Prevalence and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis Species Complex in Eastern China: A 15-Year Retrospective Study by ECIFIG
Candida parapsilosis complex is one of the most common non-albicans Candida species that cause candidemia, especially invasive candidiasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of both colonized and invasive clinical C. parapsilosis complex isolates to 10 drugs: amphotericin (AMB), anidulafungin (AFG), caspofungin (CAS), micafungin (MFG), fluconazole (FLZ), voriconazole (VRZ), itraconazole (ITZ), posaconazole (POZ), 5-flucytosine (FCY), and isaconazole (ISA). In total, 884 C. parapsilosis species complex isolates were gathered between January 2005 and December 2020. C. parapsilosis, Can...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - March 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

[A Rare Yeast: Cases of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa Infection Followed Up in a Tertiary University Hospital].
Authors: Ayaz ÇM, Gülmez D, Arıkan Akdağlı S, Uzun Ö Abstract Rhodotorula species are yeasts that are common in the environment,but are not frequently encountered as an infectious agent in humans. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodotorula minuta are the species that cause disease in humans. Although its isolation from mucosa is doubtful in terms of the presence of true infection, it is more frequently encountered in daily practice due to the increasing number of invasive procedures, immune system deficiencies caused by immunosuppressive drugs and diseases. R.mucilaginosa gro...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - February 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of Caspofungin-Induced Responses in Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Candida albicans
This study investigated the signature profiles of C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilms in response to caspofungin (CAS) by mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics. We found that C. albicans biofilms were twofold more resistant to CAS with reference to planktonic cells. Notably, 9.6% of C. albicans biofilm cells survived the lethal treatment of CAS (128 μg/ml), confirmed by LIVE/DEAD staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The responses of C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilms to CAS treatment at respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were as...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - February 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Liver abscess caused by Candida haemulonii var. vulnera. First case report in Peru
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Peru of a liver abscess due to Candida haemulonii var. vulnera, a clinical presentation that has not been described previously. This finding should prompt us to establish active surveillance of causal agents of systemic candidiasis.PMID:33593708 | DOI:10.1016/j.riam.2020.12.001 (Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia)
Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia - February 17, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Giancarlo P érez-Lazo Adriana Morales-Moreno Fernando Soto-Febres Jos é A Hidalgo Edgar Neyra Beatriz Bustamante Source Type: research

Identification of Candida glabrata Transcriptional Regulators That Govern Stress Resistance and Virulence [Fungal and Parasitic Infections]
The mechanisms by which Candida glabrata resists host defense peptides and caspofungin are incompletely understood. To identify transcriptional regulators that enable C. glabrata to withstand these classes of stressors, a library of 215 C. glabrata transcriptional regulatory deletion mutants was screened for susceptibility to both protamine and caspofungin. We identified eight mutants that had increased susceptibility to both host defense peptides and caspofungin. Of these mutants, six were deleted for genes that were predicted to specify proteins involved in histone modification. These genes were ADA2, GCN5, SPT8, HOS2, R...
Source: Infection and Immunity - February 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Filler, E. E., Liu, Y., Solis, N. V., Wang, L., Diaz, L. F., Edwards, J. E., Filler, S. G., Yeaman, M. R. Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Infections Source Type: research

Liver abscess caused by Candida haemulonii var. vulnera. First case report in Peru.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Peru of a liver abscess due to Candida haemulonii var. vulnera, a clinical presentation that has not been described previously. This finding should prompt us to establish active surveillance of causal agents of systemic candidiasis. PMID: 33593708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia)
Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia - February 13, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Pérez-Lazo G, Morales-Moreno A, Soto-Febres F, Hidalgo JA, Neyra E, Bustamante B Tags: Rev Iberoam Micol Source Type: research

Fixed Cutaneous Sporotrichosis Due to Sporothrix globosa.
Conclusion: Itraconazole was an effective treatment in this case of a multidrug-resistant sporotrichosis caused by S. globosa. PMID: 33531824 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology)
Source: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology - February 4, 2021 Category: Dermatology Tags: Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol Source Type: research

Comparative pharmacodynamics of echinocandins against Aspergillus fumigatus using an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model that correlates with clinical response to caspofungin therapy: Is there a place for dose optimization?
Abstract Background. Echinocandins have been used as primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis (IA) with sub-optimal results at standard dosing. We explored the efficacy of dose escalation in a validated in vitro PK/PD modelMethods. Six echinocandin WT and three non-WT A. fumigatus isolates were tested in the in vitro PK/PD model simulating anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin exposures with fCmax 0.01-16 mg/L and t1/2=8-22h. The relationship between the fAUC0-24/MEC and % aberrant mycelia formation was analyzed. PK/PD indices associated with 50-99.99% maximal activity (EI50-EI99.99) were correlated with the ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - January 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Siopi M, Perlin DS, Arendrup MC, Pournaras S, Meletiadis J Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Mangiferin enhances the antifungal activities of caspofungin by destroying polyamine accumulation
Volume 12, Issue 1, December 2021, Page 217-230 . (Source: Virulence)
Source: Virulence - January 6, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Juan Shen RenYi Lu Qing Cai LingZhi Fan WanNian Yan ZhenYu Zhu LianJuan Yang YingYing Cao Source Type: research

Fungal profile and antifungal susceptibility pattern of candidiasis in esophageal cancer patients
Conclusion: The present study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant, nonalbicans Candida isolates in cancer esophagus patients with candidiasis in northeast India. (Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics)
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics - December 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Abhijit Talukdar Rashmisnata Barman Anupam Sarma Manigreeva Krishnatreya Jagannath Dev Sharma Amal Chandra Kataki Source Type: research

Aspirin and verapamil increase the sensitivity of Candida albicans to caspofungin under planktonic and biofilm conditions
Publication date: March 2021Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 24Author(s): Wenli Feng, Jing Yang, Yan Ma, Zhiqin Xi, Qiao Ren, Shaoyan Wang, Huan Ning (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - December 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Caspofungin and Polymyxin B Reduce the Cell Viability and Total Biomass of Mixed Biofilms of Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp.
This study aimed to evaluate the antibiofilm activity of echinocandins and polymyxin B (PMB) against polymicrobial biofilms of carbapenem-resistant (CR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata). In addition, we tested the antimicrobial effect on their planktonic and monomicrobial biofilm counterparties. Interestingly, beyond inhibition of planktonic [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 0.5 μg/ml] and biofilm [minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC)50 ≤ 2–8 μg/ml] growth of P. aeruginosa, PMB was also effective against planktonic cells...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - December 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Is caspofungin efficient to treat invasive candidiasis requiring continuous veno-venous hemofiltration? A case report.
ud FJ PMID: 33423788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Therapie)
Source: Therapie - December 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Raphalen JH, Marçais A, Parize P, Pilmis B, Lillo-Lelouet A, Lamhaut L, Baud FJ Tags: Therapie Source Type: research

Echinocandins: structural diversity, biosynthesis, and development of antimycotics.
l W Abstract Echinocandins are a clinically important class of non-ribosomal antifungal lipopeptides produced by filamentous fungi. Due to their complex structure, which is characterized by numerous hydroxylated non-proteinogenic amino acids, echinocandin antifungal agents are manufactured semisynthetically. The development of optimized echinocandin structures is therefore closely connected to their biosynthesis. Enormous efforts in industrial research and development including fermentation, classical mutagenesis, isotope labeling, and chemical synthesis eventually led to the development of the active ingredients ...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - December 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hüttel W Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Effect of antifungal agents, lysozyme and human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 on clinical Candida isolates with high biofilm production.
Conclusions. We found that fluconazole plus caspofungin led to a synergistic effect against C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis biofilms. The efficacy of the antifungal combination therapies of the proposed schemes against biofilm-associated Candida infections requires careful and constant evaluation. PMID: 33252326 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen YC, Chen FJ, Lee CH Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Fungal endocarditis with heart valve replacement and atrial fibrillation posing a treatment challenge: A case report
We report a case of rheumatic heart disease with atrial fibrillation who developed FE following prosthetic heart valve replacement. The international normalized ratio (INR) increased significantly during the antifungal treatment with fluconazole. A discussion of the antifungal strategy in FE patients with prosthetic heart valves and/or atrial fibrillation and the interaction between antifungal agents and warfarin was performed. Patient concerns: A 54-year-old Chinese woman experienced intermittent fevers, aphemia, and weakness in her right extremities. Her temperature was 38.7°C, and there was atrial fibrillatio...
Source: Medicine - November 25, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Aspirin or verapamil increased the sensitivity of Candida albicans to caspofungin under planktonic and biofilm conditions
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Wenli Feng, Jing Yang, Yan Ma, Zhiqin Xi, Qiao Ren, Shaoyan Wang, Huan Ning (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - November 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Efg1 and Cas5 Orchestrate Cell Wall Damage Response to Caspofungin in Candida albicans.
Abstract Echinocandins are recommended as the first-line drugs for the treatment of systemic candidiasis. Cas5 is a key transcription factor involved in the response to cell wall damage induced by echinocandins. Here, through a genetic screen, we report the identification of a second transcription factor Efg1 that is also crucial for proper transcriptional responses to echinocandins. Like CAS5, deletion of EFG1 confers hypersensitivity to caspofungin. Efg1 is required for the induction of CAS5 in response to caspofungin. However, ectopically expressed CAS5 cannot rescue the growth defect of efg1 mutant in caspofun...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - November 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiong K, Su C, Sun Q, Lu Y Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activity of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles against multidrug-resistant microbes isolated from cancer patients with bacteraemia and candidaemia
Conclusion: The present study revealed a significant distribution of multidrug-resistant microbes, which may increase the burden of healthcare to prevent infections in cancer patients. Biosilver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant microbes and could be considered as effective agents against these strains. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - November 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gamal Mohamed El-Sherbiny Mohamed Kasem Lila Yousseria Mohamed Shetaia Marwa M F. Elswify Samar Samer Mohamed Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 25, Pages 5114: Synergistic Antifungal Activity of Chitosan with Fluconazole against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Fluconazole-Resistant Strains
Conclusions: These findings provide strong evidence that chitosan in combination with fluconazole is a promising therapy against two Candida species and its drug-resistant strains. (Source: Molecules)
Source: Molecules - November 3, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Lo Deng Chang Lin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Antifungal Efficacy of Amphotericin B in Candida Albicans Endocarditis Therapy: Systematic Review
Conclusion: Literature lacks evidence to conclude about efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in the treatment of fungal endocarditis. Randomized clinical trials are necessary to provide better evidence on the subject. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular - October 23, 2020 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic Drug-drug Interaction of Antibiotics Used in Sepsis Care in China.
CONCLUSION: Antibiotic-perpetrated drug interactions, involving P450 enzyme inhibition, have been reported for four lipophilic antibacterials (ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and three lipophilic antifungals (fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole). In addition, seven hydrophilic antibacterials (ceftriaxone, cefamandole, piperacillin, penicillin G, amikacin, metronidazole, and linezolid) inhibit drug transporters in vitro. Despite no reported clinical PK drug interactions with the transporters, caution is advised in the use of these antibacterials. Eight hydrophilic antiba...
Source: Current Drug Metabolism - September 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yu X, Chu Z, Li J, He R, Wang Y, Cheng C Tags: Curr Drug Metab Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Intravenous and Inhaled Caspofungin
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery - September 23, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Iching G. Yu Sean E. O'Brien David M. Ryckman Source Type: research

First case of Candida auris isolated from the bloodstream of a Mexican patient with serious gastrointestinal complications from severe endometriosis
AbstractA 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with severe endometriosis and had multiple gastrointestinal tract complications for many years.Candida auris andC. parapsilosis were isolated from the bloodstream. Identification ofC. auris was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the internal transcriber spacer and the D1/D2 domain of the large rRNA gene subunit. Antifungal susceptibility was tested in both isolates using the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute protocol M27-A3/S4. The patient evolved favorably with systemic antifungal therapy consisting of caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - September 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Impact of loading dose of caspofungin in PK/PD target attainment for severe candidiasis infections in ICU patients - the CASPOLOAD study.
CONCLUSION: A high loading dose of CAS (140mg) increased CAS exposure in the first 24 hours of therapy allowing early achievement of PK-PD targets for most Candida strains. Such strategy seems to improve treatment efficacy, even if further researches are needed to assess its impact on clinical outcomes. PMID: 32958709 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - September 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bailly S, Gautier-Veyret E, Lê MP, Bouadma L, Andremont O, Neuville M, Mourvillier B, Sonneville R, Magalhaes E, Lebut J, Radjou A, Smonig R, Wolff M, Massias L, Dupuis C, Timsit JF Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Conversion ratio of tacrolimus switching from intravenous infusion to oral administration after lung transplantation.
Authors: Yang C, Xi Y, Chen WY, Sang L, Liu DD, Zhang R, Chen SB, Zhang J, Pan JY, Xv YH, Nong LB, Li YM, Liu XQ Abstract Background: To investigate the conversion ratio of tacrolimus switching from intravenous infusion to oral administration in patients after lung transplantation. Methods: We retrospectively recruited patients received lung transplantation in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical Hospital from January 2015 to June 2019. The blood concentration of tacrolimus administrated through intravenous infusion and oral administration were collected. The blood concentration, concentration/dos...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - September 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of Two Commercial Broth Microdilution Methods Using Different Interpretive Criteria for the Detection of Molecular Mechanisms of Acquired Azole and Echinocandin Resistance in Four Common Candida Species.
Abstract The abilities of the new Vitek 2 AST-YS08 (YS08) and Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) systems to detect resistances of Candida isolates to azoles and echinocandins were evaluated. In total, 292 isolates including 28 Candida albicans (6 Erg11 and 2 Fks mutants), 57 Candida parapsilosis (26 Erg11 mutants), 24 Candida tropicalis (10 Erg11 and 1 Fks mutants), and 183 Candida glabrata (39 Pdr1 and 13 Fks mutants) isolates were tested. Categorical agreements (CAs) between Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and YS08 fluconazole MICs using clinical breakpoints were 92.4% (C. albicans), 96.5% (C. parapsil...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - September 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lim HJ, Shin JH, Kim MN, Yong D, Byun SA, Choi MJ, Lee SY, Won EJ, Kee SJ, Kim SH, Shin MG Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of micafungin in empiric and D-index-guided early antifungal therapy for febrile neutropenia; A subgroup analysis of the CEDMIC trial
Micafungin has been widely used as empiric or preemptive antifungal therapy during neutropenia in Japan (Kimura et al., 2020). This is partly because micafungin was the only available echinocandin agent until caspofungin was launched in 2012. Previous randomized controlled trials and prospective single-arm studies showed that the use of micafungin in empiric antifungal therapy offered comparable efficacy and better safety compared with other classes of mold active agents (Jeong et al., 2016, Oyake et al., 2016, Park et al., 2010, Tamura et al., 2009, Yamaguchi et al., 2011, Yoshida et al., 2012). (Source: International Jou...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shun-ichi Kimura, Yoshinobu Kanda, Masaki Iino, Takahiro Fukuda, Emiko Sakaida, Tatsuo Oyake, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Shin-ichiro Fujiwara, Yumi Jo, Akinao Okamoto, Hiroyuki Fujita, Yasushi Takamatsu, Yoshio Saburi, Itaru Matsumura, Jun Yamanouchi, Souichi Shir Source Type: research

Transcriptional regulation of the caspofungin-induced cell wall damage response in Candida albicans.
Abstract The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans maintains pathogenic and commensal states primarily through cell wall functions. The echinocandin antifungal drug caspofungin inhibits cell wall synthesis and is widely used in treating disseminated candidiasis. Signaling pathways are critical in coordinating the adaptive response to cell wall damage (CWD). C. albicans executes a robust transcriptional program following caspofungin-induced CWD. A comprehensive analysis of signaling pathways at the transcriptional level facilitates the identification of prospective genes for functional characterization and propels...
Source: Current Genetics - September 1, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Heredia MY, Gunasekaran D, Ikeh MAC, Nobile CJ, Rauceo JM Tags: Curr Genet Source Type: research

Caspofungin Effects on Electrocardiogram of Mice: An Evaluation of Cardiac Safety.
atilde;es A Abstract Caspofungin is an echinocandin, exhibiting efficacy against most Candida species invasive infection. Its cardiotoxicity was reported in isolated rat heart and ventricular myocytes, but in vivo and clinical studies are insufficient. Our objective was to evaluate caspofungin in vivo cardiac effects using an efficacious dose against Candida albicans. Female Swiss mice were infected with C. albicans, and treated with caspofungin, 5 or 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal along 5 days. Survival rate and colony-forming units (CFU) into vital organs were determined. For cardiac effects study...
Source: Cardiovascular Toxicology - August 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: De Paula DCC, Leite EA, Araujo CM, Branquinho RT, Guimarães HN, Grabe-Guimarães A Tags: Cardiovasc Toxicol Source Type: research

Sodium New Houttuyfonate Inhibits Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by Inhibiting the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 Pathway Revealed by RNA-seq
Here, we aim to investigate the antifungal effect and mechanism of action of sodium new houttuyfonate (SNH) against Candida albicans. Microdilution analysis results showed that SNH possesses potent inhibitory activity against C. albicans SC5314, with a MIC80 of 256 μg/mL. Furthermore, we found that SNH can effectively inhibit the initial adhesion of C. albicans. Inverted microscopy, crystal violet staining, scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy results showed that morphological changes during the transition from yeast to hypha and the biofilm formation of C. albicans are repressed by SNH tr...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - August 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Repurposing Drugs for COVID-19: An Approach for Treatment in the Pandemic.
Conclusions: Although current results are promising, limitations to drug repurposing, such as a low success rate and the possibility of adverse events, can't be overlooked. With continuous research and technical advancements, repurposing will no doubt provide a notable scientific contribution to innovation in drug development and pharmacotherapy practice for the treatment of new diseases or existing diseases in a new way. PMID: 32827400 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine)
Source: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine - August 19, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Khadka S, Yuchi A, Shrestha DB, Budhathoki P, Al-Subari SMM, Ziad Alhouzani TM, Anwar Butt I Tags: Altern Ther Health Med Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetics of caspofungin among extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients during the postoperative period of lung transplantation(LTx).
Conclusion:ECMO did not have a significant impact on the PK of caspofungin in patients after LTx. Some factors were identified as statistically significant covariates related to the PK of caspofungin ; however, their impact on clinical practice of caspofungin needs to be investigated further in more studies. PMID: 32816724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Q, Zhang Z, Liu D, Chen W, Cui G, Li P, Zhang X, Li M, Zhan Q, Wang C Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Fungal Keratitis Caused by Candida orthopsilosis Successfully Treated with Caspofungin.
Authors: Kim TH, Jun I, Lee HK, Seo KY, Kim TI, Kim EK PMID: 32783428 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology : KJO)
Source: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology : KJO - August 14, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Korean J Ophthalmol Source Type: research

Micellization of coenzyme Q by the fungicide caspofungin allows for safe intravenous administration to reach extreme supraphysiological concentrations
Publication date: Available online 7 August 2020Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Ying Wang, Siegfried Hekimi (Source: Redox Biology)
Source: Redox Biology - August 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Unexpected cell wall alteration-mediated bactericidal activity of the antifungal caspofungin against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.
oir V Abstract Enterococcus faecium has become a major opportunistic pathogen with the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). As part of the gut microbiota, they have to cope with numerous stresses including effects of antibiotics and other xenobiotics, especially in patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) who receive many medications. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the most prescribed xenobiotics for ICU patients on fitness, pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance of the vanB-positive E. faecium Aus0004 reference strain. Several phenotypic analyses were carrie...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - August 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Isnard C, Hernandez SB, Guérin F, Joalland F, Goux D, Gravey F, Auzou M, Enot D, Meignen P, Giard JC, Cava F, Cattoir V Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Clinical and Microbiological Characterization of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Caused by Aspergillus lentulus in China
In this study, we investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 6 fatal cases of proven or probable IA caused by A. lentulus in China. Underlying immunosuppression, prior antifungal exposure, and intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization were important risk factors for invasive A. lentulus infection. Phenotypic differences were observed for A. lentulus isolates including slower growth, reduced sporulation, and inability to grow at 48°C, compared with Aspergillus fumigatus complex. ITS sequencing was unable to distinguish A. lentulus from A. fumigatus, but sequencing of the benA, CaM, and rod A loci e...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of the Antifungal Metabolite Chaetoglobosin P From Discosia rubi Using a Cryptococcus neoformans Inhibition Assay: Insights Into Mode of Action and Biosynthesis
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human pathogen with limited options for treatments. We have interrogated extracts from fungal fermentations to find Cryptococcus-inhibiting natural products using assays for growth inhibition, differential thermosensitivity, and synergy with existing antifungal drugs. Extracts from fermentations of strains of Discosia rubi from eastern Texas showed anticryptococcal bioactivity with preferential activity in agar zone of inhibition assays against C. neoformans at 37°C versus 25°C. Assay-guided fractionation led to the purification and identification of chaetoglobosin P as the a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative pharmacokinetics of the three echinocandins in ICU patients
ConclusionsAnidulafungin exposure in ICU patients was comparable with that reported in non-ICU patients and in healthy volunteers. Micafungin exposure was comparable to that of other patients but ∼30% lower than that in healthy volunteers, whereas caspofungin exposure was rather low (∼50% lower than in healthy volunteers). Larger interindividual variability (50%–60%) was recorded in ICU patients compared with other groups for all three echinocandins. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Caspofungin suppresses zymosan-induced cytokine and chemokine release in THP-1 cells: Possible involvement of the spleen tyrosine kinase pathway
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis are considered to contribute to hypercytokinemia in both patients with severe infection and immunocompromised condition. Past research has demonstrated that antibiotics and antifungals not only have antimicrobial efficacy but also affect the immune system. We previously examined whether immune cells were modulated by antibiotics such as tetracyclines or macrolides. The modulation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells by those agents was elucidated. (Source: Translational Research)
Source: Translational Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Kazuhiro Itoh, Hiroko Shigemi, Kazuyasu Chihara, Kiyonao Sada, Takahiro Yamauchi, Hiromichi Iwasaki Source Type: research

Caspofungin suppresses zymosan-induced cytokine and chemokine release in THP-1 cells: Possible involvement of the spleen tyrosine kinase pathway.
In this study, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and signaling pathways involved were investigated in zymosan-activated THP-1 cells. The effects were examined using antifungal agents such as echinocandin including caspofungin (CAS) and micafungin. Pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein phosphorylation was evaluated by western blot analysis. CAS significantly decreased zymosan-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release in THP-1 cells. CAS (30 µg/mL) also downregulated tumor necrosis factor alpha leve...
Source: Translational Research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine - July 16, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Itoh K, Shigemi H, Chihara K, Sada K, Yamauchi T, Iwasaki H Tags: Transl Res Source Type: research

Comparison of the Sensititre YeastOne antifungal method with the CLSI M27- A3 reference method to determine the activity of antifungal agents against clinical isolates of Candida spp.
CONCLUSIONS: The Sensititre YeastOne method was ready-to use so appeared to be easier and more efficient for Candida isolates. PMID: 32659879 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - July 16, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research

Caspofungin: a review of its characteristics, activity, and use in intensive care units.
In this study, characteristics of caspofungin and its using in intensive care unit (ICU) patients are reviewed based on an electronic search using pubmed and Google scholar. EXPERT OPINION: Caspofungin is a semisynthetic derivative from pneumocandin B and the first member of the echinocandins that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to fight fungal infection. Caspofungin inhibits the enzyme β(1,3)-D-glucan synthase of the fungal cell wall resulted in inhibition of the synthesis of β(1,3)-D-glucan. Caspofungin tolerability is similar to fluconazole tolerability (but with fewer drug inte...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - July 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Aspergillus fumigatus Cyp51A and Cyp51B Proteins are Compensatory in Function and Localize Differentially in Response to Antifungals and Cell Wall Inhibitors.
In this study, we address two important aspects of the Cyp51 proteins, (i) characterizing their localization patterns under normal growth versus stress conditions, and (ii) determining how the proteins compensate for each other's absence and respond to azole treatment. Both Cyp51A and Cyp51B proteins were found to localize in distinct endoplasmic reticulum (ER) domains, including the perinuclear ER and the peripheral ER. Occasionally, the Cyp51 proteins concentrated in the peripheral ER network of tubules along the hyphal septa and at the hyphal tips. Exposure to voriconazole, caspofungin, and Congo red led to significant ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Roundtree MT, Juvvadi PR, Shwab EK, Cole DC, Steinbach WJ Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Caspofungin weight-based dosing supported by a population pharmacokinetic model in critically ill patients.
The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and to determine a dosing regimen for caspofungin in critically ill patients. Nine blood samples were drawn per one dosing occasion. Fifteen patients with (suspected) invasive candidasis had one dosing occasion and five had two dosing occasions measured on day 3 (±1) of treatment. Pmetrics was used for population pharmacokinetic modelling and probability of target attainment (PTA). A target 24-hour AUC value of 98 mg*h/L was used as an efficacy parameter. Secondarily the AUC/MIC targets of 450, 865 and 1185 were used to calculate PTAs for ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - July 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Märtson AG, van der Elst KCM, Veringa A, Zijlstra JG, Beishuizen A, van der Werf TS, Kosterink JGW, Neely M, Alffenaar JW Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

An expanded cell wall damage signaling network is comprised of the transcription factors Rlm1 and Sko1  in < i > Candida albicans < /i >
by Marienela Y. Heredia, M élanie A. C. Ikeh, Deepika Gunasekaran, Karen A. Conrad, Sviatlana Filimonava, Dawn H. Marotta, Clarissa J. Nobile, Jason M. Rauceo The human fungal pathogenCandida albicans is constantly exposed to environmental challenges impacting the cell wall. Signaling pathways coordinate stress adaptation and are essential for commensalism and virulence. The transcription factors Sko1, Cas5, and Rlm1 control the response to cell wall stress caused by the antifungal drug caspofungin. Here, we expand the Sko1 and Rlm1 transcriptional circuit and demonstrate that Rlm1 activates Sko1 cell wall stress s...
Source: PLoS Genetics - July 7, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Marienela Y. Heredia Source Type: research

Prevalence and Antifungal Susceptibility of Pathogenic Yeasts in China: A 10-Year Retrospective Study in a Teaching Hospital
In this study, although Candida albicans was the predominant single species, non-C. albicans species constituted>50% of isolates in 6 out of 10 years, and more rare species were present in the recent 5 years. The non-C. albicans species identified most frequently were Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata. The prevalence of fluconazole and voriconazole resistance in the C. parapsilosis sensu stricto population was
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - July 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Case Report: Beyond the Blood-retina Barrier: Intravitreal Caspofungin for Fungal Endophthalmitis
CONCLUSIONS In summary, intravitreal caspofungin was effective and well tolerated in both cases. Therefore, caspofungin seems to be a safe and effective intravitreal alternative to voriconazole and amphotericin B in fungal endophthalmitis. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - July 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Effects of caspofungin, tolcapone and other FDA-approved medications on MRSA susceptibility to vancomycin
Publication date: September 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 22Author(s): Jonah A. Moore, Michaela Meakin, Mikaela H. Earl, Tiffany M. Kummer, Jeremy P. McAleer, Timothy E. Long (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - June 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Antifungal Agents in Neonates and Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes current knowledge on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of various formulations of amphotericin B, triazoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole), and echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) in the pediatric population.Recent FindingsThe PD indices associated with in vivo outcome have been defined for all antifungal agents. PK parameters have been studied across all range of ages; however, data often originate from small patient series, particularly regarding neonates and young infants. Dose-exposure simulations in...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - June 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research