Combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy for melanoma brain metastases: a systematic review

Radiotherapy is a mainstay of efficient treatment of brain metastases from solid tumors. Immunotherapy has improved the survival of metastatic cancer patients across many tumor types. However, targeted therapy is a feasible alternative for patients unable to continue immunotherapy or with poor outcomes of immunotherapy. The combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy for the treatment of brain metastases has a strong theoretical underpinning, but data on the efficacy and safety of this combination is still limited. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane library database was conducted. Eleven studies were included for a total of 316 patients. Median OS was about 6.2–17.8 months from radiotherapy. Weighted survival and local control at 1 and 2 years were correlated (50.1 and 17.8%, 90.7 and 14.7% at 1 and 2 year, respectively). Radiotherapy given before or concurrently to targeted therapy provided the best effect on the outcome. For patients with brain metastases from cutaneous melanoma, the addition of concurrent targeted therapy to brain radiotherapy can increase survival and provide long-term control.
Source: Melanoma Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

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Neurooncol Adv. 2021 Nov 27;3(Suppl 5):v43-v51. doi: 10.1093/noajnl/vdab138. eCollection 2021 Nov.ABSTRACTBrain metastases from solid tumors are increasing in incidence, especially as outcomes of systemic therapies continue to extend patients' overall survival. The long-held notion that the brain is an immune sanctuary has now been largely refuted with increasing evidence that immunotherapy can induce durable responses in brain metastases. Single agent immune checkpoint inhibition with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 antibodies induces durable responses in 15%-20% in melanoma brain metastases as long as patients are asymptomatic a...
Source: Adv Data - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose of review Immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint blockade have revolutionized cancer treatment, but current approaches have failed to improve outcomes in glioblastoma and other brain tumours. T cell dysfunction has emerged as one of the major barriers for the development of central nervous system (CNS)-directed immunotherapy. Here, we explore the unique requirements that T cells must fulfil to ensure immune surveillance in the CNS, and we analyse T cell dysfunction in glioblastoma (GBM) through the prism of CNS-resident immune responses. Recent findings Using comprehensive and unbiased techniques such...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: NEOPLASMS: Edited by Antonio Omuro Source Type: research
RARITAN, N.J., November 4, 2021 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson announced today that more than 45 company-sponsored abstracts, including 11 oral presentations, plus more than 35 investigator-initiated studies will be featured at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition. ASH is taking place at the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta and virtually from December 11-14, 2021.“We are committed to advancing the science and treatment of hematologic malignancies and look forward to presenting the latest research from our robust portfolio and pipeline dur...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2021 Nov 12;(Forthcoming):arztebl.m2021.0332. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.m2021.0332. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Advances in systemic treatment and in brain imaging have led to a higher incidence of diagnosed brain metastases. In the treatment of brain metastases, stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery, systemic immunotherapy, and targeted drug therapy are important evidence-based options. In this review, we summarize the available evidence on the treatment of brain metastases of the three main types of cancer that give rise to them: non-small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and malignant me...
Source: Deutsches Arzteblatt International - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2021 Nov 1;111(3S):e562-e563. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.07.1522.ABSTRACTPURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Early concerns were raised about higher rates of radionecrosis (RN) with concurrent use of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for brain metastases (BM). We sought to clarify if this same concern translated to linear accelerator-based SRT for BM.MATERIALS/METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed cases of SRT delivered at a single institution for BM (2004-2019). In total, 251 patients and 723 courses of treatment were analyzed on a per-treatment basis for any grade RN. R...
Source: Ann Oncol - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Bovenschen Medulloblastoma (MB), a primary tumor of the central nervous system, is among the most prevalent pediatric neoplasms. The median age of diagnosis is six. Conventional therapies include surgical resection of the tumor with subsequent radiation and chemotherapy. However, these therapies often cause severe brain damage, and still, approximately 75% of pediatric patients relapse within a few years. Because the conventional therapies cause such severe damage, especially in the pediatric developing brain, there is an urgent need for better treatment strategies such as immunotherapy, which over the years has gaine...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
rzeff Nicolas Meyer Anouchka Modesto Metastatic melanoma patients are at high risk of brain metastases (BM). Although intracranial control is a prognostic factor for survival, impact of local (intracranial) treatment (LT), surgery and/or radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) in the era of novel therapies remains unknown. We evaluated BM incidence in melanoma patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) or anti-BRAF therapy and identified prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Clinical data and treatment patterns were retrospectively collected from all patients treated for newly diagnosed locall...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we used the UK Biobank (n = 440,185) to resolve previous ambiguities in the relationship between serum IGF-1 levels and clinical disease. We examined prospective associations of serum IGF-1 with mortality, dementia, vascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and cancer, finding two generalized patterns. First, IGF-1 interacts with age to modify risk in a manner consistent with antagonistic pleiotropy; younger individuals with high IGF-1 are protected from disease, while older individuals with high IGF-1 are at increased risk for incident disease or death. Second, the association between IGF-1 and risk ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This study aimed to determine the association between: (i) cognitive decline and bone loss; and (ii) clinically significant cognitive decline on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) over the first 5 years and subsequent fracture risk over the following 10 years. A total of 1741 women and 620 men aged ≥65 years from the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study were followed from 1997 to 2013. Over 95% of participants had normal cognition at baseline. After multivariable adjustment, cognitive decline was associated with bone loss in women but not men. Approximately 13% of participants ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that treatment with SRS and immunotherapy is associated with improved OS compared to immunotherapy alone for patients with melanoma or NSCLC metastatic to the brain.PMID:34236616 | DOI:10.1007/s12094-021-02675-w
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
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