Caspofungin Effects on Electrocardiogram of Mice: An Evaluation of Cardiac Safety.
atilde;es A Abstract Caspofungin is an echinocandin, exhibiting efficacy against most Candida species invasive infection. Its cardiotoxicity was reported in isolated rat heart and ventricular myocytes, but in vivo and clinical studies are insufficient. Our objective was to evaluate caspofungin in vivo cardiac effects using an efficacious dose against Candida albicans. Female Swiss mice were infected with C. albicans, and treated with caspofungin, 5 or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal along 5 days. Survival rate and colony-forming units (CFU) into vital organs were determined. For cardiac effects study...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - August 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: De Paula DCC, Leite EA, Araujo CM, Branquinho RT, Guimarães HN, Grabe-Guimarães A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Sodium New Houttuyfonate Inhibits Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by Inhibiting the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 Pathway Revealed by RNA-seq
Here, we aim to investigate the antifungal effect and mechanism of action of sodium new houttuyfonate (SNH) against Candida albicans. Microdilution analysis results showed that SNH possesses potent inhibitory activity against C. albicans SC5314, with a MIC80 of 256 μg/mL. Furthermore, we found that SNH can effectively inhibit the initial adhesion of C. albicans. Inverted microscopy, crystal violet staining, scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy results showed that morphological changes during the transition from yeast to hypha and the biofilm formation of C. albicans are repressed by SNH tr...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Repurposing Drugs for COVID-19: An Approach for Treatment in the Pandemic.
Conclusions: Although current results are promising, limitations to drug repurposing, such as a low success rate and the possibility of adverse events, can't be overlooked. With continuous research and technical advancements, repurposing will no doubt provide a notable scientific contribution to innovation in drug development and pharmacotherapy practice for the treatment of new diseases or existing diseases in a new way. PMID: 32827400 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine)
Source: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine - August 19, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Khadka S, Yuchi A, Shrestha DB, Budhathoki P, Al-Subari SMM, Ziad Alhouzani TM, Anwar Butt I Tags: Altern Ther Health Med Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetics of caspofungin among extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients during the postoperative period of lung transplantation(LTx).
Conclusion:ECMO did not have a significant impact on the PK of caspofungin in patients after LTx. Some factors were identified as statistically significant covariates related to the PK of caspofungin ; however, their impact on clinical practice of caspofungin needs to be investigated further in more studies. PMID: 32816724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Q, Zhang Z, Liu D, Chen W, Cui G, Li P, Zhang X, Li M, Zhan Q, Wang C Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Fungal Keratitis Caused by Candida orthopsilosis Successfully Treated with Caspofungin.
Authors: Kim TH, Jun I, Lee HK, Seo KY, Kim TI, Kim EK PMID: 32783428 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology : KJO)
Source: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology : KJO - August 14, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Korean J Ophthalmol Source Type: research

Micellization of coenzyme Q by the fungicide caspofungin allows for safe intravenous administration to reach extreme supraphysiological concentrations
Publication date: Available online 7 August 2020Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Ying Wang, Siegfried Hekimi (Source: Redox Biology)
Source: Redox Biology - August 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Unexpected cell wall alteration-mediated bactericidal activity of the antifungal caspofungin against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.
oir V Abstract Enterococcus faecium has become a major opportunistic pathogen with the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). As part of the gut microbiota, they have to cope with numerous stresses including effects of antibiotics and other xenobiotics, especially in patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) who receive many medications. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the most prescribed xenobiotics for ICU patients on fitness, pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance of the vanB-positive E. faecium Aus0004 reference strain. Several phenotypic analyses were carrie...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Isnard C, Hernandez SB, Guérin F, Joalland F, Goux D, Gravey F, Auzou M, Enot D, Meignen P, Giard JC, Cava F, Cattoir V Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Clinical and Microbiological Characterization of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Caused by Aspergillus lentulus in China
In this study, we investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 6 fatal cases of proven or probable IA caused by A. lentulus in China. Underlying immunosuppression, prior antifungal exposure, and intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization were important risk factors for invasive A. lentulus infection. Phenotypic differences were observed for A. lentulus isolates including slower growth, reduced sporulation, and inability to grow at 48°C, compared with Aspergillus fumigatus complex. ITS sequencing was unable to distinguish A. lentulus from A. fumigatus, but sequencing of the benA, CaM, and rod A loci e...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of the Antifungal Metabolite Chaetoglobosin P From Discosia rubi Using a Cryptococcus neoformans Inhibition Assay: Insights Into Mode of Action and Biosynthesis
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human pathogen with limited options for treatments. We have interrogated extracts from fungal fermentations to find Cryptococcus-inhibiting natural products using assays for growth inhibition, differential thermosensitivity, and synergy with existing antifungal drugs. Extracts from fermentations of strains of Discosia rubi from eastern Texas showed anticryptococcal bioactivity with preferential activity in agar zone of inhibition assays against C. neoformans at 37°C versus 25°C. Assay-guided fractionation led to the purification and identification of chaetoglobosin P as the a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative pharmacokinetics of the three echinocandins in ICU patients
ConclusionsAnidulafungin exposure in ICU patients was comparable with that reported in non-ICU patients and in healthy volunteers. Micafungin exposure was comparable to that of other patients but ∼30% lower than that in healthy volunteers, whereas caspofungin exposure was rather low (∼50% lower than in healthy volunteers). Larger interindividual variability (50%–60%) was recorded in ICU patients compared with other groups for all three echinocandins. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Caspofungin suppresses zymosan-induced cytokine and chemokine release in THP-1 cells: Possible involvement of the spleen tyrosine kinase pathway
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis are considered to contribute to hypercytokinemia in both patients with severe infection and immunocompromised condition. Past research has demonstrated that antibiotics and antifungals not only have antimicrobial efficacy but also affect the immune system. We previously examined whether immune cells were modulated by antibiotics such as tetracyclines or macrolides. The modulation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells by those agents was elucidated. (Source: Translational Research)
Source: Translational Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Kazuhiro Itoh, Hiroko Shigemi, Kazuyasu Chihara, Kiyonao Sada, Takahiro Yamauchi, Hiromichi Iwasaki Source Type: research

Caspofungin suppresses zymosan-induced cytokine and chemokine release in THP-1 cells: Possible involvement of the spleen tyrosine kinase pathway.
In this study, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and signaling pathways involved were investigated in zymosan-activated THP-1 cells. The effects were examined using antifungal agents such as echinocandin including caspofungin (CAS) and micafungin. Pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein phosphorylation was evaluated by western blot analysis. CAS significantly decreased zymosan-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release in THP-1 cells. CAS (30 µg/mL) also downregulated tumor necrosis factor alpha leve...
Source: Translational Research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine - July 16, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Itoh K, Shigemi H, Chihara K, Sada K, Yamauchi T, Iwasaki H Tags: Transl Res Source Type: research

Comparison of the Sensititre YeastOne antifungal method with the CLSI M27- A3 reference method to determine the activity of antifungal agents against clinical isolates of Candida spp.
CONCLUSIONS: The Sensititre YeastOne method was ready-to use so appeared to be easier and more efficient for Candida isolates. PMID: 32659879 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - July 16, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research

Caspofungin: a review of its characteristics, activity, and use in intensive care units.
In this study, characteristics of caspofungin and its using in intensive care unit (ICU) patients are reviewed based on an electronic search using pubmed and Google scholar. EXPERT OPINION: Caspofungin is a semisynthetic derivative from pneumocandin B and the first member of the echinocandins that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to fight fungal infection. Caspofungin inhibits the enzyme β(1,3)-D-glucan synthase of the fungal cell wall resulted in inhibition of the synthesis of β(1,3)-D-glucan. Caspofungin tolerability is similar to fluconazole tolerability (but with fewer drug inte...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Aspergillus fumigatus Cyp51A and Cyp51B Proteins are Compensatory in Function and Localize Differentially in Response to Antifungals and Cell Wall Inhibitors.
In this study, we address two important aspects of the Cyp51 proteins, (i) characterizing their localization patterns under normal growth versus stress conditions, and (ii) determining how the proteins compensate for each other's absence and respond to azole treatment. Both Cyp51A and Cyp51B proteins were found to localize in distinct endoplasmic reticulum (ER) domains, including the perinuclear ER and the peripheral ER. Occasionally, the Cyp51 proteins concentrated in the peripheral ER network of tubules along the hyphal septa and at the hyphal tips. Exposure to voriconazole, caspofungin, and Congo red led to significant ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Roundtree MT, Juvvadi PR, Shwab EK, Cole DC, Steinbach WJ Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Caspofungin weight-based dosing supported by a population pharmacokinetic model in critically ill patients.
The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and to determine a dosing regimen for caspofungin in critically ill patients. Nine blood samples were drawn per one dosing occasion. Fifteen patients with (suspected) invasive candidasis had one dosing occasion and five had two dosing occasions measured on day 3 (±1) of treatment. Pmetrics was used for population pharmacokinetic modelling and probability of target attainment (PTA). A target 24-hour AUC value of 98 mg*h/L was used as an efficacy parameter. Secondarily the AUC/MIC targets of 450, 865 and 1185 were used to calculate PTAs for ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Märtson AG, van der Elst KCM, Veringa A, Zijlstra JG, Beishuizen A, van der Werf TS, Kosterink JGW, Neely M, Alffenaar JW Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

An expanded cell wall damage signaling network is comprised of the transcription factors Rlm1 and Sko1  in < i > Candida albicans < /i >
by Marienela Y. Heredia, M élanie A. C. Ikeh, Deepika Gunasekaran, Karen A. Conrad, Sviatlana Filimonava, Dawn H. Marotta, Clarissa J. Nobile, Jason M. Rauceo The human fungal pathogenCandida albicans is constantly exposed to environmental challenges impacting the cell wall. Signaling pathways coordinate stress adaptation and are essential for commensalism and virulence. The transcription factors Sko1, Cas5, and Rlm1 control the response to cell wall stress caused by the antifungal drug caspofungin. Here, we expand the Sko1 and Rlm1 transcriptional circuit and demonstrate that Rlm1 activates Sko1 cell wall stress s...
Source: PLoS Genetics - July 7, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Marienela Y. Heredia Source Type: research

Prevalence and Antifungal Susceptibility of Pathogenic Yeasts in China: A 10-Year Retrospective Study in a Teaching Hospital
In this study, although Candida albicans was the predominant single species, non-C. albicans species constituted>50% of isolates in 6 out of 10 years, and more rare species were present in the recent 5 years. The non-C. albicans species identified most frequently were Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata. The prevalence of fluconazole and voriconazole resistance in the C. parapsilosis sensu stricto population was
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Case Report: Beyond the Blood-retina Barrier: Intravitreal Caspofungin for Fungal Endophthalmitis
CONCLUSIONS In summary, intravitreal caspofungin was effective and well tolerated in both cases. Therefore, caspofungin seems to be a safe and effective intravitreal alternative to voriconazole and amphotericin B in fungal endophthalmitis. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - July 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Effects of caspofungin, tolcapone and other FDA-approved medications on MRSA susceptibility to vancomycin
Publication date: September 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 22Author(s): Jonah A. Moore, Michaela Meakin, Mikaela H. Earl, Tiffany M. Kummer, Jeremy P. McAleer, Timothy E. Long (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - June 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antifungal Agents in Neonates and Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes current knowledge on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of various formulations of amphotericin B, triazoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole), and echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) in the pediatric population.Recent FindingsThe PD indices associated with in vivo outcome have been defined for all antifungal agents. PK parameters have been studied across all range of ages; however, data often originate from small patient series, particularly regarding neonates and young infants. Dose-exposure simulations in...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Non-stationary pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in ICU patients.
Abstract Standard dosing of caspofungin in critically ill patients has been reported to result in lower drug exposure, which can lead to subtherapeutic AUC0-24/MIC ratios. The aim of the study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in a cohort of 30 ICU patients with a suspected invasive fungal infection, with a large proportion of patients requiring extracorporeal therapies including ECMO and CRRT. Caspofungin was administered as empirical antifungal therapy 70 mg i.v. on the first day and 50 mg i.v. on the consecutive days once daily and the concentrations were measured after 3 subsequ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - June 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Borsuk-De Moor A, Sysiak-Sławecka J, Rypulak E, Borys M, Piwowarczyk P, Raszewski G, Onichimowski D, Czuczwar M, Wiczling P Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Genetic Basis of Azole and Echinocandin Resistance in Clinical Candida glabrata in Japan.
In this study, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms of azole and echinocandin resistance in C. glabrata obtained from hospitalized patients in Japan from 1997 to 2019. All isolates were checked phenotypically for resistance, genotypically to detect mutations in PDR1, ERG11, and hot spot 1 (HS1), HS2, and HS3 of FKS1, and HS1 and HS2 of FKS2, and were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Interestingly, 32.6% of the isolates were resistant to caspofungin, and 4.7% were resistant to micafungin. The isolates showed low resistance rates to azoles ranging from 2.3% to 9.3%, and only 4.7% of the isolates were non-wild ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - June 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Khalifa HO, Arai T, Majima H, Watanabe A, Kamei K Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Antifungal susceptibility of clinical yeast isolates from a large Canadian reference laboratory and application of whole genome sequence analysis to elucidate mechanisms of acquired resistance.
Abstract To understand the epidemiology and susceptibility patterns of yeast infections in Ontario, we examined 4715 clinical yeast isolates submitted to our laboratory for antifungal susceptibility testing from 2014-2018. C. albicans was the most frequently submitted species (43.0%) followed by C. glabrata (21.1%), C. parapsilosis (15.0%), and C. tropicalis (6.2%). Twenty-three other Candida spp. (11.6%) and 4 non-Candida species (3.1%) were also identified. Few changes in species distribution were observed from 2014-2018, but the total number of yeast isolates sent for testing increased with an annual percent ch...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - June 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: McTaggart LR, Cabrera A, Cronin K, Kus JV Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

In vitro and in  vivo evaluation of the antifungal activity of fluoxetine combined with antifungals against Candida albicans biofilms and oral candidiasis.
In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antifungal activity of fluoxetine combined with antifungals against Candida albicans biofilms and oral candidiasis. Biofouling. 2020 Jun 19;:1-12 Authors: Jiang L, Zheng L, Sun KA, Zhou P, Xu R, Gu J, Wei X Abstract Candida albicans biofilms are responsible for oral candidiasis. Fluoxetine is a widely used antidepressant, with certain anti-Candida activities. The antifungal activity of fluoxetine combined with various antifungals against C. albicans biofilms and oral candidiasis was evaluated in this study. The morphological change in the inhibition of fluox...
Source: Biofouling - June 18, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Jiang L, Zheng L, Sun KA, Zhou P, Xu R, Gu J, Wei X Tags: Biofouling Source Type: research

Subcellular localization of Sur7 and its pleiotropic effect on cell wall integrity, multiple stress responses, and virulence of Beauveria bassiana.
Abstract Sur7 is one of multiple proteins constituting MCC (membrane compartment of Can1 acting as an arginine/H+ symporter), a crucial membrane domain that can form punctuate eisosome spots on the plasma membrane and execute diverse functions in model yeast but remains poorly understood in filamentous fungi. Here, a Sur7 homolog bearing a typical SUR7 domain and four transmembrane domains was shown to localize in the conidial vesicles and enter vacuoles and appear sporadically on the periphery membrane during hyphal growth in the insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, implicating an involvement of Sur7 in c...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhang LB, Tang L, Guan Y, Feng MG Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Saliva for Precision Dosing of Antifungal Drugs: Saliva Population PK Model for Voriconazole Based on a Systematic Review.
Precision dosing for many antifungal drugs is now recommended. Saliva sampling is considered as a non-invasive alternative to plasma sampling for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). However, there are currently no clinically validated saliva models available. The aim of this study is firstly, to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the evidence supporting saliva-based TDM for azoles, echinocandins, amphotericin B, and flucytosine. The second aim is to develop a saliva population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for eligible drugs, based on the evidence. Databases were searched up to July 2019 on PubMed® and Embase®, an...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The high efficacy of luliconazole against environmental and otomycosis Aspergillus flavus strains.
Conclusion: The analysis of our data clearly indicated that luliconazole (with MICGM 0.00244 μg/ml for clinical and 0.00336 μg/ml for environmental isolates) had the highest in vitro activity against A. flavus strains. PMID: 32494352 [PubMed] (Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology - June 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Iran J Microbiol Source Type: research

Recommendation of Antimicrobial Dosing Optimization During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy
Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) is more and more widely used in patients for various indications recent years. It is still intricate for clinicians to decide a suitable empiric antimicrobial dosing for patients receiving CRRT. Inappropriate doses of antimicrobial agents may lead to treatment failure or drug resistance of pathogens. CRRT factors, patient individual conditions and drug pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics are the main elements effecting the antimicrobial dosing adjustment. With the development of CRRT techniques, some antimicrobial dosing recommendations in earlier studies were no longer appropriate...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - May 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Emergence of azole resistant-Aspergillus fumigatus infections during STAT3-deficiency.
Conclusions. The emergence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus infections in STAT3-deficiency dramatically impacts both curative and prophylactic antifungal strategies. Physicians following patients with primary immune-deficiencies should be aware of this emerging problem as it complicates management of the patient. PMID: 32459615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Danion F, Duréault A, Gautier C, Senechal A, Persat F, Bougnoux ME, Givel C, Couderc LJ, Lortholary O, Garcia-Hermoso D, Lanternier F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Determination of antifungal caspofungin in RPMI-1640 cell culture medium by column-switching HPLC-FLD
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2020Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical AnalysisAuthor(s): B. Uribe, O. González, I. Ourliac-Garnier, P. Le Pape, B.B. Ba, R.M. Alonso, K. Gaudin (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - May 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Combination of Antifungal Drugs and Protease Inhibitors Prevent Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Disrupt Mature Biofilms
Biofilms formed by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans are resistant to many of the antifungal agents commonly used in the clinic. Previous reports suggest that protease inhibitors, specifically inhibitors of aspartyl proteases, could be effective antibiofilm agents. We screened three protease inhibitor libraries, containing a total of 80 compounds for the abilities to prevent C. albicans biofilm formation and to disrupt mature biofilms. The compounds were screened individually and in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of the most commonly prescribed antifungal agents for Candida infections: fluconazole, amphote...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - May 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Real-Time Therapeutic Drug Monitoring-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Optimization of Complex Antimicrobial Therapy in a Critically Ill Morbidly Obese Patient. Grand Round/A Case Study
Abstract: The authors present the case of a critically ill morbidly obese patient (body mass index, 51.2 kg/m2) who suffered from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans bloodstream infections. Initial treatment with caspofungin and daptomycin was deemed inappropriate, because blood cultures remained positive for both isolates after 14 days. The clinical pharmacological consultant suggested adding fluconazole and ceftobiprole to the ongoing antimicrobial therapy, and starting a real-time therapeutic drug monitoring program of daptomycin, ceftobiprole, and fluconazole, aimed at optimizing pl...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - May 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Grand Rounds Source Type: research

An Association of an eBURST Group With Triazole Resistance of Candida tropicalis Blood Isolates
Candidemia, a bloodstream infection caused by genus Candida, has a high mortality rate. Candida albicans was previously reported to be the most common causative species among candidemia patients. However, during the past 10 years in Thailand, Candida tropicalis has been recovered from blood more frequently than C. albicans. The cause of this shift in the prevalence of Candida spp. remains unexplored. We conducted in vitro virulence studies and antifungal susceptibility profiles of 48 C. tropicalis blood isolates collected during 2015–2017. To compare to global isolates of C. tropicalis, multilocus sequence typing (ML...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - May 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Antifungal Susceptibility of Infections Caused by Trichosporon Species: An Emerging Non-Candida and Non-Cryptococcus Yeast Worldwide
Conclusion: T. asahii was the most common isolate. Disseminated trichosporonosis is being increasingly reported worldwide including India and represents a challenge for both diagnosis and species identification. Prognosis is limited, and antifungal regimens containing triazoles appear to be the best therapeutic approach. In addition, accurate identification, removal of central venous lines and voriconazole-based treatment along with control of underlying conditions were associated with favourable outcomes. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sukhwinder Singh Malini Rajinder Capoor Swati Varshney Dipendra Kumar Gupta Pradeep Kumar Verma V Ramesh Source Type: research

Caspofungin Induced Cell Wall Changes of Candida Species Influences Macrophage Interactions
This study was performed to compare the structure and composition of the cell walls of different Candida species alone and in response to caspofungin treatment, and to evaluate how changes at the fungal cell surface affects interactions with macrophages. We demonstrated that the length of the outer fibrillar layer varied between Candida species and that, in most cases, reduced fibril length correlated with increased exposure of β-1,3-glucan on the cell surface. Candida glabrata and Candida guilliermondii, which had naturally more β-1,3-glucan exposed on the cell surface, were phagocytosed significantly more effic...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Intrathecal Antibacterial and Antifungal Therapies.
Abstract SUMMARYIntrathecal administration of anti-infectives is indicated in central nervous system infections by multiresistant pathogens when drugs that can reach adequate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations by systemic therapy are not available. Antibiotics that readily pass the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and/or that have low toxicity allowing an increase in the daily dosage should not be used for intrathecal therapy. Intrathecal therapy is accompanied by systemic treatment. Antibacterials indispensable for intrathecal therapy include aminoglycosides, colistin, daptomycin, tigecycline, and vancomy...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - May 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nau R, Blei C, Eiffert H Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

Coinfection of domestic felines by distinct Sporothrix brasiliensis in the Brazilian sporotrichosis hyperendemic area.
ouza Baptista AR Abstract Microbial interactions may impact patient's diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Sporotrichosis is a hyperendemic neglected zoonosis in Brazil, caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis. Four pairs of clinical isolates of Sporothrix were recovered from four diseased cats (CIM01-CIM04, two isolates per animal) raising the possibility of coinfection in a sporotrichosis hyperendemic area, Brazil. Each isolate of the pair had distinct pigmentation in mycological culture, and was designated as "Light" or "Dark", for low and high pigmentation, respectively. Dark isolates reacted stro...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - April 19, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: de Macêdo-Sales PA, Souza LOP, Della-Terra PP, Lozoya-Pérez NE, Machado RLD, da Silva da Rocha EM, Lopes-Bezerra LM, Guimarães AJ, Rodrigues AM, Mora-Montes HM, Dos Santos ALS, de Souza Baptista AR Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Caspofungin functionalized polymethacrylates with antifungal properties.
We describe the synthesis of hydrophilic poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) PmPEGMA and hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) caspofungin conjugates by a post polymerization modification of copolymers containing 10 mol% pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (PFPMA), which were obtained via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer copolymerization. The coupling of the clinically used antifungal caspofungin was confirmed and quantified in detail by combination of 1H-, 19F- and diffusion ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. The trifu...
Source: Biomacromolecules - April 13, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Alex J, Gonzales K, Kindel T, Bellstedt P, Weber C, Heinekamp T, Orasch T, Guerrero Sanchez C, Schubert US, Brakhage AA Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Reply to the reply to Scientific rationale for inhaled caspofungin to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia: a therapeutic innovation likely relevant to investigate in a near future …
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Desoubeaux Guillaume, Lemaignen Adrien, Ehrmann Stephan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Luliconazole, a highly effective imidazole, against Fusarium species complexes
In this study, 47 isolates ofFusarium were tested against several antifungals including luliconazole. All species were identified using morphology features, and PCR sequencing and antifungal susceptibility were performed according to CLSIM38 A3 guideline. Our results revealed that luliconazole has a very low minimum inhibitory concentration value (0.0078 –1 µg/ml) in comparison with other tested antifungals. Amphotericin B had a poor effect with a high MIC90 (64  µg/ml), followed by terbinafine (32 µg/ml), posaconazole (16 µg/ml), caspofungin (16 µg/ml), voricona...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - April 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effects of Caspofungin, Tolcapone, and Other FDA-Approved Medications on MRSA Susceptibility to Vancomycin
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Jonah A. Moore, Michaela Meakin, Mikaela H. Earl, Tiffany M. Kummer, Jeremy P. McAleer, Timothy E. Long (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Caspofungin PK in critically ill patients after the first and fourth doses: suggestions for therapeutic drug monitoring?
We describe caspofungin pharmacokinetics (PK) after the first and fourth doses in 20 critically ill septic patients. Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the probability of target attainment (PTA) (AUC/MIC> 865) for Candida spp. Caspofungin concentrations were analyzed by HPLC in plasma and urine. A great variability in PK parameters was observed after both doses. Patients were divided in two groups according to their AUC values (AUC ≤ 75 mg h/L cut-off). In the low-AUC group Cmax, Cmin and AUC were lower, while Vd and Cl were higher than in the high-AUC group (p 
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Scientific rationale for inhaled caspofungin to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia: A therapeutic innovation likely relevant to investigate in a near future …
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guillaume Desoubeaux, Adrien Lemaignen, Stephan Ehrmann Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply to: Scientific rationale for inhaled caspofungin to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia: a therapeutic innovation likely relevant to investigate in a near future …
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fan Jin, Huan-ling Wang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The potency of luliconazole against clinical and environmental Aspergillus nigri complex.
Conclusion: Luliconazole versus amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin is a potent antifungal for Aspergillus Nigri complex. The in vitro extremely antifungal efficacy against black Aspergillus strains of luliconazole, is different from those of other used antifungals. PMID: 32148683 [PubMed] (Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology)
Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology - March 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Iran J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prophylaxis, Invasive Fungal Disease, and Neutropenic Children and Young Adults
To the Editor Dr Fisher and colleagues examined prevention of invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients aged 3 months to 30 years with acute myeloid leukemia with caspofungin vs fluconazole. Caspofungin resulted in a statistically significant lower incidence of invasive fungal disease. However, prophylaxis depends on appropriateness and adequacy of the antifungal medication. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - March 10, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Pulsed echinocandin therapy in azole intolerant or multiresistant chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: A retrospective review at a UK tertiary centre
ConclusionsWith pulsed echinocandin therapy, azole ‐intolerant or pan‐resistant CPA patients have similar mortality rates to azole‐naïve CPA patients. Pulsed echinocandin therapy may present a strategy to stabilize CPA in patients with pan resistance or intolerance to, azole therapy. (Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal)
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - March 7, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: William Osborne, Michelle Fernandes, Sophie Brooks, Emily Grist, Charlie Sayer, David M. Hansell, Robert Wilson, Anand Shah, Michael R. Loebinger Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effects of Culture Conditions (Microplate and Solvent) on in vitro Antifungal Activity of Caspofungin Against Candida Species.
Authors: Higashitsuji Y, Ueno R, Ogawa M, Ruzicka D Abstract Effects of the type of microplates and solvent for preparation of caspofungin (CPFG) on antifungal susceptibility testing of CPFG against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei (20 strains each) by broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute were evaluated. When CPFG was dissolved in water, MICs against the three Candida species decreased 3.1-6.0-fold in surface-untreated microplates compared to those in treated microplates. When CPFG was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, MICs...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 4, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Impact of Inaccurate Documentation of Sampling and Infusion Time in Model-Informed Precision Dosing
BackgroundRoutine clinical TDM data is often used to develop population pharmacokinetic (PK) models, which are applied in turn for model-informed precision dosing. The impact of uncertainty in documented sampling and infusion times in population PK modeling and model-informed precision dosing have not yet been systematically evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate uncertain documentation of (i) sampling times and (ii) infusion rate exemplified with two anti-infectives.MethodsA stochastic simulation and estimation study was performed in NONMEM® using previously published population PK models of meropenem and...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - March 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research