Internal head morphology of minor workers and soldiers in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 5, Page 383-392, May 2018. In the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole Westwood, 1839, the worker caste evolved into two morphologically distinct subcastes: minor workers and soldiers. The evolution of soldiers, which are larger in size than minor workers and have disproportionately larger heads, are thought to be key to Phediole ’s success. Although many studies have focused on external anatomy, little is known about their internal anatomy. We therefore used microCT imaging and quantitative three-dimensional image analysis to reconstruct the major glands of the head, the muscu...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Angelica Lillico-Ouachour Brian Metscher Tominari Kaji Ehab Abouheif Source Type: research

Internal head morphology of minor workers and soldiers in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. In the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole Westwood, 1839, the worker caste evolved into two morphologically distinct subcastes: minor workers and soldiers. The evolution of soldiers, which are larger in size than minor workers and have disproportionately larger heads, are thought to be key to Phediole ’s success. Although many studies have focused on external anatomy, little is known about their internal anatomy. We therefore used microCT imaging and quantitative three-dimensional image analysis to reconstruct the major glands of the head, the musculature, nervous system, a...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - January 5, 2018 Category: Zoology Authors: Angelica Lillico-Ouachour Brian Metscher Tominari Kaji Ehab Abouheif Source Type: research

n-Alkane and long-chain alcohol recovery in moose (Alces alces), a browsing herbivore
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat management for herbivores often depends on an understanding of the food habits of animals. Plant cuticular waxes containing nearly indigestible complex mixture of n-alkanes and long-chain alcohols (LCOHs) have recently shown promise for diet analyses, but the accuracy of the technique depends strongly on the efficiency of recovery of the markers in feces. Fecal recovery of n-alkanes and LCOHs from 10 browse stems or leaves and two ensiled grass hays fed to moose (Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758)) during in vivo digestion trials was investigated. n-Alkanes and LCOHs were ex...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: A.M. Carnahan D.E. Spalinger W.B. Collins Source Type: research

Resource partitioning between kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and coyotes (Canis latrans): a comparison of historical and contemporary dietary overlap
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 5, Page 497-504, May 2018. Range expansions by generalists can alter communities and introduce competitive pressures on native species. In the Great Basin Desert, USA, coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) have colonized and are now sympatric with native kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis Merriam, 1888). Since both species have similar diets, dietary partitioning may facilitate coexistence. We analyzed coyote and kit fox diets, then compared our results to an earlier study. Because populations are dynamic, we expected that decreases in prey or increases in predator abundance could alter die...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 21, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: P.A. Byerly R.C. Lonsinger E.M. Gese A.J. Kozlowski L.P. Waits Source Type: research

Resource partitioning between kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and coyotes (Canis latrans): a comparison of historical and contemporary dietary overlap
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Range expansions by generalists can alter communities and introduce competitive pressures on native species. In the Great Basin Desert, USA, coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) have colonized and are now sympatric with native kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis Merriam, 1888). Since both species have similar diets, dietary partitioning may facilitate coexistence. We analyzed coyote and kit fox diets, then compared our results to an earlier study. Because populations are dynamic, we expected that decreases in prey or increases in predator abundance could alter dietary patterns. We found n...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 21, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: P.A. Byerly R.C. Lonsinger E.M. Gese A.J. Kozlowski L.P. Waits Source Type: research

Site-specific female-biased sex ratio of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) during a stopover early in the southern migration
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Previous research on humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781)), in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, has reported site-specific male-biased sex ratios in breeding grounds and along migratory corridors. However, one recent Southern Hemisphere study reported a female-biased sex ratio in a feeding area within a coastal migratory corridor, indicating that females may preferentially occupy some habitats. We investigated the classes and relative seasonal timing of humpback whales using Hervey Bay (Queensland, Australia) as a stopover early in the southern m...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 20, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Trish Franklin Wally Franklin Lyndon Brooks Peter Harrison Source Type: research

The right choice: predation pressure drives shell selection decisions in the hermit crab Calcinus californiensis
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 5, Page 454-459, May 2018. Several prey species use refuges to avoid predation. Prey need to abandon and shift between refuges. However, during such shifting, prey can be vulnerable to predators. We hypothesize that predator presence may induce prey to make mistakes in choosing their refuge. We tested this by inducing the hermit crab Calcinus californiensis Bouvier, 1898 to shift to a new empty gastropod shell (three different species: Columbella Lamarck, 1799, Nerita scabricosta Lamarck, 1822, and Stramonita biserialis (Blainville, 1832)) in the absence and presence of Eriphia ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 20, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: E. Arce A. C órdoba-Aguilar Source Type: research

Site-specific female-biased sex ratio of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) during a stopover early in the southern migration
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Previous research on humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781)), in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres, has reported site-specific male-biased sex ratios in breeding grounds and along migratory corridors. However, one recent Southern Hemisphere study reported a female-biased sex ratio in a feeding area within a coastal migratory corridor, indicating that females may preferentially occupy some habitats. We investigated the classes and relative seasonal timing of humpback whales using Hervey Bay (Queensland, Australia) as a stopover early in the southern m...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 20, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Trish Franklin Wally Franklin Lyndon Brooks Peter Harrison Source Type: research

The right choice: predation pressure drives shell selection decisions in the hermit crab Calcinus californiensis
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Several prey species use refuges to avoid predation. Prey need to abandon and shift between refuges. However, during such shifting, prey can be vulnerable to predators. We hypothesize that predator presence may induce prey to make mistakes in choosing their refuge. We tested this by inducing the hermit crab Calcinus californiensis Bouvier, 1898 to shift to a new empty gastropod shell (three different species: Columbella Lamarck, 1799, Nerita scabricosta Lamarck, 1822, and Stramonita biserialis (Blainville, 1832)) in the absence and presence of Eriphia squamata Stimpson, 1860, ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 20, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: E. Arce A. C órdoba-Aguilar Source Type: research

Note of appreciation / Note de reconnaissance
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Genome size and brain cell density in birds
In this study, a recent data set on cell numbers in the brains of birds was combined with available data on genome sizes to demonstrate a relationship between genome size and density of cells per gram of brain tissue. This suggests that small genomes are relevant not only in the evolution of avian flight but may also be associated with the extraordinary behavioural complexity shown by birds. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 8, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: T. Ryan Gregory Source Type: research

The energetics of mosquito feeding by insectivorous bats
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Dietary studies have long shown that insectivorous bats do not often consume mosquitoes, despite cosmopolitan distribution and occasional ubiquity of mosquitoes (Culicidae). The apparent avoidance of mosquitoes relative to availability may relate to their small size, as bats may have difficulties detecting and capturing mosquitoes or they may not return sufficient energy per unit effort of capture. We used bomb calorimetry to determine the energetic content of mosquitoes from Alaska and Illinois, USA, and compared resulting estimates to daily energy expenditure of several bat ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 2, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Gabrielle C. Wetzler Justin G. Boyles Source Type: research

Cascading ecological effects from local extirpation of an ecosystem engineer in the Arava desert
We describe such a scenario in the Arava desert, where different cultural and law enforcement practices exclude Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas (Linnaeus, 1758)) from the Jordanian side of the border while protecting their populations on the Israeli side. We found that gazelles break the soil crust, formed in desert systems after annual flooding, thereby creating patches of loose and cooler sand that are used by pit-building antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). When we artificially broke the soil crust on both sides of the border, we found a significant increase in antlion density in these patches, but only on the Israel...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Uri Shanas Yoni Gavish Mai Bernheim Shacham Mittler Yael Olek Alon Tal Source Type: research

Cascading ecological effects from local extirpation of an ecosystem engineer in the Arava desert
We describe such a scenario in the Arava desert, where different cultural and law enforcement practices exclude Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas (Linnaeus, 1758)) from the Jordanian side of the border while protecting their populations on the Israeli side. We found that gazelles break the soil crust, formed in desert systems after annual flooding, thereby creating patches of loose and cooler sand that are used by pit-building antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). When we artificially broke the soil crust on both sides of the border, we found a significant increase in antlion density in these patches, but only on the Israel...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - December 1, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Uri Shanas Yoni Gavish Mai Bernheim Shacham Mittler Yael Olek Alon Tal Source Type: research

Habitat overlap among bobcats (Lynx rufus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in an agricultural landscape
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 5, Page 486-496, May 2018. Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758) populations have grown considerably in the Midwestern U.S. alongside mesocarnivores, such as coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and bobcats (Lynx rufus (Schreber, 1777)). However, few studies have assessed habitat overlap between mesocarnivores and turkeys with a goal to understand potential impacts of mesocarnivores on turkeys. We captured and radiomarked bobcats, coyotes, and Wild Turkey hens in southern Illinois during 2011 –2013 in an agricultural landscape and created single-species resource se...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: C.K. Nielsen C.R. Bottom R.G. Tebo E. Greenspan Source Type: research

Antihelminthic treatment alters cellular but not humoral immune components in Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 5, Page 447-453, May 2018. We evaluate whether helminth parasites affect both cellular and humoral components of the immune system of Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus (J.R. Forster, 1781)) chicks. We measured immune components after the administration of an antihelminthic drug to remove parasites. Cellular immune components included the complete white blood cell (WBC) count and the in vivo skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Humoral aspects assessed were the ability of plasma to agglutinate foreign particles and the bactericidal capacity of plasma. Ant...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: V.L. D ’Amico M.G. Palacios M. Bertellotti Source Type: research

Individual variation in avian avoidance behaviours in response to repeated, simulated vehicle approach
We examined individual variation in avoidance behaviours of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater (Boddaert, 1783)) in response to repeated presentation of a simulated vehicle approach in a video playback scenario. We modeled temporal alert and flight behaviours to determine whether overall behavioural variation resulted primarily from variation within individuals (i.e., intraindividual variation) or between individuals (i.e., interindividual variation). We examined reaction norms (individual × treatment day) and whether birds showed plasticity in responses via habituation or sensitization. Repeatability in the respo...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: T.L. DeVault T.W. Seamans B.F. Blackwell S.L. Lima E. Fern ández-Juricic Source Type: research

Demography of Sooty Fox Sparrows (Passerella unalaschcensis) following a shift from a migratory to resident life history
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 5, Page 436-440, May 2018. Identifying causes and consequences of variation in species life history has the potential to improve predictions about how climate and land-use change may affect the demography and distribution of species in future. Sooty Fox Sparrows (Passerella unalaschcensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789); or commonly grouped within the Fox Sparrow, Passerella iliaca (Merrem, 1786)) were migrants that rarely bred in the Georgia Basin of British Columbia prior to ∼1950 but have since established resident populations. Data on 270 color-banded birds and 54 nests on Mandarte ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Hannah Visty Scott Wilson Ryan Germain Jessica Krippel Peter Arcese Source Type: research

Habitat overlap among bobcats (Lynx rufus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in an agricultural landscape
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758) populations have grown considerably in the Midwestern U.S. alongside mesocarnivores, such as coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and bobcats (Lynx rufus (Schreber, 1777)). However, few studies have assessed habitat overlap between mesocarnivores and turkeys with a goal to understand potential impacts of mesocarnivores on turkeys. We captured and radiomarked bobcats, coyotes, and Wild Turkey hens in southern Illinois during 2011 –2013 in an agricultural landscape and created single-species resource selection and overlap model...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: C.K. Nielsen C.R. Bottom R.G. Tebo E. Greenspan Source Type: research

Antihelminthic treatment alters cellular but not humoral immune components in Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. We evaluate whether helminth parasites affect both cellular and humoral components of the immune system of Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus (J.R. Forster, 1781)) chicks. We measured immune components after the administration of an antihelminthic drug to remove parasites. Cellular immune components included the complete white blood cell (WBC) count and the in vivo skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Humoral aspects assessed were the ability of plasma to agglutinate foreign particles and the bactericidal capacity of plasma. Antihelminthic treatment res...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: V.L. D ’Amico M.G. Palacios M. Bertellotti Source Type: research

Individual variation in avian avoidance behaviours in response to repeated, simulated vehicle approach
We examined individual variation in avoidance behaviours of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater (Boddaert, 1783)) in response to repeated presentation of a simulated vehicle approach in a video playback scenario. We modeled temporal alert and flight behaviours to determine whether overall behavioural variation resulted primarily from variation within individuals (i.e., intraindividual variation) or between individuals (i.e., interindividual variation). We examined reaction norms (individual × treatment day) and whether birds showed plasticity in responses via habituation or sensitization. Repeatability in the respo...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: T.L. DeVault T.W. Seamans B.F. Blackwell S.L. Lima E. Fern ández-Juricic Source Type: research

Demography of Sooty Fox Sparrows (Passerella unalaschcensis) following a shift from a migratory to resident life history
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Identifying causes and consequences of variation in species life history has the potential to improve predictions about how climate and land-use change may affect the demography and distribution of species in future. Sooty Fox Sparrows (Passerella unalaschcensis (J.F. Gmelin, 1789); or commonly grouped within the Fox Sparrow, Passerella iliaca (Merrem, 1786)) were migrants that rarely bred in the Georgia Basin of British Columbia prior to ∼1950 but have since established resident populations. Data on 270 color-banded birds and 54 nests on Mandarte Island, British Columbia,...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Hannah Visty Scott Wilson Ryan Germain Jessica Krippel Peter Arcese Source Type: research

Prey cortisol affects the usefulness of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentration as an indicator of stress in a carnivore
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The noninvasive nature of sample collection makes analysis of fecal hormone concentrations useful for examining endocrine responses in free-living wild animals. Glucocorticoid hormones (i.e., cortisol and corticosterone) are frequently measured as an indicator of activation of the endocrine stress axis. However, many factors may influence glucocorticoid concentrations in feces, and the influence of prey glucocorticoids on concentrations in the feces of predators is rarely considered. We tested whether cortisol consumption influenced concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: R.S. McDonald J.D. Roth W.G. Anderson Source Type: research

Stock structure analysis of the Arabian red shrimp (Aristeus alcocki Ramadan, 1938) in the Indian coast with truss network morphometrics
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 5, Page 411-424, May 2018. The Arabian red shrimp (Aristeus alcocki Ramadan, 1938) is a deep-sea penaeoid shrimp that forms a major commercial fishery in the Indian coast. However, the spawning population of this species along the Indian coast is poorly known. To study this, stock structure of A. alcocki using truss morphometry was employed. A total of 1842 matured specimens were collected from five geographical locations (Tuticorin (SET), Chennai (SEC), Nagapattianam (SEN), Sakthikulangara (SWS), and Kalamuku (SWK)) along the Indian coast. Thirty-nine truss distances were extra...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 28, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: P. Purushothaman R.D. Chakraborty G. Kuberan G. Maheswarudu P.K. Baby L. Sreesanth N. Ragesh D.G. Pazhayamadom Source Type: research

Stock structure analysis of the Arabian red shrimp (Aristeus alcocki Ramadan, 1938) in the Indian coast with truss network morphometrics
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The Arabian red shrimp (Aristeus alcocki Ramadan, 1938) is a deep-sea penaeoid shrimp that forms a major commercial fishery in the Indian coast. However, the spawning population of this species along the Indian coast is poorly known. To study this, stock structure of A. alcocki using truss morphometry was employed. A total of 1842 matured specimens were collected from five geographical locations (Tuticorin (SET), Chennai (SEC), Nagapattianam (SEN), Sakthikulangara (SWS), and Kalamuku (SWK)) along the Indian coast. Thirty-nine truss distances were extracted from each specimen a...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 28, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: P. Purushothaman R.D. Chakraborty G. Kuberan G. Maheswarudu P.K. Baby L. Sreesanth N. Ragesh D.G. Pazhayamadom Source Type: research

Postbreeding movement patterns and habitat use of adult Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) at urban wetlands
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat loss and degradation linked to urbanization threaten amphibian populations globally, yet studies examining amphibian behaviour and habitat use in cities are rare. Through the use of radiotelemetry, we examined the postbreeding (May –October) movement behaviour and habitat use of adult Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus (LeConte, 1825)) at natural and constructed urban wetlands in Edmonton, Alberta, located in the semiarid, aspen parkland of Canada. Movement from breeding wetlands was limited, with most tracked individuals rem aining within 25 m of ponds in grassy ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Murdoch E.D. Taylor Cynthia A. Paszkowski Source Type: research

Population structure and genetic diversity in the invasive freshwater snail Galba schirazensis (Lymnaeidae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 5, Page 425-435, May 2018. We studied the population genetic structure of the freshwater snail Galba schirazensis (K üster, 1862), a potential vector of infectious diseases such as fascioliasis. Galba schirazensis has now a worldwide distribution but a poorly known origin because this species has been distinguished only recently from the morphologically similar and cosmopolitan Galba truncatula (O.F. Müller, 177 4). We developed specific microsatellite markers and sequenced a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO1)) to study individuals of G. schirazensi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: M. Lounnas A.C. Correa P. Alda P. David M.-P. Dubois M. Calvopi ña Y. Caron M. Celi-Erazo B.T. Dung P. Jarne E.S. Loker O. Noya R. Rodr íguez-Hidalgo C. Toty N. Uribe J.-P. Pointier S. Hurtrez-Bouss ès Source Type: research

Postbreeding movement patterns and habitat use of adult Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) at urban wetlands
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Habitat loss and degradation linked to urbanization threaten amphibian populations globally, yet studies examining amphibian behaviour and habitat use in cities are rare. Through the use of radiotelemetry, we examined the postbreeding (May –October) movement behaviour and habitat use of adult Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus (LeConte, 1825)) at natural and constructed urban wetlands in Edmonton, Alberta, located in the semiarid, aspen parkland of Canada. Movement from breeding wetlands was limited, with most tracked individuals rem aining within 25 m of ponds in grassy ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Murdoch E.D. Taylor Cynthia A. Paszkowski Source Type: research

Population structure and genetic diversity in the invasive freshwater snail Galba schirazensis (Lymnaeidae)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. We studied the population genetic structure of the freshwater snail Galba schirazensis (K üster, 1862), a potential vector of infectious diseases such as fascioliasis. Galba schirazensis has now a worldwide distribution but a poorly known origin because this species has been distinguished only recently from the morphologically similar and cosmopolitan Galba truncatula (O.F. Müller, 177 4). We developed specific microsatellite markers and sequenced a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO1)) to study individuals of G. schirazensis from the Old World and ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: M. Lounnas A.C. Correa P. Alda P. David M.-P. Dubois M. Calvopi ña Y. Caron M. Celi-Erazo B.T. Dung P. Jarne E.S. Loker O. Noya R. Rodr íguez-Hidalgo C. Toty N. Uribe J.-P. Pointier S. Hurtrez-Bouss ès Source Type: research

The distribution and trophic ecology of an introduced, insular population of red-necked wallabies (Notamacropus rufogriseus)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Introduced non-native mammals can have negative impacts on native biota and it is important that their ecologies are quantified so that potential impacts can be understood. Red-necked wallabies (Notamacropus rufogriseus (Desmarest, 1817)) became established on the Isle of Man (IOM), an island with UNESCO Biosphere status, following their escape from zoological collections in the mid-1900s. We estimated wallaby circadial activity and population densities using camera trap surveys and random encounter models. Their range in the IOM was derived from public sightings sourced via s...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 22, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Paige Havlin Anthony Caravaggi W. Ian Montgomery Source Type: research

Multiscale habitat selection by cow moose (Alces alces) at calving sites in central Ontario
This study also demonstrates the feasibility of using GPS collars to infer parturition and location of calving sites. We recommend ground-based microhabitat data be collected to better understand habitat selection of moose during calving. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - November 10, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: A.A.D. McLaren J.F. Benson B.R. Patterson Source Type: research

Classifying and combining herd surface activities and individual dive profiles to identify summer behaviours of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 5, Page 393-410, May 2018. Studies of the behaviour of diving animals usually focus on either individual dives or surface group activities, but these complementary observations are seldom combined in the same study. We here study the summer (June –October) behaviour of St. Lawrence Estuary belugas (Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776)) by combining fine-scale individual diving data from 27 time–depth–speed recorder deployments (conducted in 2002–2005) with surface activity data from 1413 focal herd follows (conducted in 1991–2012). We classified 631...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 31, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: S. Lemieux Lefebvre V. Lesage R. Michaud M.M. Humphries Source Type: research

Classifying and combining herd surface activities and individual dive profiles to identify summer behaviours of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Studies of the behaviour of diving animals usually focus on either individual dives or surface group activities, but these complementary observations are seldom combined in the same study. We here study the summer (June –October) behaviour of St. Lawrence Estuary belugas (Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776)) by combining fine-scale individual diving data from 27 time–depth–speed recorder deployments (conducted in 2002–2005) with surface activity data from 1413 focal herd follows (conducted in 1991–2012). We classified 6312 dives into seven dive t...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 31, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: S. Lemieux Lefebvre V. Lesage R. Michaud M.M. Humphries Source Type: research

A discreet invasion: distribution, origins, and expansion of the European slug complex Arion subfuscus s.l. in Quebec
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Accurate identification of species and their geographic origins is crucial to assess the impacts of exotic species. This is particularly relevant when multiple introductions are suspected. Species complexes are therefore problematic, as different species can be treated as a single taxon. The highly diversified European complex Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud, 1805) s.l. is abundant throughout northeastern North America. However, surveys performed in the United States have reported a low mitochondrial diversity associated with a single species. To assess whether regions characteriz...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 31, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Érik L’Heureux Bernard Angers Source Type: research

Maternal and offspring effects on the timing of parturition in western Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)
This study illustrates some of the complexity of variables that can influence the timing of birth in this species and which should be considered in models that attempt t o identify long-term trends in changing marine ecosystems. (Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 31, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: John M. Maniscalco Pamela Parker Source Type: research

Too much of a good thing? A landscape-of-fear analysis for collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) reveals hikers act as a greater deterrent than thorny or bitter food
We examined whether the perception of risk from human activity interacted with the chemical (tannin) and mechanical (thorns) antipredator mechanisms of local plant species. The peccaries avoided food stations near a hiking trail. The population foraged less near houses, i.e., moderate human activity, than in the perceived safety of a small wadi. Plant defence treatments impacted the harvesting of food only in the safe zone, suggesting that risk trumps food selectivity. The strong effect of the hiking trail on habitat selection in this disturbance-loving species is an indicator of a much larger impact on sensitive species i...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Sonny S. Bleicher Michael L. Rosenzweig Source Type: research

Systemic effects of a high saturated fat diet in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Food sources for North America ’s grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) population have changed as habitats have fragmented, altering available resources and putting bears in contact with unnatural foods. Bears have evolved mechanisms to tolerate obesity, and do not develop adverse health consequences despite storing massive amounts of body fat. Captive adult grizzly bears were used to determine the effects of dietary fat on health. Group 1 was fed a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) wherein 9.5% of available calories came from saturated fatty ac...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 30, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: D.R. Rivet O.L. Nelson C.A. Vella H.T. Jansen C.T. Robbins Source Type: research

The effects of brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha fario) on habitat selection by larval Fire Salamanders (Salamandra salamandra): a predator-avoidance strategy
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Predatory fish can have a major impact on aquatic amphibian assemblages. Knowledge regarding the influence of habitat heterogeneity on predator –prey dynamics is extensive, but not much is published on how the habitat structure influences the co-occurrence of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758 morpha fario) and Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758)). I examined the microhabitat distribution of larval salamanders re lative to the presence of brown trout and stream morphology, hypothesizing that larval salamanders will increase their habitat use in ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 19, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Aneta Bylak Source Type: research

Plastic adaptations of foraging strategies to variation in forage quality in Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)
Canadian Journal of Zoology,Volume 96, Issue 3, Page 269-275, March 2018. Foraging efficiency strongly affects individual fitness and is influenced by diverse factors such as food quality and quantity, as well as intra- and inter-specific interactions. We investigated whether Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus, 1758)) in a protected area in the Swiss Alps adapted their foraging behaviour to forage availability and quality by modeling the bite and step rates of individuals on vegetation nitrogen content, relative plant cover, sex, daytime, air temperature, and slope. Vegetation characteristics were derived using ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Arno Puorger Christian Rossi Rudolf M. Haller Pia Anderwald Source Type: research

Temperature-dependent consumption of spiders by little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), but not northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis), in northern Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Intraspecific variation in diet has been observed in many species, including the geographically widespread little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte, 1831)). Spider consumption by M. lucifugus is more common in northern regions of their distribution, possibly due to reduced availability of aerial prey during low temperatures. However, in previously studied northern regions, M. lucifugus was the only bat species captured. The purpose of our study was to examine whether there is overlap in the diet and morphology of M. lucifugus and the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septent...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 12, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: L.A. Kaupas R.M.R. Barclay Source Type: research

Exploring the diet of arctic wolves (Canis lupus arctos) at their northern range limit
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The grey wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most widespread large carnivores on Earth, and occurs throughout the Arctic. Although wolf diet is well studied, we have scant information from high Arctic areas. Global warming is expected to increase the importance of predation for ecosystem regulation in Arctic environments. To improve our ability to manage Arctic ecosystems under environmental change, we therefore need knowledge about Arctic predator diets. Prey remains in 54 wolf scats collected at three sites in the high Arctic region surrounding the Hall Basin (Ju...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 11, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: F. Dalerum S. Freire A. Angerbj örn N. Lecomte Å. Lindgren T. Meijer P. Pe čnerová L. Dal én Source Type: research

Density, habitat use, and activity patterns of a vulnerable population of the Solitary Tinamou (Tinamus solitarius) in a Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragment
We present the first estimates of density of the Solitary Tinamou (Tinamus solitarius (Vieillot, 1819)) in the Reserva Natural Vale (RNV), one of the two largest remnants of the Atlantic Rainforest in the state of Esp írito Santo, Brazil. We also modeled the spatial distribution and habitat use of the species using occupancy and detectability modeling. We used a line-transect survey to estimate density and abundance and camera traps to estimate habitat use and activity pattern. We conducted the survey within a 1 3 month period (April 2013 to May 2014). Estimated density was 9 ± 2 individuals/km2 and estimated...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 6, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Átilla Colombo Ferreguetti Juliane Pereira-Ribeiro Walfrido Moraes Tomas Helena Godoy Bergallo Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha Source Type: research

The role of echolocation strategies for niche differentiation in bats
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Guilds subdivide bat assemblages into basic structural units of species with similar patterns of habitat use and foraging modes, but do not explain mechanisms of niche differentiation. Bats have evolved four different echolocation strategies allowing the access to four different trophic niche spaces differing in niche dimensions. Bats foraging in open and edge spaces use the “aerial hawking or trawling strategy” and detect and localize prey by evaluating pulse–echo trains in which the prey echo is unmasked. The pulse–echo pairs deliver mainly positional...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 4, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Annette Denzinger Marco Tschapka Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler Source Type: research

Henricia spp. (Echinodermata: Asteroidea: Echinasteridae) of the White Sea: morphology, morphometry, and synonymy
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Though sea stars of the genus Henricia Gray, 1840 are widely used in biological studies, their species diversity in the Arctic is poorly understood. We conducted a taxonomic revision of the genus Henricia from the White Sea and examined 381 specimens of Henricia sea stars deposited in the collection of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg), the type collection founded by A.M. Djakonov, and our own collection. Following the 1987 study by F.J. Madsen and the 1950 study by A.M. Djakonov, we identified six species in the White Sea: Henricia e...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Olga A. Bratova Gita G. Paskerova Source Type: research

Low-temperature tolerances of tropical fish with potential transgenic applications in relation to winter water temperatures in Canada
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Application of fluorescent protein transgenes in tropical freshwater fish is used in research (e.g., in zebrafish) and in the commercial ornamental aquarium trade. To assess the overwinter potential of such fish in Canada, we examined the minimum temperature tolerance of three wild-type species (zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822); black tetra, Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895); tiger barb, Puntius tetrazona (Bleeker, 1855)) used as fluorescent models in the aquarium trade, as well as four lines of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic and wild-type zebrafish u...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: R.A. Leggatt R.S. Dhillon C. Mimeault N. Johnson J.G. Richards R.H. Devlin Source Type: research

The effects of climate on annual variation in reproductive output in Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Reptiles are highly dependent on climatic patterns to regulate their behavior and physiology, and studies of the effects of climate on the biology of organisms are increasingly important given expected climate change. Our study examined the effects of climate variation over 15 of the 26 years between 1990 and 2015 on the reproductive output of the Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus, 1758)). Egg mass, clutch size, and clutch mass (relative to body size) were significantly higher in years following warmer temperatures in September and October of the year before repro...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: A.R. Hedrick H.M. Klondaris L.C. Corichi M.J. Dreslik J.B. Iverson Source Type: research

Testosterone-related and seasonal changes in sebaceous glands in the back skin of adult male brown bears (Ursus arctos)
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Adult male brown bears (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) display tree-marking behavior to chemically signal their dominance throughout the nondenning period, and this behavior peaks during the breeding season. Within the scent-marking sequence, back rub is a core marking posture. The present study investigated (i) seasonal changes in sebaceous glands in the back skin of brown bears and (ii) the relationship between those changes and testosterone levels. Back skin tissue samples and blood were collected from captive adult intact and castrated males during prebreeding, transitional,...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Jumpei Tomiyasu Yojiro Yanagawa Yoshikazu Sato Michito Shimozuru Masashi Nagano Motoki Sasaki Hideyuki Sakamoto Naoya Matsumoto Kohei Kobayashi Mitsunori Kayano Shingo Haneda Motozumi Matsui Source Type: research

Fire-mediated patterns of habitat use by male moose (Alces alces) in Alaska
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Fire severity is an important control over regeneration of deciduous species and can influence the overall quality of habitat for herbivores, such as moose (Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758)), but the relationships between availability and duration of biomass production and moose habitat use are largely unknown. We evaluate the relative influence of a regenerating burn, paying particular attention to fire severity, on winter forage production and duration, offtake, nutritional quality, and seasonal moose habitat use. We used data from 14 GPS collared male moose in the 20-year-old H...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - October 3, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: C.L. Brown K. Kielland E.S. Euskirchen T.J. Brinkman R.W. Ruess K.A. Kellie Source Type: research

Quantitative approaches to sensory information encoding by bat noseleaves and pinnae
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. The biosonar systems of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) and Old World round leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideridae) incorporate a pervasive dynamic at the interfaces for ultrasound emission (noseleaves) and reception (pinnae). Changes in the shapes of these structures alter the acoustic characteristics of the biosonar system and could hence influence the encoding of sensory information. The focus of the present work is on approaches that can be used to investigate the hypothesis that the interface dynamic effects sensory information encoding. Mutual information can be used as a metric...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 28, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: Rolf M üller Source Type: research

Scavenging and the ecology of fear: do animal carcasses create islands of risk on the landscape?
Canadian Journal of Zoology, e-First Articles. Many vertebrate scavengers function as predators in ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of scavengers and occurrence of predator effects may be intertwined near carcasses. We tested for risk effects near a series of experimentally placed carcasses by measuring small-mammal foraging in a before –after control–impact design. Validation efforts revealed low levels of food loss from stations due to human error and invertebrate foraging, and habituation to stations occurred after 2 weeks. Increased perceived predation risk by small mammals relative to controls occu...
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 18, 2017 Category: Zoology Authors: C.M. Steinbeiser C.A. Wawrzynowski X. Ramos Z.H. Olson Source Type: research