The role of influenza A virus-induced hypercytokinemia

Crit Rev Microbiol. 2021 Aug 5:1-17. doi: 10.1080/1040841X.2021.1960482. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInfluenza viruses are one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in humans and their newly emerging and re-emerging virus strains are responsible for seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics, leading to a serious threat to global public health systems. The poor clinical outcome and pathogenesis during influenza virus infection in humans and animal models are often associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines production, which is also known as hypercytokinemia or "cytokine storm", that precedes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and often leads to death. Although we still do not fully understand the complex nature of cytokine storms, the use of immunomodulatory drugs is a promising approach for treating hypercytokinemia induced by an acute viral infection, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This review aims to discuss the immune responses and cytokine storm pathology induced by influenza virus infection and also summarize alternative experimental strategies for treating hypercytokinemia caused by influenza virus.PMID:34353210 | DOI:10.1080/1040841X.2021.1960482
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusions: The paper finds that it is not only the occurrence of an epidemic, captured by the epidemics dummy variable, but also the health consequences, captured by the number of deaths per 100,000 population, that have a significant effect on income inequality. This is especially the case when we incorporate COVID-19 in our analysis.Trial registration:Not Applicable.
Source: Health Economics Review - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
áková The number of obese adults and children is increasing worldwide, with obesity now being a global epidemic. Around 2.8 million people die annually from clinical overweight or obesity. Obesity is associated with numerous comorbid conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer, and even the development of severe disease after infection with viruses. Over the past twenty years, a number of new viruses has emerged and entered the human population. Moreover, influenza (H1N1)pdm09 virus and...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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Source: Browsing - Category: Databases & Libraries Tags: coronavirus COVID-19 Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, the levels of cytokines in COVID-19 were significantly correlated with the severity of the disease in the early stage, and serum cytokines could be used as warning indicators of the severity and progression of COVID-19. Early stratification of disease and intervention to reduce hypercytokinaemia may improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
             Basel, 24 November 2020 - Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for Xofluza ® (baloxavir marboxil) as a treatment to prevent influenza in people 12 years of age and older following contact with someone with influenza (known as post-exposure prophylaxis). Xofluza is the first single-dose influenza medicine approved for post-exposure prophylaxis.“With today’s approval, Xofluza is now available as the first single-dos...
Source: Roche Media News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Acta Virol. 2020;64(4):417-426. doi: 10.4149/av_2020_408.ABSTRACTAquatic birds are the main reservoir of influenza A viruses (IAVs). These viruses can infect humans repeatedly and cause acute respiratory disease with potential of spread in the form of epidemics. In addition, avian influenza viruses that overcome the interspecies barrier and adapt to humans can cause a world-wide pandemic with severe consequences to human health. Therefore, scientists are focused on the development of a "universal" vaccine with a broad protective efficacy, i.e. against different subtypes of influenza A viruses and not only against...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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