The effect of polyhydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 biofilm formation, stress endurance, and interaction with the protozoan predator Acanthamoeba castellanii
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is a biocontrol agent capable of protecting canola against the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In addition to producing antifungal compounds, this bacterium synthesizes and accumulates polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymers as carbon and energy storage compounds. Because the role of PHA in PA23 physiology is currently unknown, we investigated the impact of this polymer on stress resistance, adherence to surfaces, and interaction with the protozoan predator Acanthamoeba castellanii. Three PHA biosynthesis mutants were created, PA23phaC1, ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - May 31, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Akrm Ghergab Nisha Mohanan Grace Saliga Ann Karen C. Brassinga David Levin Teresa de Kievit Source Type: research

Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on the utilization of organic phosphorus in Camellia oleifera Abel
In conclusion, AM fungi enhanced the mineralization of soil organic P and positi vely affect root phosphatase activities. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fei Wu Zhengyun Li Yulan Lin Linping Zhang Source Type: research

Risk assessment of secondary metabolites produced by fungi in the genus Stemphylium
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The fungal genus Stemphylium (phylum Ascomycota, teleomorph Pleospora) includes plant pathogenic, endophytic, and saprophytic species with worldwide distributions. Stemphylium spp. produce prodigious numbers of airborne spores, so are a human health concern as allergens. Some species also produce secondary metabolites, such as glucosides, ferric chelates, aromatic polyketides, and others, that function as toxins that damage plants and other fungal species. Some of these compounds also exhibit a low level of mammalian toxicity. The high production of airborne spores by this ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sara M. Stricker Bruce D. Gossen Mary Ruth McDonald Source Type: research

Biofilm-forming ability of poultry Campylobacter jejuni strains in the presence and absence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ability of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse to form biofilm in the presence and absence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the effect of surface (stainless steel, polystyrene), temperature (7, 25, and 42  °C), and oxygen concentration (microaerophilic and aerobic conditions) on the formation of biofilm. The genes ahpC, cadF, clpP, dnaJ, docA, flaA, flaB, katA, kpsM, luxS, racR, and sodB, related to biofilm formation by C. jejuni, were also investigated. All isolates formed biofilm on stainles...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Let ícia Klein Scheik Darla Silveira Volcan Maia Simone de F átima Rauber Würfel Tassiana Ramires Natalie Rauber Kleinubing Louise Haubert Graciela Volz Lopes Wladimir Padilha da Silva Source Type: research

Physiological response of the moderately halophilic psychrotolerant strain Chromohalobacter sp. N1 to salinity change and low temperature
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The available information on de novo synthesized compatible solutes in response to high medium salinity by bacteria of the Chromohalobacter genus is limited to studies of the mesophilic moderately halophilic strain Chromohalobacter salexigens DSM  3043T. Therefore, there is a need for studies of representatives of other species of the Chromohalobacter genus of the Halomonadaceae family. A moderately halophilic psychrotolerant bacterium, strain N1, closely related to the species Chromohalobacter japonicus was isolated from the salt crust of a rock salt waste pile in Ber...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - March 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lyudmila N. Anan ’ina Aleksey A. Gorbunov Anna A. Pyankova Source Type: research

Old problems and new solutions: antibiotic alternatives in food animal production
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The antimicrobial resistance crisis is a Global Health challenge that impacts humans, animals, and the environment alike. In response to increased demands for animal protein and by-products, there has been a substantial increase in the use of antimicrobial agents in the animal industry. Indeed, they are extensively used to prevent, control, and (or) treat disease in animals. In addition to infection control, in-feed supplementation with antimicrobials became common practice for growth promotion of livestock. Unfortunately, the global overuse of antimicrobials has contribute...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Celine Stoica Georgina Cox Source Type: research

Temperature affects substrate-associated bacterial composition during Ganoderma lucidum hyphal growth
In this study, we analyzed the bacterial diversity of the substrate at different temperatures using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 513  733 sequences from 15 samples were assigned to 19 bacterial phyla. The samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes; the 2 phyla exhibited opposite changes with elevated temperature. Bacterial genera showed different abundances at different temperatures, in which Sediminibacte rium maintained a stable abundance below 40 °C, while Ochrobactrum and Rhodococcus were enriched with elevated temperature and both showed their highest abundanc...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bo Zhang Jie Zhou Xiaolin Li Lei Ye Dinghong Jia Bingcheng Gan Wei Tan Source Type: research

Chemotactic response of Vibrio coralliilyticus to mucus from various coral species
In this study, we used capillary assays to quantify the chemotactic response of V. coralliilyticus to the mucus of four tank-cultivated coral species (Cataphyllia jardine, Mussidae sp., Nemenzophyllia turbida, and Euphyllia ancora), and mucus from three wild coral species (Acropora sp., Porites sp., and Montipora sp.). The bacteria showed a positive chemotactic response to each coral mucus tested, with the highest response recorded to the mucus of Acropora sp. and the lowest response to the mucus of Montipora sp. A microfluidic chip was then used to assess the chemotactic preference of V. coralliilyticus to the mucus of th...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ishraq Rahman Al-Hussain Ali Al-Bar Florina Stephanie Richard Moritz M üller Aazani Mujahid Source Type: research

In vitro transduction of antimicrobial resistance genes into Escherichia coli isolates from backyard poultry in Mexico
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens and antimicrobial resistance genes is an emerging problem involving multiple factors (humans, domestic animals, wildlife). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Escherichia coli isolates with different antimicrobial resistance genes from backyard poultry and to demonstrate the in vitro transduction phenomenon of these genes between phages from migratory wild birds and poultry E.  coli isolates. We collected 197 E. coli isolates from chickens, turkeys, and ducks in backyard production units (north...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Juan Mart ín Talavera-González Mart ín Talavera-Rojas Edgardo Soriano-Vargas Jes ús Vázquez-Navarrete Celene Salgado-Miranda Source Type: research

Note of appreciation
Canadian Journal of Microbiology,Volume 67, Issue 1, Page iii-iv, January 2021. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vitro degradation of low-density polyethylene by new bacteria from larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Three bacterial species isolated from whole body extracts of the greater wax moth larvae, Galleria mellonella, were evaluated for their ability to utilize low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a sole carbon source in  vitro. These bacteria were identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Bacillus aryabhattai, and Microbacterium oxydans. Their ability to biodegrade LDPE was assessed by growth curves, cell biomass production, polyethylene (PE) weight loss, and the presence of LDPE hydrolysis products in the growth m edia. Consortia of these bacteria with three other bacteria p...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - December 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zahra Montazer Mohammad B. Habibi Najafi David B. Levin Source Type: research

Do methanotrophs drive phosphorus mineralization in soil ecosystem?
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Experiments were carried out to elucidate linkage between methane consumption and mineralization of phosphorous (P) from different P sources. The treatments were (i)  no CH4 + no P amendment (absolute control), (ii) with CH4 + no P amendment (control), (iii) with CH4 + inorganic P as Ca3(PO4)2, and (iv) with CH4 + organic P as sodium phytate. P sources were added at 25 µg P·(g soil)−1. Soils were incubated to undergo three repeated CH4 feeding cycles , referred to as feeding cycle I, feeding cycle II, and ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - December 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Santosh Ranjan Mohanty Adarsh Kumar Rakesh Parmar Garima Dubey Ashok Patra Bharati Kollah Source Type: research

Frontrunners in the race to develop a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Numerous studies continue to be published on the COVID-19 pandemic that is being caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Given the rapidly evolving global response to SARS-CoV-2, here we primarily review the leading COVID-19 vaccine strategies that are currently in Phase  III clinical trials. Nonreplicating viral vector strategies, inactivated virus, recombinant protein subunit vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccine platforms are all being pursued in an effort to combat the infection. Preclinical and clinal trial results of these efforts...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - December 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Raquel L. Russell Peter Pelka Brian L. Mark Source Type: research

Comparison of fecal microbiota composition of blue sheep fed Lolium perenne versus Sorghum sudanense
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Lolium perenne L. and Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf. are 2 common forages fed to blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur Hodgson, 1833) in captivity. However, the effect of these 2 forages on the gastrointestinal microbiota is largely unknown. We analyzed the diversity of the microbiota in the feces of captive blue sheep fed with L.  perenne (group F1) and S. sudanense (group F2) by 16S rRNA sequencing. A total of 20 major phyla and 29 genera fecal bacterial communities were detected in the 2 groups. The F1 and F2 groups shared common microbiota at the phylum level, wh...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Haili Wu Yaohua Yuan Hongjie Pan Source Type: research

Strain improvement of Trichoderma spp. through two-step protoplast fusion for cellulase production enhancement
In conclusion, the results demonstrate that a 3-interspecific hybrid strain was isolated, with improved characteristics for cellulase degradation and showing genetic polymorphisms and d ifferences in the volatile profile, suggesting reorganizations at the genetic level. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zahra Papzan Mojegan Kowsari Mohammad Javan-Nikkhah Amir Mirzadi Gohari M. Carmen Lim ón Source Type: research

Homodimerization and heterodimerization requirements of Acinetobacter baumannii SOS response coregulators UmuDAb and DdrR revealed by two-hybrid analyses
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The multidrug-resistant pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii displays unusual control of its SOS mutagenesis genes, as it does not encode a LexA repressor, but instead employs the UmuDAb repressor and a small protein, DdrR, that is uniquely found in Acinetobacter species. We used bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid analyses to determine if UmuDAb and DdrR coregulation might involve physical interactions. Neither quantitative nor qualitative assays showed UmuDAb interaction with DdrR. DdrR hybrid proteins, however, demonstrated modest head-to-tail interactions in a qualitativ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Deborah Cook Jordan Carrington Kevin Johnson Janelle Hare Source Type: research

mfsQ encoding an MFS efflux pump mediates adaptive protection of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia against benzalkonium chloride
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The persistence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, especially in hospital environments where disinfectants are used intensively, is one of the important factors that allow this opportunistic pathogen to establish nosocomial infections. In the present study, we illustrated that S.  maltophilia possesses adaptive resistance to the disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BAC). This BAC adaptation was abolished in the ΔmfsQ mutant, in which a gene encoding an efflux transporter belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) was deleted. The ΔmfsQ mutant also sh...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jurairat Chittrakanwong Nisanart Charoenlap Skorn Mongkolsuk Paiboon Vattanaviboon Source Type: research

Growth effects in oregano plants (Origanum vulgare L.) assessment through inoculation of bacteria isolated from crop fields located on desert soils
In conclusion, we were able to determine that the bacterial interactions are not always positive or synergistic, but they also might be neutral or antagonistic. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abraham Loera-Muro Mar ía Goretty Caamal-Chan Thelma Castellanos Ang élica Luna-Camargo Trinidad Aguilar-D íaz Aar ón Barraza Source Type: research

A green sulfur bacterium from epsomitic Hot Lake, Washington, USA
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Hot Lake is a small heliothermal and hypersaline lake in far north –central Washington State (USA) and is limnologically unusual because MgSO4 rather than NaCl is the dominant salt. In late summer, the Hot Lake metalimnion becomes distinctly green from blooms of planktonic phototrophs. In a study undertaken over 60 years ago, these blooms were predicted to inclu de green sulfur bacteria, but no cultures were obtained. We sampled Hot Lake and established enrichment cultures for phototrophic sulfur bacteria in MgSO4-rich sulfidic media. Most enrichments turned gree...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Michael T. Madigan Megan L. Kempher Kelly S. Bender Deborah O. Jung W. Matthew Sattley Stephen R. Lindemann Allan E. Konopka Alice C. Dohnalkova James K. Fredrickson Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus grown in anaerobic conditions exhibits elevated glutamine biosynthesis and biofilm units
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The enormous spread of Staphylococcus aureus infections through biofilms is a major concern in hospital-acquired infections. Biofilm formation by S. aureus on any surface is facilitated by adjusting its redox status. This organism is a facultative anaerobe shift more towards reductive conditions by enhancing nitrogen metabolism where glutamine synthesis plays a key role. Glutamine is synthesized by glutamine synthetase (GS) encoded by the glnA gene. The gene was amplified by PCR from the chromosomal DNA of S. aureus, sequenced (HQ329146.1), and cloned. The pure recombinant ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yugandhar Vudhya Gowrisankar Sunitha Manne Mudhu Santhosh Kumar Pasupuleti Subbarayudu Suthi Abhijit Chaudhury Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna Sarma Source Type: research

COVID-19 basics and vaccine development with a Canadian perspective
Canadian Journal of Microbiology,Volume 67, Issue 2, Page 112-118, February 2021. The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a rapidly evolving situation. New discoveries about COVID-19 and its causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), continue to deepen the understanding of this novel disease. As there is currently no COVID-19 specific treatment, isolation is the most effective method to prevent transmission. Moreover, development of a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine will be instrumental in reinstating pre-COVID-19 conditions. As of 31  July 2020, there a...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - November 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Marina Liu Xiongbiao Chen Source Type: research

Distribution of integrons and phylogenetic groups among Escherichia coli causing community-acquired urinary tract infection in Upper Egypt
In conclusion, the types and combinations of the gene cassettes in our study may reflect the specific selective pressures to which the isolates were subjected within the study region, therefore, providing valuable data for future intervention strategies that are precisely tailored to prevent the dissemination of the uropathogenic E. coli strains circulating within Upper Egypt. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eman M. Farahat Noha A. Hassuna Adel M. Hammad Medhat Abdel Fattah Ahmed S. Khairalla Source Type: research

Effects of simulated warming on bacterial diversity and abundance in tropical soils from East Malaysia using open top chambers
This study aims to determine soil bacterial diversity in the tropics and their response towards in situ warming using an open-top chamber (OTC). OTCs were set up in areas exposed to sunlight throughout the year in the tropical region in Malaysia. Soil samples were collected every 3 months to monitor changes in bacterial diversity using V3 –V4 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing inside the OTCs (treatment plots) and outside the OTCs (control plots). After 12 months of simulated warming, an average increase of 0.81 to 1.15 °C was recorded in treatment plots. Significant changes in the relative abundance of bacterial phyla...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chuen Yang Chua Clemente Michael Vui Ling Wong Source Type: research

Understanding connections and roles of gut microbiome in cardiovascular diseases
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The gut microbiome encompasses trillions of residing microbes, mainly bacteria, which play a crucial role in maintaining the physiological and metabolic health of the host. The gut microbiome has been associated with several diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). A growing body of evidence suggests that an altered gut environment and gut-microbiome-derived metabolites are associated with CVD events. The gut microbiome communicates with host physiology through different mechanisms, including trimethylamine N-oxide generation, primary and secondary bile acid metabo...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ethendhar Rajendiran Balamurugan Ramadass Vanu Ramprasath Source Type: research

Evolving the core microbial community in pit mud based on bioturbation of fortified Daqu
In this study, the addition of fortified Daqu to artificial PM (APM) was intended to disturb the microbial community and further affect metabolites. To evaluate the effect of fortified Daqu on culturing APM, the microbial communities of APM with or without the addition of fortified Daqu were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and Illumina MiSeq. The results indicated that microbes (Clostridium sp., Clostridium kluyveri, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and acetotrophic methanogens) related to the production of key aroma compounds increased notably when fortified Daqu was added. In particular, the hydrogenotrop...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suqi Chen Jun Huang Hui Qin Guiqiang He Rongqing Zhou Yan Yang Chuanfeng Qiu Suyi Zhang Source Type: research

CEASE approach for combating COVID-19, antimicrobial resistance, and future microbial threats
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Teddie O. Rahube Source Type: research

Endophytic fungus diversity in soybean plants submitted to conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Global climatic changes can have drastic impacts on plant species, including severe consequences for the agricultural species productivity. Many of these species present important mutualisms with endophytic fungi that positively influence their performance. The present study evaluated whether the increases in CO2 and temperature predicted for the year 2100 may cause changes in foliar carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in soybean (Glycine max) and, consequently, the interactions with its endophytic fungi. The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature were evaluated in ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huberman Valadares Gon çalves Yumi Oki Leandra Bordignon Mariana Costa Ferreira Jos é Eustáquio dos Santos Lucas Barbosa Souza Tameir ão Fabr ício Rodrigues Santos Evanguedes Kalapothakis Geraldo Wilson Fernandes Source Type: research

Proteomics of host –bacterial interactions: new insights from dual perspectives
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Mass-spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a powerful and robust platform for studying the interactions between biological systems during health and disease. Bacterial infections represent a significant threat to global health and drive the pursuit of novel therapeutic strategies to combat emerging and resistant pathogens. During infection, the interplay between a host and pathogen determines the ability of the microbe to survive in a hostile environment and promotes an immune response by the host as a protective measure. It is the protein-level changes from either biologic...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Arjun Sukumaran Elizabeth Woroszchuk Taylor Ross Jennifer Geddes-McAlister Source Type: research

Long-term nitrogen fertilization shaped the nifH, nirK, and nosZ gene community patterns in red paddy soil in south China
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. To understand the diversities of diazotrophs and denitrifiers in red paddy soil under long-term fertilization conditions, nifH, nirK, and nosZ libraries were constructed by PCR –RFLP. nirK gene diversity proved to be lower than that of nosZ and nifH, and nirK and nosZ genes were more sensitive to different fertilization treatments than the nifH gene was. The 3 libraries were dominated by diverse microbes, including the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta subclasses of the Prot eobacteria. Long-term addition of urea with straw mulch and azophoska increased the abundance of n...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - October 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cunzhi Zhang Kaixun Cao Yue Li Juan Zhao Wentao Peng Hui Cao Xin Xiao Source Type: research

Diversity and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in rhizosphere soil of four plant groups in Ebinur Lake wetland
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The aim of this study was to reveal the differences in the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil, to provide a theoretical basis for further study on the relationship between halophyte rhizosphere soil microorganisms and salt tolerance. The results of diversity and community structure showed that the diversity of the AOA community in rhizosphere soil of Reeds was higher than that in non-rhizosphere soil in spring and lower than that in non-rhizosphere soil in summer and autumn. In summer, the diversity of rhizosp...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ting Chen Wenge Hu Shuaibing He Xue Zhang Yanhui Niu Source Type: research

Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis on cherry tomatoes by ultrasound, lactic acid, detergent, and silver nanoparticles
This study aimed to evaluate the use of US (40  kHz for 5 min) alone or with 1% lactic acid (LA), 1% commercial detergent (DET), or 6 mg/L silver nanoparticles (AgNP, average diameter 100 nm) as an alternative treatment to 200 mg/L sodium dichloroisocyanurate for inactivating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis present on cherry tomatoe s. The interfacial tension between sanitizing solutions and bacterial adhesion was investigated. Sanitizers in solutions with DET and AgNP had lower surface tension. All treatments, except that with DET, reduced Salmonella Enteritidis by more than one logarithmi...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jackline Freitas Brilhante de S ão José Afonso Mota Ramos Maria Cristina Dantas Vanetti N élio José de Andrade Source Type: research

Delineating the key virulence factors and intraspecies divergence of Vibrio harveyi via whole-genome sequencing
In conclusion, the results indicated that the virulence level of V. harveyi is mainly determined by the above virulence genes, which may play vital roles in environmental adaptation for V. harveyi. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Songzhe Fu Ping Ni Qian Yang Huizhi Hu Qingyao Wang Shigen Ye Ying Liu Source Type: research

Crop, genotype, and field environmental conditions shape bacterial and fungal seed epiphytic microbiomes
In this study, wheat, canola, and lentil seeds were analyzed to characterize diversity, structure, and persistence of seed-associated microbial communities. Five lines and 2 generations of each crop were subjected to high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S  rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Bacterial and fungal communities differed most by crop type (30% and 47% of the variance), while generation explained an additional 10% and 15% of the variance. The offspring (i.e., generation harvested in 2016 at the same location) exhibited a h igher number of common amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) and ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zayda P. Morales Moreira Bobbi L. Helgason James J. Germida Source Type: research

Development of droplet digital PCR assays to quantify genes involved in nitrification and denitrification, comparison with quantitative real-time PCR and validation of assays in vineyard soil
This study optimized eight ddPCR assays to quantify total bacteria and archaea as well as the nitrification (bacterial and archaeal amoA) and denitrification (nirS, nirK, nosZI, nosZII) genes involved in the generation or reduction of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Detection and quantification thresholds were compared with those of quantitative real-time PCR and were equal to, or improved, in ddPCR. To validate the assays using environmental samples, soil DNA was isolated from two vineyards in the Okanagan valley in British Columbia, Canada, over the 2017 growing season. Soil properties related to the observed gene abun...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanja M. Voegel Melissa M. Larrabee Louise M. Nelson Source Type: research

Phosphate efflux as a test of plasma membrane leakage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Plasma membrane integrity is a key to cell viability. Currently, the main approach to assessing plasma membrane integrity is the detection of penetration of special dyes, such as trypan blue and propidium iodide, into the cells. However, this method needs expensive equipment: a fluorescent microscope or a flow cytometer. Besides, staining with propidium iodide occasionally gives false-positive results. Here, we suggest the phosphate (Pi) leakage assay as an approach to assess the increase in permeability of the plasma membrane of yeast cells. We studied the dependence of ph...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ludmila Trilisenko Airat Valiakhmetov Tatiana Kulakovskaya Source Type: research

A bacteriophage infecting Mesorhizobium species has a prolate capsid and shows similarities to a family of Caulobacter crescentus phages
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Mesorhizobium phage vB_MloS_Cp1R7A-A1 was isolated from soil planted with chickpea in Saskatchewan. It is dissimilar in sequence and morphology to previously described rhizobiophages. It is a B3 morphotype virus with a distinct prolate capsid and belongs to the tailed phage family Siphoviridae. Its genome has a GC content of 60.3% and 238 predicted genes. Putative functions were predicted for 57 genes, which include 27 tRNA genes with anticodons corresponding to 18 amino acids. This represents the highest number of tRNA genes reported yet in a rhizobiophage. The gene arrang...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: K.M. Damitha Gunathilake Anupama P. Halmillawewa Keith D. MacKenzie Benjamin J. Perry Christopher K. Yost Michael F. Hynes Source Type: research

Quantitative proteomic profiling of shake flask versus bioreactor growth reveals distinct responses of Agrobacterium tumefaciens for preparation in molecular pharming
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. The preparation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens cultures with strains encoding proteins intended for therapeutic or industrial purposes is an important activity prior to treatment of plants for transient expression of valuable protein products. The rising demand for biologic products such as these underscores the expansion of molecular pharming and warrants the need to produce transformed plants at an industrial scale. This requires large quantities of A. tumefaciens culture, which is challenging using traditional growth methods (e.g., shake flask). To overcome this limitation...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: N. Prudhomme C. Gianetto-Hill R. Pastora W.-F. Cheung E. Allen-Vercoe M.D. McLean D. Cossar J. Geddes-McAlister Source Type: research

Functional analysis of the ocnE gene involved in nicotine-degradation pathways in Ochrobactrum intermedium SCUEC4 and its enzymatic properties
In conclusion, the ocnE gene is responsible for the ability of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxy genase. These findings will be beneficial in clarifying the mechanisms of nicotine degradation in O. intermedium SCUEC4. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Meng-fei Yu Zhen-zhen Xia Jia-cheng Yao Zhe Feng Ding-hua Li Tao Liu Guo-jun Cheng Dong-lan He Xiao-hua Li Source Type: research

Evaluation of biochars as carriers for Rhizobium leguminosarum
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Peat is the standard carrier material used for commercial microbial inoculants produced in Canada and the United States. Peat is a slowly renewable resource and its production is extremely vulnerable to variable weather conditions. Furthermore, it may not be widely available in all countries. We investigated the potential to develop biochar as a carrier material. Our goal was to evaluate if different biochars perform comparably in supporting rhizobial survival, and what characteristics contribute to their ability to support rhizobial survival. Evaluation included characteri...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kimberly Hardy J. Diane Knight Source Type: research

Rates of fluoroquinolone resistance in domestically acquired Campylobacter jejuni are increasing in people living within a model study location in Canada
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from 1291 diarrheic people over a 15-year period (2004 –2018) in southwestern Alberta, a model location in Canada with a high rate of campylobacteriosis. The prevalence of resistance to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, and gentamicin was low during the examination period (≤4.8%). Resistance to tetracycline remained consistently high (41.6 %–65.1%), and resistance was primarily conferred by plasmid-borne tetO (96.2%). Resistance rates to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid increase...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: G. Douglas Inglis Eduardo N. Taboada Valerie F. Boras Source Type: research

d-Amino acids in antimicrobial peptides: a potential approach to treat and combat antimicrobial resistance
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading challenges in the human healthcare segment. Advances in antimicrobial resistance have triggered exploration of natural alternatives to stabilize its seriousness. Antimicrobial peptides are small, positively charged oligopeptides that are as potent as commercially available antibiotics against a wide spectrum of organisms, such as Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, and fungal strains. In addition to their antibiotic capabilities, these peptides possess anticancer activity, activate the immune response, and ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shikha Kapil Vipasha Sharma Source Type: research

Fungal endophyte diversity in table grapes
In this study, we determined the fungal microbial endophyte diversity in North American table grapes found at a Winnipeg, Manitoba, market. The amplicon internal transcribed spacer (ITS) metagenomics approach was used to profile the fungal communities of the fruit endophyte microbiome of three table grape types. The data supported endophyte diversity in different table grapes, including possible bioactive, saprophytic, and pathogenic fungi. Culturable endophytes were isolated and identified by morphology and ITS amplicon sequencing. The majority of the isolated culturable strains included Alternaria spp. and Cladosporium s...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Champa Wijekoon Zoe Quill Source Type: research

Fungal endophyte diversity in table grapes
In this study, we determined the fungal microbial endophyte diversity in North American table grapes found at a Winnipeg, Manitoba, market. The amplicon internal transcribed spacer (ITS) metagenomics approach was used to profile the fungal communities of the fruit endophyte microbiome of three table grape types. The data supported endophyte diversity in different table grapes, including possible bioactive, saprophytic, and pathogenic fungi. Culturable endophytes were isolated and identified by morphology and ITS amplicon sequencing. The majority of the isolated culturable strains included Alternaria spp. and Cladosporium s...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Champa Wijekoon Zoe Quill Source Type: research

Lactobacillus rhamnosus cell-free extract targets virulence and antifungal drug resistance in Candida albicans
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Candidiasis caused by multidrug-resistant Candida species continues to be difficult to eradicate. The use of live probiotic bacteria has gained a lot of interest in the treatment of candidiasis; however, whole-cell probiotic use can often be associated with a high risk of sepsis. Strategies manipulating cell-free methods using probiotic strains could lead to the development of novel antifungal solutions. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of three probiotic cell-free extracts (CFEs) on the growth, virulence traits, and drug efflux pumps in C. albicans. On the basis of its m...
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yvonne Dube Amber Khan Musa Marimani Aijaz Ahmad Source Type: research

CcpN: a moonlighting protein regulating catabolite repression of gluconeogenic genes in Bacillus subtilis also affects cell length and interacts with DivIVA
We report the interaction of CcpN with DivIVA of B. subtilis as determined using bacterial two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Insertional inactivation of CcpN leads to cell elongation and formation of straight chains of cells. These findings suggest that CcpN is a moonlighting protein involved in both gluconeogenesis and cell elongation. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kusum Sharma Taranum Sultana Tanya E.S. Dahms Jo-Anne R. Dillon Source Type: research

CcpN: a moonlighting protein regulating catabolite repression of gluconeogenic genes in Bacillus subtilis also affects cell length and interacts with DivIVA
We report the interaction of CcpN with DivIVA of B. subtilis as determined using bacterial two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Insertional inactivation of CcpN leads to cell elongation and formation of straight chains of cells. These findings suggest that CcpN is a moonlighting protein involved in both gluconeogenesis and cell elongation. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kusum Sharma Taranum Sultana Tanya E.S. Dahms Jo-Anne R. Dillon Source Type: research

Keeping the microbiology lab alive: essential microbiology lab skill development in the wake of COVID-19
Canadian Journal of Microbiology,Volume 66, Issue 10, Page 603-604, October 2020. (Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - August 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tanya C. Noel Joseph E. Rubin Yanelis Acebo Guerrero Maria C. Davis Heather Dietz Josie Libertucci Nicole Sukdeo Source Type: research