[Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].
Authors: Eren Z, Gurol Y, Sonmezoglu M, Eren HS, Celik G, Kantarci G Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - December 2, 2015 Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo study on the effect of antifungal agents on hematopoietic cells in mice
Liposomal amphotericin B, voriconazole, and caspofungin are currently used for systemic and severe fungal infections. Patients with malignant diseases are treated with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for the recovery of granulocytes after chemotherapy or hematopoietic cell (HC) transplantation. Since they have a high incidence of fungal infections, they inevitably receive antifungal drugs for treatment and prophylaxis. Despite their proven less toxicity for various cell types comparatively with amphotericin B and the decrease in the number of leukocytes that has been reported as a possible complication in cli...
Source: Experimental Biology and Medicine - December 2, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Samalidou, M., Bougiouklis, D., Vyzantiadis, T.-A., Meletiadis, J., Monokrousos, N., Siotou, E., Sivropoulou, A., Anagnostopoulos, A., Sotiropoulos, D. Tags: Pharmacology/Toxicology Source Type: research

The radish defensins RsAFP1 and RsAFP2 act synergistically with caspofungin against Candida albicans biofilms
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Peptides, Volume 75 Author(s): Kim Vriens, Tanne L. Cools, Peta J. Harvey, David J. Craik, Annabel Braem, Jozef Vleugels, Barbara De Coninck, Bruno P.A. Cammue, Karin Thevissen The radish defensin RsAFP2 was previously characterized as a peptide with potent antifungal activity against several plant pathogenic fungi and human pathogens, including Candida albicans. RsAFP2 induces apoptosis and impairs the yeast-to-hypha transition in C. albicans. As the yeast-to-hypha transition is considered important for progression to mature biofilms, we analyzed the potential antibiofilm a...
Source: Peptides - November 29, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Disseminated mucormycosis in a paediatric patient: Lichtheimia corymbifera successfully treated with combination antifungal therapy
Publication date: October–December 2014 Source:Medical Mycology Case Reports, Volume 6 Author(s): Anita Campbell, Celia Cooper, Stephen Davis Mucormycosis is a severe fungal infection that largely affects immunocompromised individuals. It carries a high morbidity and mortality rate and is characterised by extensive angioinvasion and necrosis of host tissue. This case report details success in treating disseminated mucormycosis in a paediatric patient with an underlying haematological malignancy. Treatment included institution of combination antifungal therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin, aggres...
Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports - November 22, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Echinocandin Resistance in Candida
Invasive fungal infections are an important infection concern for patients with underlying immunosuppression. Antifungal therapy is a critical component of patient care, but therapeutic choices are limited due to few drug classes. Antifungal resistance, especially among Candida species, aggravates the problem. The echinocandin drugs (micafungin, anidulafungin, and caspofungin) are the preferred choice to treat a range of candidiasis. They target the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of a major cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failure involves acquisition of resistance, although...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - November 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Perlin, D. S. Tags: ADVANCES AND NEW DIRECTIONS FOR ECHINOCANDINS Source Type: research

Role of Echinocandins in Fungal Biofilm-Related Disease: Vascular Catheter-Related Infections, Immunomodulation, and Mucosal Surfaces
Biofilm-related infections have become an increasingly important clinical problem. Many of these infections occur in patients with multiple comorbidities or with impaired immunity. Echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin) exert their fungicidal activity by inhibition of the synthesis of the (1->3)-β-d-glucan. They are active among in vitro and in vivo model systems against a number of Candida species and filamentous fungi in their planktonic and biofilm phenotype. Their superior activity against biofilms poses them in an advantageous position among the antifungal armamentarium. However, additional...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - November 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katragkou, A., Roilides, E., Walsh, T. J. Tags: ADVANCES AND NEW DIRECTIONS FOR ECHINOCANDINS Source Type: research

Antifungal-Associated Drug-Induced Cardiac Disease
The etiology of cardiomyopathies are classified into 4 main groupings (dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, and idiopathic) and can be mechanistically caused by myocarditis, conduction abnormalities, focal direct injury, or nutritional deficiency. Based on our review of this topic, evidence suggests that echinocandin-related cardiac dysfunction is a mitochondrial drug-induced disease caused by focal direct myocyte injury. With caspofungin or anidulafungin administration into the heart via central line, exposure is likely extreme enough to induce the acute toxicity. Chronic or low-dose exposure may lead to hypertrophic cardi...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - November 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cleary, J. D., Stover, K. R. Tags: ADVANCES AND NEW DIRECTIONS FOR ECHINOCANDINS Source Type: research

Potential Microbiological Effects of Higher Dosing of Echinocandins
The antifungal "paradoxical effect" has been described as the reversal of growth inhibition at high doses of echinocandins, most usually caspofungin. This microbiological effect appears to be a cellular compensatory response to cell wall damage, resulting in alteration of cell wall content and structure as well as fungal morphology and growth. In vitro studies demonstrate this reproducible effect in a certain percentage of fungal isolates, but animal model and clinical studies are less consistent. The calcineurin and Hsp90 cell signaling pathways appear to play a major role in regulating these cellular and struct...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - November 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Steinbach, W. J., Lamoth, F., Juvvadi, P. R. Tags: ADVANCES AND NEW DIRECTIONS FOR ECHINOCANDINS Source Type: research

Candida infection in the intensive care unit: A study of antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species in Milad hospital, Tehran, Iran
In this study the antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida species isolated from sterile body sites of patients admitted in Milad Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during 6 months were determined. Methods Candidal isolates were obtained from 50 patients admitted in Milad ICUs from April to September 2013. Identification of the isolates was performed by using morphological and polymerase chain reaction assay. Resistance to the antifungal agents containing caspofungin, posoconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B was determined using E-test method. Results Out of 67 Candida isolates 47.8% were Candida glabrata, 28.3% were C....
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - November 10, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

An Antifungal Combination Matrix Identifies a Rich Pool of Adjuvant Molecules that Enhance Drug Activity against Diverse Fungal Pathogens
This study unveils a rich dataset for antifungal development. (Source: Cell Reports)
Source: Cell Reports - November 7, 2015 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

The expenditures related to the use of antifungal drugs in patients with hematological cancers: a cost analysis
Conclusion: Improving conditions in the patient's room, choosing pre-emptive antifungal treatment instead of empirical antifungal treatment, switching to tablet form of VOR after initiation of its intravenous form, secondary prophylaxis with VOR against invasive aspergillosis, primary prophylaxis with POS in high-risk patients, and choosing less L-AmB as being an alternative to other antifungal drugs, may reduce expenditures related to the use of antifungal drugs in the treatment of invasive fungal infections during febrile neutropenic episodes of patients with hematological malignancies. Keywords: hematological malig...
Source: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research - November 3, 2015 Category: Health Management Tags: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research Source Type: research

Acquired flucytosine resistance during combination of caspofungin and flucytosine for Candida glabrata cystitis.
We describe 2 patients with refractory C. glabrata cystitis who failed flucytosine combined with caspofungin with early-acquired high-level resistance to flucytosine due to nonsense mutations in the FUR1 gene. Rapid acquired flucytosine resistance with microbiological failure should discourage combination of caspofungin and flucytosine during urinary candidiasis. PMID: 26525799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - November 2, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Charlier C, El Sissy C, Bachelier-Bassi S, Scemla A, Quesne G, Sitterlé E, Legendre C, Lortholary O, Bougnoux ME Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

A pharmacokinetic analysis of posaconazole oral suspension in the serum and alveolar compartment of lung transplant recipients
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation [1]. Invasive aspergillosis complicates 3–15% of lung transplants, with a mortality rate between 52% and 55% [2]. The optimal approach for fungal prophylaxis following lung transplantation has not been universally agreed. Antifungal agents used include echinocandins (such as caspofungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and triazoles (itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole). Itraconazole therapy is complicated by variable gastrointestinal absorption, toxicity and emerging resistance; voriconazole is often limited...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: L. Thakuria, K. Packwood, A. Firouzi, P. Rogers, S. Soresi, K. Habibi-Parker, H. Lyster, B. Zych, D. Garcia-Saez, P. Mohite, N. Patil, A. Sabashnikov, M. Capoccia, M. Chibvuri, H. Lamba, H. Tate, M. Carby, A. Simon, N. Leaver, A. Reed Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness analysis of anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis
Conclusions: From the United Kingdom perspective, anidulafungin was cost-effective compared with fluconazole for the treatment of C/IC and was cost-saving versus the other echinocandins. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - October 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Georg AuzingerE. PlayfordChristopher GrahamHediyyih KnoxDavid WeinsteinMichal KanteckiHaran SchlammClaudie Charbonneau Source Type: research

Economic Evaluation of Targeted Antifungal Treatment Sequencing Strategies For Invasive Aspergillosis Based on Real World Data: The Case f Dutch Clinical Practice
Invasive Aspergillosis(IA) is a serious invasive fungal infection(IFI), usually affecting immunocomprised patients. In the Netherlands, voriconazole(VOR) is the recommended primary targeted antifungal agent and is used for the vast majority of IA patients. After unsuccessful first line treatment with VOR, Caspofungin(CASP) and liposomal amphotericin B(L-AMB) are two most commonly used agents. In a previously published study, CASP was dominant over L-AMB, as a targeted salvage antifungal therapy option after VOR for IA treatment in the Netherlands. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 23, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: N Buyukkaramikli, M van Agthoven, A Leunis, JL Severens Source Type: research

Pharmacoeconomic Analysis Of Anidulafungin, Micafungin, Caspofungin And Fluconazole In The Treatment Of Candidemia And/Or Invasive Candidiasis In Non-Neutropenic Adult Patients In Spain
To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin) and generic fluconazole in the treatment of non-neutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis (IC) in intensive care units (ICU) in Spain. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 23, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: S Grau, J Pozo, E Romá, M Salavert, J Barrueta, C Peral, I Rodríguez, D Rubio-Rodríguez, C Rubio-Terrés Source Type: research

Cost Analysis of Voriconazole Versus Liposomal Amphotericin B And Caspofungin for Primary Therapy of Invasive Aspergillosis Among High-Risk Hematologic Cancer Patients In Saudi Arabia
Published real-world studies suggest voriconazole may provide reduced length-of-stay, intravenous (IV) length-of-therapy (LOT), and costs compared to liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) and caspofungin in invasive aspergillosis (IA) patients. We performed a cost analysis of voriconazole versus LAMB and caspofungin as first-line antifungal treatment for IA among patients with prolonged neutropenia or undergoing bone marrow or hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (BMT/HSCT) from payer perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 23, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: AA Thaqafi, M Xue, F Farahat, X Gao, MH Wafy, M Fahti, A Ibrahim, C Charbonneau Source Type: research

Ocular infections caused by Candida species: Type of species, in vitro susceptibility and treatment outcome
Conclusions: Ocular candidiasis needs early and specific treatment for optimal results. Candida species continue to be susceptible to most commonly available antifungals including amphotericin B, voriconazole and natamycin. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: SR MotukupallyVR NanapurKN ChathothSI MurthyRR PappuruA MallickS Sharma Source Type: research

Evaluation of the "Dip Effect" Phenomenon in Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida spp. against Echinocandins by Use of Gradient Concentration Strips [Mycology]
The "dip effect" phenomenon complicates antifungal susceptibility testing with gradient concentration strips. Of 60 Candida isolates tested with the three echinocandins, this phenomenon was observed only for caspofungin with most (>90%) Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis isolates and for isolates with CLSI MICs of ≤0.25 mg/liter. In order to facilitate MIC determination, a practical approach was developed using the inhibition zones at 32, 8, 2, and 1 mg/liter, increasing the agreement with the CLSI method>86%. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - October 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Siopi, M., Tsala, M., Siafakas, N., Zerva, L., Meletiadis, J. Tags: Mycology Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins and fluconazole in the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic adult patients
Conclusion: In accordance with this economic study, anidulafungin would produce savings and would be the dominant treatment compared with micafungin and caspofungin in nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. Keywords: invasive candidiasis, candidemia, anidulafungin, micafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, cost-effectiveness analysis (Source: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research)
Source: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research - October 13, 2015 Category: Health Management Tags: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research Source Type: research

Switching to anidulafungin from caspofungin in cancer patients in the setting of liver dysfunction is associated with improvement of liver function tests
Background Anidulafungin does not undergo hepatic metabolism like the other echinocandins. Therefore, there is a perception that anidulafungin may be less hepatotoxic or less likely to exacerbate existing liver damage. This has not been substantiated in the literature. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all cancer patients in whom anidulafungin treatment was immediately preceded by treatment with caspofungin and there existed clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic damage or dysfunction at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from January 2010 to December 2013. Results Sixty-one patients were included in the study. Most pati...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - October 12, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jung, D. S., Tverdek, F. P., Jiang, Y., Kontoyiannis, D. P. Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Acquired multidrug antifungal resistance in Candida lusitaniae during therapy.
We report here the rapid emergence of antifungal resistance in C. lusitaniae isolated during therapy with amphotericin B (AMB), caspofungin (CAS) and azoles for persistent candidemia in an immunocompromised child with severe enterocolitis and visceral adenoviral disease. As documented from restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and RAPD, the five C. lusitaniae isolates were related to each other. From antifungal susceptibilities and molecular analysis, 5 different profiles (P) were obtained. These profiles included P1 (MIC (μg/ml): CAS: 0.5, fluconazole (FLC): 0.25 while being on AMB Tx for 3 months), P2 (MIC ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - October 5, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Asner SA, Giulieri S, Diezi M, Marchetti O, Sanglard D Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri peritonitis in a nine-year-old child in Saudi Arabia treated with caspofungin
We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy known to have steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The child, on peritoneal dialysis and cyclosporine, presented with peritonitis related to K. ohmeri. The patient's condition was cured by immediate removal of the peritoneal catheter and treatment with Caspofungin, which was prescribed for susceptible fungal infection. (Source: Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences)
Source: Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences - October 2, 2015 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research

Impact of brief exposure to antifungal agents on the post-antifungal effect and hemolysin activity of oral Candida albicans
Conclusions Brief exposure to sublethal concentrations of antifungal drugs appears to exert an antifungal effect by interfering with the growth as well as hemolysin production of C. albicans. (Source: Journal of Applied Oral Science)
Source: Journal of Applied Oral Science - September 18, 2015 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Comparing Etest and Broth Microdilution for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of the Most-Relevant Pathogenic Molds [Mycology]
Invasive mold infections are life-threatening diseases for which appropriate antifungal therapy is crucial. Their epidemiology is evolving, with the emergence of triazole-resistant Aspergillus spp. and multidrug-resistant non-Aspergillus molds. Despite the lack of interpretive criteria, antifungal susceptibility testing of molds may be useful in guiding antifungal therapy. The standard broth microdilution method (BMD) is demanding and requires expertise. We assessed the performance of a commercialized gradient diffusion method (Etest method) as an alternative to BMD. The MICs or minimal effective concentrations (MECs) of a...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - September 16, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lamoth, F., Alexander, B. D. Tags: Mycology Source Type: research

Caspofungin: Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical uses and treatment outcomes.
The objectives of this review are to summarize the existing published data on caspofungin, under the subject headings of chemistry and mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, safety, drug interactions, dosing, and an overview of the drug's current place in therapy. PMID: 26369708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - September 15, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Song JC, Stevens DA Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

In Vitro Susceptibility Profiles of Eight Antifungal Drugs Against Clinical and Environmental Strains of Phaeoacremonium.
Abstract In vitro susceptibilities of a worldwide collection of molecularly identified Phaeoacremonium strains (n=43) belonging to seven species and originating from human and environmental sources were determined for eight antifungal drugs. Voriconazole had the lowest geometric mean MIC (0.35 μg/ml) followed by posaconazole (0.37 μg/ml), amphotericin B (0.4 μg/ml) and isavuconazole (1.16 μg/ml). Caspofungin, anidulafungin, fluconazole and itraconazole had no activity. PMID: 26369976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - September 14, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Badali H, Khodavaisy S, Fakhim H, de Hoog GS, Meis JF, Chowdhary A Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Cutaneous Mucormycosis: Mycological, Clinical, and Therapeutic Aspects
Abstract Cutaneous mucormycosis (CM) is caused by ubiquitous filamentous fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. It is a rare, emerging mycosis, with increasing incidence since the last two decades, only surpassed by rhinocerebral and pulmonary mucormycosis. CM can be further classified in primary and secondary clinical forms. Primary cases can be seen on immunocompetent patients, frequently due to traumatic injuries, while in immunocompromised patients (those with diabetes mellitus or hematologic malignancies), lesions can arise at catheter insertion sites or after the use of contaminated adhesive tapes. Clinical...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - September 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Genomic profiling of fungal cell wall-interfering compounds: identification of a common gene signature
Conclusions: This work provides a global perspective about the mechanisms involved in cell wall stress adaptive responses and the cellular functions required for cell wall integrity. The results may be useful to uncover new potential antifungal targets and develop efficient antifungal strategies by combination of two drugs, one targeting the cell wall and the other interfering with the adaptive mechanisms. (Source: BMC Genomics)
Source: BMC Genomics - September 5, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Raúl GarcíaJavier BotetJosé Rodríguez-PeñaClara BermejoJuan RibasJosé RevueltaCésar NombelaJavier Arroyo Source Type: research

Current Pharmacological Treatment of Pulmonary Aspergillosis
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a severe condition with high mortality rates that typically occurs among immunocompromised patients, mostly those affected by hematological malignancies. In the past few years, an increasing number of cases have been reported among patients without classic risk factors. Although the current guidelines report voriconazole as the first-line therapy for IA, the increase in the rates of Aspergillus fumigatus resistant to azoles represents an emerging problem and requires the introduction of new therapeutic options. For these reasons, alternative antifungal therapies may be used in selected scenar...
Source: Clinical Pulmonary Medicine - August 31, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Respiratory Infections Source Type: research

Disseminated mucormycosis in a paediatric patient: Lictheimia corymbifera successfully treated with combination antifungal therapy
Publication date: October–December 2014 Source:Medical Mycology Case Reports, Volume 6 Author(s): Anita Campbell, Celia Cooper, Stephen Davis Mucormycosis is a severe fungal infection that largely affects immunocompromised individuals. It carries a high morbidity and mortality rate and is characterised by extensive angioinvasion and necrosis of host tissue. This case report details success in treating disseminated mucormycosis in a paediatric patient with an underlying haematological malignancy. Treatment included institution of combination antifungal therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin, aggres...
Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports - August 29, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

MICs to the echinocandins are elevated but -mediated resistance is rare
MIC values were generated for caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin against 106 isolates of C. lusitaniae and these values were compared to established epidemiologic cutoff values. The majority of isolates were wild type both by MIC value as well as by FKS1 hotspot sequencing. Although C. lusitaniae isolates have MIC values to the echinocandins that are elevated compared to other common species, with regards to known mechanisms of resistance to the echinocandins, isolates with MIC values at or below the ECVs of 0.5 and 1 μg/mL for micafungin and anidulafungin, respectively, should be considered wild type. (Source: D...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - August 26, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shawn R. Lockhart, Cau D. Pham, Randall J. Kuykendall, Carol B. Bolden, Angela A. Cleveland Source Type: research

Trichosporon inkin biofilms produce extracellular proteases and exhibit resistance to antifungals.
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine experimental conditions for in vitro biofilm formation of clinical isolates of T. inkin - an important opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Biofilms were formed in microtiter plates in three different media (RPMI, Sabouraud and Cled), with inocula of 104, 105 or 106 cells/mL, at pH 5.5 and 7.0, at 35°C and 28°C, under static and shaking conditions for 72 h. Growth kinetics of biofilms were evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. Biofilm milieu analysis were assessed by counting viable cells and quantification of nucleic acids released into biofilm s...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 25, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cordeiro RA, Serpa R, Alexandre CF, Marques FJ, de Melo CV, Franco JD, Evangelista AJ, de Camargo ZP, Brilhante RS, Rocha MF, Moreira JL, Bandeira TJ, Sidrim JJ Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Candida albicans bloodstream isolates in a German university hospital are genetically heterogenous and susceptible to commonly used antifungals.
In this study, all strains were analyzed using molecular and phenotypic typing methods. Confirmatory species identification revealed three isolates that were initially diagnosed as C. albicans to be actually C. dubliniensis. Two isolates contained a mixed culture of C. albicans and C. glabrata, in one of the specimens both species could be separated while it was not possible to recover C. albicans in the other sample. The remaining 95 C. albicans isolates were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phylogenetic analyses showed a highly heterogenous collection of strains, associated with many different clades and co...
Source: International Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 22, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huyke J, Martin R, Walther G, Weber M, Kaerger K, Bougnoux ME, Elias J, Kurzai O Tags: Int J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Next-generation sequencing offers new insights into the resistance of Candida spp. to echinocandins and azoles
Conclusions This study shows that NGS can be used for extensive assessment of genetic mutations involved in antifungal resistance. This type of wide genome approach will become very valuable for detecting mechanisms of resistance in clinical strains subjected to multidrug pressure. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 17, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Garnaud, C., Botterel, F., Sertour, N., Bougnoux, M.-E., Dannaoui, E., Larrat, S., Hennequin, C., Guinea, J., Cornet, M., Maubon, D. Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato) isolated from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil: Species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and virulence attributes.
Abstract Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato), which represents a fungal complex composed of three genetically related species - Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, has emerged as an important yeast causing fungemia worldwide. The goal of the present work was to assess the prevalence, antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence traits in 53 clinical isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis (sensu lato) obtained from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil. Species forming this fungal complex are physiologically/morphologically indistinguishable; ...
Source: International Journal of Medical Microbiology - August 14, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ziccardi M, Souza LO, Gandra RM, Galdino AC, Baptista AR, Nunes AP, Ribeiro MA, Branquinha MH, Santos AL Tags: Int J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Rare severe mycotic infections in children receiving empirical caspofungin treatment for febrile neutropenia
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2015 Source:The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases Author(s): Deniz Yilmaz Karapinar, Nihal Karadaş, Zühal Önder Siviş, Pinar Yazici, Muhterem Duyu, Dilek Metin, Bülent Karapinar, Yeşim Aydinok Empirical antifungal therapy is most often given to patients with leukemia. However breakthrough fungal infections under antifungal therapy are not uncommon. Four children, with hematologic malignant disease developed mycotic breakthrough infections while on empirical caspofungin treatment for a median of 14 (range 11–19) days. Trichosporon asahii w...
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influence of echinocandin administration on hemodynamic parameters in medical intensive care unit patients: a single center prospective study
The objective of this study is to analyze the hemodynamic changes during adminstration of the echinocandin antifungals, caspofungin and anidulafungin, in medical intensive care unit patients. Methods A prospective study in medical ICU patients receiving echinocandins was monitored using single-indicator transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD). TPTD measurements were performed immediately before, directly after, and 4 h after echinocandins on two following days. Results Mean arterial pressure and also diastolic blood pressure showed significant changes (p 
Source: Infection - August 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Rare severe mycotic infections in children receiving empirical caspofungin treatment for febrile neutropenia.
k Y Abstract Empirical antifungal therapy is most often given to patients with leukemia. However breakthrough fungal infections under antifungal therapy are not uncommon. Four children, with hematologic malignant disease developed mycotic breakthrough infections while on empirical caspofungin treatment for a median of 14 (range 11-19) days. Trichosporon asahii was detected in the blood culture of two patients and Geotrichum capitatum in the other two (one patient also had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture). Because the patients' clinical situation worsened, voriconazole was empirically added for two patients th...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - August 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yilmaz Karapinar D, Karadaş N, Önder Siviş Z, Yazici P, Duyu M, Metin D, Karapinar B, Aydinok Y Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

In Vitro Activity of Eight Antifungal Drugs Against a Global Collection of Genotyped Isolates of Exserohilum.
Abstract In vitro susceptibilities of 24 worldwide Exserohilum isolates belonging to 10 species from human and environmental sources were determined for eight antifungal drugs. Strains were characterized by ITS sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprinting. Posaconazole had the lowest geometric mean MIC (0.16 μg/ml) followed by micafungin (0.21 μg/ml), amphotericin B (0.24 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.33 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.8 μg/ml), caspofungin (1.05 μg/ml), isavuconazole (1.38 μg/ml) and fluconazole (15.6 μg/ml). PMID: 26239995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 3, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chowdhary A, Hagen F, Curfs-Breuker I, Madrid H, de Hoog GS, Meis JF Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Brain Abscesses Due to Aspergillus nidulans Infection During Induction Chemotherapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
We present the case of a 3-year-old boy who was diagnosed with cerebral abscesses due to Aspergillus nidulans infection on day 28 of induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. He responded well to treatment with voriconazole and caspofungin, making a full recovery. There are very few cases of invasive aspergillosis reported in children during induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia and A. nidulans is rare in the absence of chronic granulomatous disease. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - July 18, 2015 Category: Hematology Tags: Online Articles: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research

The ever-evolving landscape of candidaemia in patients with acute leukaemia: non-susceptibility to caspofungin and multidrug resistance are associated with increased mortality
Objectives The epidemiology and clinical course of candidaemia in patients with acute leukaemia, a population frequently exposed to antifungals, have not been extensively studied. In the present contemporary series of acute leukaemia patients, we describe patient characteristics, Candida species and MIC distributions and investigate the association between antifungal resistance and all-cause mortality. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records and microbiological data of adult patients with acute leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome with at least one positive blood culture for Candida speci...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang, E., Farmakiotis, D., Yang, D., McCue, D. A., Kantarjian, H. M., Kontoyiannis, D. P., Mathisen, M. S. Tags: Original research Source Type: research

Caspofungin treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus results in ChsG-dependent upregulation of chitin synthesis and the formation of chitin-rich micro-colonies.
Abstract Treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus with echinocandins such as caspofungin inhibits the synthesis of cell wall β,1-3 glucan which triggers a compensatory stimulation of chitin synthesis. Activation of chitin synthesis can occur in response to sub-MIC concentrations of caspofungin and to CaCl2 and CFW, agonists of the PKC and Ca(2+)-calcineurin signalling pathways. The response of a range of ΔAfchs (chitin synthase) mutants to these agonists was tested to determine the chitin synthase enzymes that were required for the compensatory up-regulation of chitin synthesis. Only the ΔAfchsG mutant ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Walker LA, Lee KK, Munro CA, Gow NA Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Saprochaete capitata as an emerging fungus among patients with haematological malignencies
Summary Saprochaete capitata is a very rare pathogen that causes invasive disease particularly in patients with haematological malignancies. We recognised a clustering of S. capitata fungaemia in recent years. So, we report our 6‐year surveillance study of fungaemia among patients with haematological malignancies and haematopoietic stem cell transplant. We performed a retrospective and observational study. Hospitalised patients aged>18 years with haematological malignancies were included in the study. A total of 51 fungaemia episodes of 47 patients were analysed. The characteristics of fungaemia in patients ...
Source: Mycoses - July 7, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Aysegul Ulu‐Kilic, Mustafa Altay Atalay, Gökhan Metan, Fatma Cevahir, Nedret Koç, Bülent Eser, Mustafa Çetin, Leyla Kaynar, Emine Alp Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of a novel family of selective antifungal compounds (CANBEFs) which interfere with fungal protein synthesis.
Abstract Invasive mycotic infections have become more common during the last decades, posing an increasing threat to public health. However, despite the growing needs, treatments for invasive fungal infections remain unsatisfactory and are limited to a small number of antifungals. The aim of this study was to identify novel fungal cell-wall inhibitors from a library of small chemical compounds using a conditional protein kinase C (PKC) - expressing strain of Aspergillus nidulans sensitive to cell-wall-active agents. Eight 'hit' compounds affecting cell-wall integrity were identified from a screen of 35,000 small c...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 6, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mircus G, Albert N, Ben Yaakov D, Chikvashvili D, Shadkchan Y, Kontoyiannis DP, Osherov N Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Candida Surveillance in Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) in a Tertiary Institution
Conclusions: Despite that positive BDG is common in surgical patients with Candida spp colonization, BDG performed the best when compared to CI and CS. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - July 3, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yi LiewJocelyn TeoIrene TooCecilia NganAi TanMaciej ChlebickiAndrea KwaWinnie Lee Source Type: research

First recovery of Rasamsonia argillacea species complex isolated in adolescent patient with cystic fibrosis in Slovenia – case report and review of literature
We report the isolation of the emerging fungal pathogen Rasamsonia aegroticola, which belongs Rasamsonia argillacea species complex, from a respiratory sample of a patient with cystic fibrosis. This filamentous fungus, resembling members of a Penicillium and Paecilomyces spp., was identified by morphology and confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. Susceptibility pattern showed high minimal inhibitory concentration of voriconazole and amphotericin B but low minimal inhibitory concentration of caspofungin, micafungin and itraconazole. (Source: Mycoses)
Source: Mycoses - June 9, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Tadeja Matos, Tjaša Cerar, Marina Praprotnik, Uroš Krivec, Mateja Pirš Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Cardiac response to centrally administered echinocandin antifungals
Abstract ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the echinocandin antifungals on the cardiac system, including cardiac output, blood pressure and heart rate, when administered in an in‐vivo model. MethodsThe echinocandin antifungals were administered via central line to male Sprague–Dawley rats. Cardiac imaging and functional measurements were made using a high‐resolution in‐vivo imaging system. Statistical comparisons of the experimental antifungals versus saline control were made using a Student's t‐test. Key findingsIn cardiac output (CO) measurements, caspofungin was associated ...
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - June 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kayla R. Stover, John D. Cleary Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Calcium-Mediated Induction of Paradoxical Growth Following Caspofungin Treatment is Associated with Calcineurin Activation and Phosphorylation in Aspergillus fumigatus.
ch WJ Abstract The echinocandin antifungal drug caspofungin at high concentrations reverses the growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus, a phenomenon known as the "paradoxical effect", which is not consistently observed with other echinocandins (micafungin and anidulafungin). Previous studies on A. fumigatus revealed the loss of the paradoxical effect following pharmacological or genetic inhibition of calcineurin, yet the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we utilized a codon-optimized bioluminescent Ca(2+)-reporter aequorin expression system in A. fumigatus and show that caspofungin elic...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - June 8, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Juvvadi PR, Muñoz A, Lamoth F, Soderblom EJ, Moseley MA, Read ND, Steinbach WJ Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Hitting the caspofungin salvage pathway of human-pathogenic fungi with the novel lasso peptide humidimycin (MDN-0010).
ud O, Brakhage AA Abstract Fungal infections have increased dramatically in the last two decades and fighting infectious diseases require innovative approaches such as the combination of two drugs acting on different targets, or even target a salvage pathway of one of the drugs. The fungal cell wall biosynthesis is inhibited by the clinically used antifungal drug caspofungin. This antifungal activity has been found to be potentiated by humidimycin, a new natural product identified from the screening of a collection of 20,000 microbial extracts and with no major effect when used alone. The analysis of transcriptome...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - June 8, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Valiante V, Monteiro MC, Martín J, Altwasser R, El Aouad N, González I, Kniemeyer O, Mellado E, Palomo S, de Pedro N, Pérez-Victoria I, Tormo JR, Vicente F, Reyes F, Genilloud O, Brakhage AA Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research