessed the effects of habitat attributes on burrow site selection. Several individuals placed their burrows closer to primary highways...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 13, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Julia Sunga Josh Sayers Karl Cottenie Christopher J. Kyle Danielle M. Ethier Source Type: research

The temporal niche and seasonal differences in predation risk to translocated and resident woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)
We examined seasonal variation in risk of predation by cougars (Puma concolor (L., 1771)) to the translocated caribou with comparison to resident caribou. Our basic approach followed the Movement Ecology Paradigm, in particular the interplay among why move, and when and where to move. We applied a cluster analysis framework on space-use patterns of GPS radio-collared animals to determine biologically relevant seasons. Then we examined the spatiotemporal similarity in habitat use between caribou groups and cougars across these seasons. This analysis included a control group of caribou from the donor herd that were not trans...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: H. Leech D.E. Jelinski L. DeGroot G. Kuzyk Source Type: research

Ecomorphological correlates of microhabitat selection in two sympatric Asian Box Turtle species (Geoemydidae: Cuora)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Closely related species that co-occur in homogeneous environments often possess differing morphologies, which can result in niche divergence that minimizes interspecific competition. In the present study, we examined the relationship between ecomorphological characteristics and microhabitat selection of two Asian box turtle species, the Keeled Box Turtle (Cuora mouhotii (Gray, 1862)) and the Indochinese Box Turtle (Cuora galbinifrons Bourret, 1940), that have sympatric distributions in the rainforest of Hainan, People ’s Republic of China. We found that C. mouhotii had a...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 10, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Fanrong Xiao Jichao Wang Haitao Shi Zaizhong Long Liu Lin Wei Wang Source Type: research

Are the western water shrew (Sorex navigator) and American water shrew (Sorex palustris) morphologically distinct?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Recent phylogenetic studies applying the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene and nuclear genes revealed divergent cordilleran and boreal lineages in western populations of the Sorex palustris complex that are now recognized as distinct species: Sorex navigator (Baird, 1858) (western water shrew) and Sorex palustris Richardson, 1828 (American water shrew). Their distributions in western Canada are parapatric with a potential contact zone in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Using 80 specimens including 69 of known genotype, we assessed morphological differentiation in me...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 10, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: David W. Nagorsen Nick Panter Andrew G. Hope Source Type: research

Putative drivers of adrenocortical activity in captive African lesser bushbaby (Galago moholi)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 95, Issue 10, Page 787-795, October 2017. In seasonal breeders, periods of reproductive activity often coincide with high levels of glucocorticoids. We studied seven male and seven female African lesser bushbabies (Galago moholi A. Smith, 1836) over two mating periods via noninvasive faecal hormone metabolite monitoring to investigate the relationship between reproductive and adrenocortical hormone activity. We used linear mixed-effect models to investigate the effect of physiological (endocrine) variables on faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Our results indicate faecal and...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 8, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: J. Scheun N.C. Bennett J. Nowack P.N. Laver A. Ganswindt Source Type: research

Annelids shed light on the evolution of spiralian development
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Spiralian development is characterized by stereotypic cell geometry and spindle orientation in early cleavage stage embryos, as well as conservation of ultimate fates of descendent clones. Diverse taxa such as molluscs, annelids, flatworms, and nemerteans exhibit spiralian development, but it is a mystery how such a conserved developmental program gives rise to such diverse body plans. This review highlights examples of variation during early development among spiralians, emphasizing recent experimental studies in the annelid Capitella teleta Blake, Grassle and Eckelbarger, 20...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 8, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Elaine C. Seaver Source Type: research

Does prey density predict characteristics of primiparity in a solitary and specialized predator, the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)?
We examined placental scars in yearling Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis (Kerr, 1792)) from the island of Newfoundland and used pregnancy rates and litter sizes to indicate primiparity. We modelled these lynx productivity data with snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) population attributes using seven multiple a priori competing hypotheses. Hare abundance showed peak, decline, and increase phases, and densities based on capture –mark–recapture estimates ranged from 0.11 to 1.19 hares·ha−1. Overall, yearling pregnancy rate was 23.5% and the model with hare abundance fitted alone had the most ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 7, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: John J. Reynolds Eric Vander Wal Barry K. Adams Richard M. Curran Christine M. Doucet Source Type: research

Island tameness and the repeatability of flight initiation distance in a large herbivore
This study highlights the potential of FID for individual-based research on the ecology and evolutionary dynamics of risk aversion in predation-free populations. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 7, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Doreen Cabrera Daniel Andres Philip D. McLoughlin Lucie Debeffe Sarah A. Medill Alastair J. Wilson Jocelyn Poissant Source Type: research

Pattern of ovulation in an ancient, solitary mole-rat lineage: Heliophobius argenteocinereus emini from Tanzania
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The genus Heliophobius Peters, 1846 is an ancient subterranean rodent lineage within the family Bathyergidae that displays seasonal breeding over a broad geographical range. In East Africa, reproduction in these solitary mole-rats has been shown to coincide with the long rains, but it is not clear whether the silvery mole-rat subspecies Heliophobius argenteocinereus emini Noack, 1894 from Tanzania is an induced or spontaneous ovulator. To address this, urinary progesterone was measured every second day over a period of 132 days in six wild-caught females subjected to three seq...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 6, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Jestina V. Katandukila Mungo K. Ngalameno Georgies F. Mgode Armanda D.S. Bastos Nigel C. Bennett Source Type: research

The endogenous activity patterns of Africa ’s smallest terrestrial mammal, the pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The endogenous rhythmicity of the locomotor activity and subsequent entrainment by light cycles of the pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides A. Smith, 1834) was investigated under laboratory-controlled conditions. Seasonal trapping in the field was used to assess the predominant activity phase in their natural habitat, and determine whether seasonal variation in activity occurs in the field. Mus minutoides were subjected to a series of light cycles starting with a 12 h light (L) : 12 h dark (D) cycle (2 weeks) to determine whether they entrain their activity patterns to light cues, afte...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 6, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: C. Hoole A.E. McKechnie D.M. Parker N.C. Bennett Source Type: research

Experimental evidence for concentration-dependence and intraspecific variation of movement behaviour in American lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Predicting dispersal paths of marine larvae with extended pelagic durations, such as American lobster (Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837), requires understanding the cues to which larvae respond, and how that response reflects changes in larval behaviour. If larvae respond to conspecific presence by varying their movement, then this behaviour can bias laboratory estimates of environmental responses. We tested whether larvae actively decreased their local intraspecific density by measuring how the vertical distribution of larvae changed under high versus low concentrati...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - July 4, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Eric J. Pedersen Ryan R.E. Stanley Paul V.R. Snelgrove Fr édéric Guichard Source Type: research

Amphibian breeding phenology and reproductive outcome: an examination using terrestrial and aquatic sampling
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Worldwide amphibian declines highlight the need for programs that monitor species presence and track population trends. We sampled larval amphibians with a box trap at 3-week intervals for 23 months in eight wetlands, and concurrently trapped adults and juveniles with drift fences, to examine spatiotemporal patterns of tadpole occurrence; explore relationships between breeding effort, tadpole abundance, and recruitment; and compare the efficacy of both methods in detecting species presence and reproductive outcome. Intermittent detection of species within and among wetlands su...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 29, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: C.H. Greenberg S.A. Johnson R. Owen A. Storfer Source Type: research

Nest cover and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites are linked to hatching success and telomere length in breeding Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima)
This study provides the first evidence of habitat-dependent moderation of the relationships between stress physiology, telomere length and hatching success. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 23, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: K. Noreikiene M. Öst M.W. Seltmann W. Boner P. Monaghan K. Jaatinen Source Type: research

Anti-parasite treatment and blood biochemistry in raptor nestlings
In conclusion, anti-parasite treatments led to changes in s everal BCCVs, suggesting differences in nutrient absorption and physiological state of chicks that are possibly related to the costs of parasitism, but maybe also to the parasite treatment itself. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - June 23, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Sveinn Are Hanssen Christian Sonne Jan Ove Bustnes Lisbeth Schnug Sophie Bourgeon Manuel Ballesteros Igor Eulaers Truls Moum Trond Vidar Johnsen Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen Dorte Herzke Veerle L.B. Jaspers Adrian Covaci Marcel Eens Duncan J. Halley Kjell Einar Source Type: research