Structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen from Fusobacterium nucleatum strain CC 7/3 JVN3 C1 and development of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific to the O-antigen
In this study, we combined several technologies, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, to elucidate the structure of the LPS O-antigen repeat unit as -[-4-β-Gal-3 -α-FucNAc4N-4-α-NeuNAc-]-. We have previously identified this structure as the LPS O-antigen repeat unit from strain 10953. In this present study, we developed a mAb to the C1 LPS O-antigen and confirmed the mAbs cross-reactivity to the 10953 strain, thus confirming the structural identity. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - May 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chantelle M. Cairns Frank St. Michael Perry Fleming Evgeny V. Vinogradov Andrew D. Cox Source Type: research

Biological characteristics and whole-genome analysis of the Enterococcus faecalis phage PEf771
In this study, E. faecalis YN771 isolated from a re-treated root canal at a stomatology department was used as the host bacterium and was co-cultured with wastewater from the same department and patient samples to isolate a phage that lyses E. faecalis. We studied the biological and genomic characteristics of this phage. Transmission electron microscopy showed that this phage ’s head is icosahedral in structure, with a head diameter of around 98.4 nm, and a contractile tail of around 228.5 nm in length and a diameter of 17.3 nm. The phage was identified as a member of the Myoviridae family and named PEf771. It is sen...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - May 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yingying Xiang Wenyu Li Fei Song Xianghong Yang Jing Zhou Hongbin Yu Xiuling Ji Yunlin Wei Source Type: research

The yeast, the antifungal, and the wardrobe: a journey into antifungal resistance mechanisms of Candida tropicalis
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Candida tropicalis is a prominent non-Candida albicans Candida species involved in cases of candidemia, mainly causing infections in patients in intensive care units and (or) those presenting neutropenia. In recent years, several studies have reported an increase in the recovery rates of azole-resistant C. tropicalis isolates. Understanding C. tropicalis resistance is of great importance, since resistant strains are implicated in persistent or recurrent and breakthrough infections. In this review, we address the main mechanisms underlying C. tropicalis resistance to the m...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - April 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jonathas Sales de Oliveira Vandbergue Santos Pereira D ébora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro Jos é Júlio Costa Sidrim Raimunda S âmia Nogueira Brilhante Marcos F ábio Gadelha Rocha Source Type: research

Codon usage bias affects α-amylase mRNA level by altering RNA stability and cytosine methylation patterns in Escherichia coli
In this study, we took as an example the α-amylase-coding gene (amyA) and examined the role of codon usage bias in regulating gene expression in the typical prokaryote Escherichia coli. We confirmed the higher translation efficiency on codon-optimized amyA RNAs and found that the RNA level itself was also affected by codon optimization. T he decreased RNA level was caused at least in part by altered mRNA stability at the post-transcriptional level. Codon optimization also altered the number of cytosine methylation sites. Examination on dcm knockouts suggested that cytosine methylation may be a minor mechanism adopted...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - April 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yanzi Xing Ruiqing Gong Yichun Xu Kunshan Liu Mian Zhou Source Type: research

Co-occurrence patterns among prokaryotes across an age gradient in pit mud of Chinese strong-flavor liquor
This study aimed to investigate the alteration and interaction of prokaryotic communities across an age gradient in pit mud. Prokaryotic microbes in different-aged pit mud (1, 6, and 10 years old) were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the prokaryotic community was significantly altered with pit mud age. There was a significant increase in the genera Methanosarcina, Methanobacterium, and Aminobacterium with increased age of pit mud, while the genus Lactobacillus showed a significant decreasing trend. Network analysis demonstrated that both synergetic co...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yan Zheng Xiaolong Hu Zhongjun Jia Paul L.E. Bodelier Zhiying Guo Yong Zhang Fangli Li Peixin He Source Type: research

Effects of bioporous carriers on the performance and microbial community structure in side-stream anaerobic membrane bioreactors
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a volcanic rock porous carrier (VRPC) on sludge reduction, pollutant removal, and microbial community structure in an anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR). Three lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs), including an anoxic –oxic MBR, which served as the control (C-MBR), an ASSR-coupled MBR (A-MBR), and an A-MBR filled with VRPC (FA-MBR) were stably and simultaneously operated for 120 days. The effect of the three reactors on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was almost negligible (all greater than 95%),...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bin Zhang Jiao Yue Yu Guo Taixin Liu Min Zhou Ying Yang Jiaxu Wu Yang Zeng Xinqiang Ning Source Type: research

Cytosolic mtDNA released from pneumolysin-damaged mitochondria triggers IFN- β production in epithelial cells
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ply-induced interferon- β (IFN-β) expression in host macrophages has been shown to be due to the accumulation of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) in the cytoplasm during S. pneumoniae infection. Our findings extend this work to show human bronchial epithelial cells that reside at the interface of inflammatory injury, BEAS-2B, adapt to local cues by altering mitochondrial states and releasing excess mtDNA. The results in this research showed that purified Ply induced the express...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yuting Fang Xuemei Zhang Chang Lu Yibing Yin Xuexue Hu Wenchun Xu Yusi Liu Hong Wang Source Type: research

Isolation of Bacillus subtilis strain SEM-2 from silkworm excrement and characterisation of its antagonistic effect against Fusarium spp.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Fusarium wilt is a devastating soil-borne disease mainly caused by highly host-specific formae speciales of Fusarium spp. Antagonistic microorganisms play a very important role in Fusarium wilt control. Isolation of potential biocontrol strains has become increasingly important. Bacterial strain SEM-2 was isolated from the high-temperature stage of silkworm excrement composting. SEM-2 exhibited a considerable antagonistic effect against Fusarium graminearum mycelial growth and spore germination. The results of pot experiments suggested that SEM-2 has a better inhibitory e...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Qingrong Li Sentai Liao Junhong Wei Dongxu Xing Yang Xiao Qiong Yang Source Type: research

Corn microbial diversity and its relationship to yield
This study aimed to identify possible relationships between corn (Zea mays L.) productivity and its endosphere microbial community. Any insights would be used to develop testable hypotheses at the farm level. Sap was collected from 14 fields in 2014 and 10 fields in 2017, with a yield range of 10.1 to 21.7 tonnes per hectare (t/ha). The microbial sap communities were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and identified using an internal pure culture reference database and BLAST. This technique is rapid and inexpensive and is suitable for use at the grower level. Diversity, richness, and n...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shimaila Ali Soledad Saldias Nimalka Weerasuriya Kristen Delaney Saveetha Kandasamy George Lazarovits Source Type: research

Towards safer stable isotope probing — effect of formamide on the separation of isotope-labeled and unlabeled Escherichia coli RNA by isopycnic density ultracentrifugation
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) is used in molecular microbial ecology to link the identity of microorganisms in a complex community with the assimilation of a distinct substrate. The technique is highly dependent on a reliable separation of isotopic-labeled RNA from unlabeled RNA by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation. Here we show that 13C-labeled and unlabeled Escherichia coli RNA can be sufficiently separated by isopycnic ultracentrifugation even in the absence of formamide. However, a slightly lower starting density is needed to obtain a distrib...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Severin Weis Sylvia Schnell Markus Egert Source Type: research

The complex multicellular morphology of the food spoilage bacteria Brochothrix thermosphacta strains isolated from ground chicken
This report is the first to document this complex filamentous growth phenotype in a wild-type bacterial isolate of B. thermosphacta. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chin-Yi Chen Ly-Huong T. Nguyen George C. Paoli Peter L. Irwin Source Type: research

Close-up on a bacterial informational war in the geocaulosphere
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. The geocaulosphere is home to microbes that establish communication between themselves and others that disrupt them. These cell-to-cell communication systems are based on the synthesis and perception of signaling molecules, of which the best known belong to the N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) family. Among indigenous bacteria, certain Gram-positive actinobacteria can sense AHLs produced by soft-rot Gram-negative phytopathogens and can degrade the quorum-sensing AHL signals to impair the expression of virulence factors. We mimicked this interaction by introducing dual-colo...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andrea Chane Yvann Bourigault Mathilde Bouteiller Yoan Konto-Ghiorghi Annabelle Merieau Corinne Barbey Xavier Latour Source Type: research

In Memoriam / In Memoriam
Canadian Journal of Microbiology,Volume 66, Issue 3, Page iii-iv, March 2020. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: James J. Germida Suzanne Kettley Source Type: research

Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of α-humulene against Bacteroides fragilis
This study determined the antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of α-humulene extracted from plants against enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, which causes inflammatory bowel disease. The minimum inhibitory concentration and biofilm inhibitory concentration of α-humulene for B. fragilis were 2 μg/mL, and the biofilm eradication concentration was in the range of 8–32 μg/mL. The XTT reduction assay confirmed that the cellular metabolic activity in biofilm rarely occurred at the concentration of 8–16 μg/mL. In addition, biofilm inhibition by α-humulene was also detected via confocal l...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hye-In Jang Ki-Jong Rhee Yong-Bin Eom Source Type: research

Evaluating the risks associated with Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in private well waters in Canada
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represent a major concern for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with consumption of contaminated groundwater. Over 4 million people rely on private groundwater systems as their primary drinking water source in Canada; many of these systems do not meet current standards for water quality. This manuscript provides a scoping overview of studies examining STEC prevalence and occurrence in groundwater, and it includes a synopsis of the environmental variables affecting survival, transport, persistence, and overall occurrence ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Colin Reynolds Sylvia Checkley Linda Chui Simon Otto Norman F. Neumann Source Type: research

Rhizospheric soil fungal community patterns of Duchesnea indica in response to altitude gradient in Yunnan, southwest China
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. The magnitude of the impact of altitude gradient on microbial community and diversity has been studied in recent decades. Whereas bacteria have been the focus of most studies, fungi have been given relatively less attention. As a vital part of the macro- and microscopic ecosystem, rhizosphere fungi play a key role in organic matter decomposition and relative abundance of plant species and have an impact on plant growth and development. Using Duchesnea indica as the host plant, we examined the rhizosphere soil fungal community patterns across the altitude gradient in 15 si...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arslan Jamil Jun-Yu Yang Dai-Fa Su Jiang-Yun Tong Shan-Yan Chen Zhi-Wei Luo Xue-Mei Shen Shi-Jie Wei Xiao-Long Cui Source Type: research

Preliminary screening of rhizobacteria for biocontrol of little seed canary grass (Phalaris minor Retz.) and wild oat (Avena fatua L.) in wheat
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Conventional weed control methods often have environmental impact. The present study was conducted to screen selected accessions of Pseudomonas for both potential biocontrol of Phalaris minor and Avena fatua and potential concurrent growth promotion of wheat. The four Pseudomonas strains (B11, T19, T24, and T75) were found positive for cyanide production, siderophore production, phosphorus solubilization, oxidase activity, catalase activity, and ACC deaminase activity in vitro. These strains were phytotoxic, causing up to 73.3% mortality in the lettuce seedling bioassay. ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abubakar Dar Zahir Ahmad Zahir Hafiz Naeem Asghar Rashid Ahmad Source Type: research

Insights into irr and rirA gene regulation on the virulence of Brucella melitensis M5-90
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Iron is a fundamental element required by most organisms, including Brucella. Several researchers have suggested that the iron response regulator (irr) and rhizobial iron regulator (rirA) genes regulate iron acquisition by Brucella abortus, influencing heme synthesis by and virulence of this pathogen. However, little is known about another Brucella species, Brucella melitensis. In this research, we successfully constructed two mutants: M5-90 Δirr and M5-90ΔrirA. The adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survivability of these two mutants were evaluated in RAW2...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huan Zhang Benben Wang Wenxing Wu Xiaoyu Deng Zhiran Shao Jihai Yi Zhen Wang Ningning Yang Yong Wang Yuanzhi Wang Chuangfu Chen Source Type: research

Biofilm formation by South African non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli on stainless steel coupons
This study examined the biofilm-forming ability of six non-O157 Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains: O116:H21, wzx-Onovel5:H19, O129:H21, O129:H23, O26:H11, and O154:H10 on stainless steel coupons after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation at 22 °C and after 168 h at 10 °C. The results of crystal violet staining revealed that strains O129:H23 and O154:H10 were able to form biofilms on both the submerged surface and the air–liquid interface of coupons, whereas strains O116:H21, wzx-Onovel5:H19, O129:H21, and O26:H11 formed biofilm only a t the air–liquid interface. Viable cell counts and scan...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Emmanuel W. Bumunang Collins N. Ateba Kim Stanford Tim A. McAllister Yan D. Niu Source Type: research

Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer application in a tea plantation reduces soil N2O by changing denitrifier communities
In this study, tea yield and quality were significantly improved after application of P. polymyxa biofertilizer compared with the control but were not significantly different from chemical fertilizer treatments. However, the average N2O fluxes in tea fields treated with chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers (225 kg N ·ha−1·year−1 for both) were 50.6–973.7 and 0.6–29.1 times higher than those in the control treatment, respectively. Pot experiments conducted to explore the mechanism of N2O reduction induced by P. polymyxa biofertilizer showed that applying P. polymyxa in addition to ur...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sining Zhou Xiangui Zeng Zhe Xu Zhihui Bai Shengming Xu Cancan Jiang Guoqiang Zhuang Shengjun Xu Source Type: research

Biological H2 and CO oxidation activities are sensitive to compositional change of soil microbial communities
This article bridges that knowledge gap by examining the response of the microbial community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs), carbon dioxide (CO2) production, and molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation activities to manipulation of microbial diversity in soil microcosms. Microbial diversity was manipulated by mixing nonsterile and sterile soil with and without the addition of antibiotics. Nonsterile soil without antibiotics was used as a reference. Species composition changed significantly in soil microcosms as a result of dilution and antibiotic treatments, but there was no difference in species r...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Julien Saavedra-Lavoie Anne de la Porte Sarah Pich é-Choquette Claude Guertin Philippe Constant Source Type: research

Retraction: Analysis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles synthesized by coastal strains of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kandasamy Kathiresan Nabeel M. Alikunhi SriMahibala Pathmanaban Asmathunisha Nabikhan Saravanakumar Kandasamy Source Type: research

Application of culturomics to characterize diverse anaerobic bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens in relation to environmental reservoirs
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Characterization of the microbiota of chickens is of current interest. The goals of the current study were to apply anaerobic isolation methods to comprehensively isolate and identify bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens and their environment. Bacterial communities within the drinking water were dominated by Escherichia, whereas communities in litter were more representative of the cecum. The crop and small intestine (jejunum and ileum) were dominated by Lactobacillus and Enterococcus spp., and the cecum was dominated by Proteus spp. The collection of bact...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Paul E. Moote Sarah J.M. Zaytsoff Rodrigo Ortega Polo D. Wade Abbott Richard R.E. Uwiera G. Douglas Inglis Source Type: research

FtsA G50E mutant suppresses the essential requirement for FtsK during bacterial cell division in Escherichia coli
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. In Escherichia coli, the N-terminal domain of the essential protein FtsK (FtsKN) is proposed to modulate septum formation through the formation of dynamic and essential protein interactions with both the Z-ring and late-stage division machinery. Using genomic mutagenesis, complementation analysis, and in vitro pull-down assays, we aimed to identify protein interaction partners of FtsK essential to its function during division. Here, we identified the cytoplasmic Z-ring membrane anchoring protein FtsA as a direct protein –protein interaction partner of FtsK. Random g...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alison M. Berezuk Elyse J. Roach Laura Seidel Reggie Y. Lo Cezar M. Khursigara Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of the glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes from the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria cicadae genome
In this study, 18 genes of the glycoside hydrolase 18 (GH18) family were identified in the Isaria cicadae genome. Seventeen of the genes belonged to chitinases and one was an endo- β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase). According to phylogenetic analysis, the 17 chitinases were designated as subgroups A (7 chitinases), B (7), and C (3). The exon–intron organizations of these genes were analyzed. The conserved regions DxxDxDxE and S/AxGG and the domains CBM1, CBM18, and CBM50 w ere detected in I. cicadae chitinases and ENGase. The results of analysis of expression patterns showed that genes ICchiA1, ICchiA6, ICchiB1...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yao Peng Lifang Wang Yan Gao Liang Ye Huihui Xu Shuangjiao Li Junqi Jiang Guiting Li Xiangli Dang Source Type: research

Diversity and space –time dynamics of the bacterial communities in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) rhizosphere soil
In this study, we used PCR-based next-generation sequencing to reveal the diversity and community composition of bacteria in the cotton rhizosphere from samples collected in Xinjiang Province, China. We identified 125 bacterial classes within 49 phyla from these samples. Proteobacteria (33.07% of total sequences), Acidobacteria (19.88%), and Gemmatimonadetes (11.19%) dominated the bacterial community. Marked differences were evident in the α-diversity of rhizosphere bacteria during different cotton plant growth and development stages. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) numbers were highest in seedling and bud stage...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: YingWu Shi HongMei Yang Ming Chu XinXiang Niu XiangDong Huo Yan Gao Jun Zeng Qing Lin Tao Zhang YuGuo Li KuEr Outi Kai Lou XueYan Li WenFang Dang Tao Zhang Source Type: research

Production of prodigiosin pigment by Serratia marcescens is negatively associated with cellular ATP levels during high-rate, low-cell-density growth
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Serratia marcescens is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium and the most recognized producer of the hydrophobic pigment prodigiosin. Previous work has shown that prodigiosin both increases ATP production during population lag phase and approximately doubles the stationary-phase cell yield. Here, we employed both batch and chemostat culture methods to investigate prodigiosin ’s role during high rate growth at low cell density as peak cellular ATP levels decline. Batch culture experiments utilizing artificial pigment induction showed an ATP reduction during low cell de...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pryce L. Haddix Robert M.Q. Shanks Source Type: research

Changes in polyhydroxyalkanoate granule accumulation make optical density measurement an unreliable method for estimating bacterial growth in Burkholderia thailandensis
This study also suggests that B. thailandensis could represent an excellent candidate for PHA bioproduction. Correlation between OD measurements and viable cell counts should be verified in any study performed with B. thailandensis. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sarah Martinez Eric D éziel Source Type: research

Note of appreciation / note de reconnaissance
Canadian Journal of Microbiology,Volume 66, Issue 1, Page iii-iv, January 2020. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Acinetobacter baumannii detected on modified charcoal –cefoperazone–deoxycholate agar in a waste stabilization pond
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Campylobacter is a recommended reference pathogen for the verification and validation of water recycling schemes in Australia and globally. In a larger study investigating the efficacy of pathogen removal in waste stabilization ponds (WSP), we cultivated bacteria from wastewater samples on modified charcoal –cefoperazone–deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) targeting the growth of Campylobacter. A high number of colonies characteristic of Campylobacter grew on this selective medium, but this did not correlate with qPCR data. Using primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene, and...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - December 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maxim Sheludchenko Anna Padovan Mohammad Katouli Helen Stratton Source Type: research

Combined effects of rhizo-competitive rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere Bacillus in plant growth promotion and yield improvement of Eleusine coracana (Ragi)
This study emphasizes the beneficial role of rhizo-competitive Bacillus spp. isolated from rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil in plant growth promotion and yield improvement via nitrogen fixation and biocontrol of Sclerotium rolfsii causing foot rot disease in Eleusine coracana (Ragi). The selection of potent rhizobacteria was based on plant-growth-promoting attributes using Venn set diagram and Bonitur scale. Bacillus pumilus MSTA8 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MSTD26 were selected because they were effective in root colonization, rhizosphere competence, and biofilm formation using root exudates of E. coracana L. ric...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shrivardhan Dheeman Nitin Baliyan Ramesh Chandra Dubey Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari Sandeep Kumar Lei Chen Source Type: research

Zika virus: an emerging challenge to public health worldwide
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from Zika forest, Uganda, in 1947. Since its inception, major and minor outbreaks have been documented from several parts of world. Aedes spp. mosquitoes are the primary vectors of ZIKV, but the virus can also be transmitted through sexual practices, materno-fetal transmission, and blood transfusion. The clinical presentations of symptomatic ZIKV infections are similar to dengue and chikungunya, including fever, headache, arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and rash. ZIKV often causes mild ill...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vikrant Sharma Manisha Sharma Divya Dhull Yashika Sharma Sulochana Kaushik Samander Kaushik Source Type: research

Groundwater microbial diversity and antibiotic resistance linked to human population density in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Microbial community composition in selected karst groundwater sites in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, was assessed to determine the environmental variables influencing groundwater microbial diversity. The karst aquifer system is a groundwater-dependent ecosystem and is the world ’s second largest underwater karst cave system. The area’s geology allows precipitation to infiltrate into the groundwater system and prevents accumulation of surface water; as such, groundwater is the only source of fresh water on the peninsula. The sampling locations consisted of thr...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - December 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anni Moore Melissa Lenczewski Rosa Maria Leal-Bautista Melvin Duvall Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing to study the phylogenetic structure of serotype a Haemophilus influenzae recovered from patients in Canada
This study examined the phylogenetic structure of serotype a Haemophilus influenzae (Hia) isolates recovered from patients in Canada. Hia isolates from 490 separate patients and an American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strain were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with 18 different sequence types (STs) identified. Most (85.7%) Hia patient isolates were typed as ST-23 and another 12.7% belonged to 14 different STs with 6, 5, or 4 MLST gene loci related to ST-23 (ST-23 complex). Core genome single-nucleotide variation phylogeny (SNVPhyl) on whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 121 Hia patient isolates represent...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - December 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Raymond S.W. Tsang Michelle Shuel Tauqeer Ahmad Kristy Hayden Natalie Knox Gary Van Domselaar Linda Hoang Gregory J. Tyrrell Jessica Minion Paul Van Caeseele Julianne V. Kus Marina Ulanova Brigitte Lefebvre David Haldane Richard Garceau Greg German George Source Type: research

Changes in structure and function of bacterial and fungal communities in open composting of Chinese herb residues
In this study, dynamic changes in bacterial and fungal communities, metabolic characteristics, and trophic modes in Chinese herb residues open composting for 30 days were analyzed by using high-throughput sequencing, PICRUSt, and FUNGuild, respectively. Bacillaceae and Basidiomycota predominated at the early composting stage, while Proteobacteria and Ascomycota became the dominant phyla during the active phase. Aerobic composting had a significant effect on bacterial metabolic characteristics and fungal trophic modes over the composting time. The function of the bacterial communities changed from environmental information ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - December 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fan Chang Fengan Jia Rui Lv Lisha Zhen Yan Li Yan Wang Source Type: research

Bacterial microbiome associated with the rhizosphere and root interior of crops in Saskatchewan, Canada
In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to assess bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere and root interior of canola, wheat, field pea, and lentil grown at four locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. Rhizosphere bacteria communities exhibited distinct profiles among crops and sampling locations. However, each crop was associated with distinct root endophytic bacterial communities, suggesting that crop species may influence the selection of root bacterial microbiome. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in the root interior, whereas Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes, and ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jorge Cordero J. Renato de Freitas James J. Germida Source Type: research

Effect of common bean seed exudates on growth, lipopolysaccharide production, and lipopolysaccharide transport gene expression of Rhizobium anhuiense
In this study, the effects of common bean seed exudates on the growth, lipopolysaccharide production, and lipopolysaccharide transport genes expression (lpt) of Rhizobium anhuiense were investigated. Rhizobium anhuiense exposed to exudates showed changes in LPS electrophoretic profiles and content, whereby the LPS band was wider and the LPS content was higher in R. anhuiense treated with seed exudates. Exudates enhanced cell growth of R. anhuiense in a concentration-dependent manner; R. anhuiense exposed to higher doses of the exudate showed faster growth. Seven lpt genes of R. anhuiense were amplified and sequenced. Seque...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Quanju Xiang Jie Wang Peng Qin Bilal Adil Kaiwei Xu Yunfu Gu Xiumei Yu Ke Zhao Xiaoping Zhang Menggen Ma Qiang Chen Xiaoqiong Chen Yanhong Yan Source Type: research

Mode of action of nisin on Escherichia coli
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Nisin is a class I polycyclic bacteriocin produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis, which is used extensively as a food additive to inhibit the growth of foodborne Gram-positive bacteria. Nisin also inhibits growth of Gram-negative bacteria when combined with membrane-disrupting chelators such as citric acid. To gain insight into nisin ’s mode of action, we analyzed chemical–genetic interactions and identified nisin-sensitive Escherichia coli strains in the Keio library of knockout mutants. The most sensitive mutants fell into two main groups. The first gr...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Imelda J. Galv án Márquez Bruce McKay Alex Wong James J. Cheetham Cody Bean Ashkan Golshani Myron L. Smith Source Type: research

Persistent contamination of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus at a broiler farm in New Zealand
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Intensive poultry production due to public demand raises the risk of contamination, creating potential foodborne hazards to consumers. The prevalence and microbial load of the pathogens Campylobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli was determined by standard methods at the farm level. After disinfection, swab samples collected from wall crevices, drinkers, and vents were heavily contaminated, as accumulated organic matter and dust likely protected the pathogens from the disinfectants used. The annex floor also showed high microbial concentrations,...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kristine Casta ñeda-Gulla Evelyn Sattlegger Anthony N. Mutukumira Source Type: research

Isolation and identification of salt-tolerant plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their application for rice cultivation under salt stress
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Growth and productivity of rice are negatively affected by soil salinity. However, some salt-tolerant rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria can improve salt resistance of plants, thereby augmenting plant growth and production. Here, we isolated a total of 53 plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from saline and non-saline areas in Bangladesh where electrical conductivity was measured as>7.45 and
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shahnaz Sultana Sumonta C. Paul Samia Parveen Saiful Alam Naziza Rahman Bushra Jannat Sirajul Hoque Mohammad Tariqur Rahman Muhammad Manjurul Karim Source Type: research

Detection of canine parvovirus types 2b and 2c in canine faecal samples contaminating urban thoroughfares in Brazil
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious virus that causes acute gastroenteritis in dogs all over the world. Because of its stability in the environment, CPV-2 can remain infective for a long time, especially if protected in organic matter. To demonstrate CPV-2 ’s potential as an environmental hazard for nonimmunized susceptible hosts, we investigated 50 faecal samples collected from public areas in a municipality of Paraná state, Brazil. Seven samples tested positive for CPV by a PCR assay targeting the partial VP2 gene, with three strains bei...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Izabel Carolina Vargas Pinto Gogone Flavia Regina Oliveira de Barros Flavia Possatti Amauri Alcindo Alfieri Elisabete Takiuchi Source Type: research

Antimicrobial capacity of ultrasound and ozone for enhancing bacterial safety on inoculated shredded green cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
This study evaluated the effect of individual and combined application of ultrasound (40 kHz, 100 W) and ozone on the inactivation of foodborne Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as well as their impact on cabbage color and vitamin C content. Plate count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and flow cytometry (FCM) following single or double staining with carboxyfluorescein diacetate and (or) propidium iodide were used to determine bacterial inactivation parameters, such as cell culturability, membrane integrity, intracellular enzyme activity, and injured and dead cells. The results of FCM and SEM showed that ultrasound trea...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mamadou Bado Traore Aidong Sun Zhilin Gan Hamidou Senou Jacques Togo Kankou Hadia Fofana Source Type: research

Effect of chemical oxygen demand load on the nitrification and microbial communities in activated sludge from an aerobic nitrifying reactor
This study may contribute to our knowledge about the nitrification ability and microbial communities in activated sludge at different COD load levels. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dan Li Xihong Liang Zhengwei Li Yao Jin Rongqing Zhou Chongde Wu Source Type: research

Introduction
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kari Dunfield Christopher Yost Source Type: research

Production of Brucella melitensis Omp16 protein fused to the human interleukin 2 in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 toward developing a Lactococcus-based vaccine against brucellosis
This study reports the construction of a recombinant L. lactis expressing the Omp16-IL2 fusion protein as an oral Lactococcus-based vaccine, as compared with commonly used live attenuated vaccines, for future studies against brucellosis. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Marzieh Rezaei Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh Esfahani Rahman Emamzadeh Hamid Abtahi Source Type: research

Gas seepage pockmark microbiomes suggest the presence of sedimentary coal seams in the Öxarfjörður graben of northeastern Iceland
This article describes the first microbial study on gas seepage pockmarks in Iceland. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gu ðný Vala Þorsteinsdóttir Anett Blischke M. Au ður Sigurbjörnsdóttir Finnbogi Òskarsson Þórarinn Sveinn Arnarson Kristinn P. Magn ússon Oddur Vilhelmsson Source Type: research

Specific and sensitive detection of the guava fruit anthracnose pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Anthracnose of guava, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major factor limiting worldwide guava production. Timely and accurate detection of the pathogen is important in developing a disease management strategy. Herein, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the specific and sensitive detection of C. gloeosporioides was developed using primers targeting the β-tubulin 2 (TUB2) gene. The optimal reaction conditions were 64 °C for 60 min. The specificity of the method was tested against C. gloeosporioides isolates, Colletotri...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chengzhong Lan Jinai Yao Xiujuan Yang Hongchun Ruan Deyi Yu Junxi Jiang Source Type: research

Changes in rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with tree decline: grapevine esca syndrome case study
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. An investigation was carried out on rhizosphere bacteria to determine if they may be associated with perennial crops affected by nonspecific decline, a phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose and prevent. Esca disease of grapevine was chosen for this case study because of its easy foliar symptom identification. Ribosomal DNA fingerprint analysis by polymerase chain reaction – denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and rDNA amplicon sequencing by next-generation sequencing (NGS) were adopted to investigate the bacterial co...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maria Ludovica Sacc à Luisa Maria Manici Francesco Caputo Salvatore Frisullo Source Type: research

Renaissance of vancomycin: approaches for breaking antibiotic resistance in multidrug-resistant bacteria
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria demands innovations in the development of new antibiotics. For decades, the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin has been considered as the “last resort” treatment of severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Since the discovery of the first vancomycin-resistant enterococci strains in the late 1980s, the number of resistances has been steadily rising, with often life-threatening consequences. As an alternative to the gener ation of completely new substances, novel approaches focus on structural modification...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eric M ühlberg Florian Umst ätter Christian Kleist Cornelius Domhan Walter Mier Philipp Uhl Source Type: research

Fourteen steps to relevance: taking probiotics from the bench to the consumer
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, e-First Articles. Much is made of the need to translate scientific research into improved care of people or other life forms. Grant applications invariably start with the extent of a problem and end by claiming that their work will or could result in making an impact. In truth, very few projects ever lead to translation at the level of the host, nor was that really their intent. For those who are focused on applied science, there are many ways to reach the desired goal, sometimes through serendipity or by logical stepwise progress. The following paper will provide personal insight into the...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gregor Reid Source Type: research