Roles of HSV-1 infection-induced microglial immune responses in CNS diseases: friends or foes?
Abstract Microglia, as brain-resident macrophages, are the first line of defense against brain invading pathogens. Further, their dysfunction has been recognized to be closely associated with mounting CNS diseases. Of note, chronic HSV-1 infection leads to the persistent activation of microglia, which elicit a comprehensive response by generating certain factors with neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. CNS infection with HSV-1 results in herpes simplex encephalitis and herpes simplex keratitis. Microglial immune response plays a crucial role in the development of these diseases. Moreover, HSV-1 infection is st...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - September 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Y, Jia J, Wang Y, Li F, Song X, Qin S, Wang Z, Kitazato K, Wang Y Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Otitis media pathogens - A life entrapped in biofilm communities.
Abstract Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear with great impact on children worldwide. The most common reported bacterial pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Over the last years, the role of biofilms formed by otopathogens that contribute to otitis media recurrence and chronicity has been established. An improved understanding of the properties of biofilms formed by these bacteria, which factors influence them, and how these affect the host inflammatory response is important for the development of novel strategies for the treatment...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Silva MD, Sillankorva S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Non-antibiotic microbial solutions for bovine mastitis - live biotherapeutics, bacteriophage, and phage lysins.
Abstract Bovine mastitis is a disease with a multi-etiological nature, defined as an inflammation of the udder. The main treatment for mastitis is the administration of antibiotics - usually directly to the udder. There is an urgent need for novel therapies to treat and prevent the disease, given the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistance and concomitant problems in the treatment of human and animal infections. We provide an overview of treatments for bovine mastitis, with emphasis on probiotics, bacteriocins, bacteriophages (phages), and phage endolysins. Probiotics have in recent years proved to be partic...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - August 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Angelopoulou A, Warda AK, Hill C, Ross RP Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Tick-borne encephalitis virus: molecular determinants of neuropathogenesis of an emerging pathogen.
Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis. The transmission cycle involves the virus, the Ixodes tick vector, and a vertebrate reservoir, such as small mammals (rodents, or shrews). Humans are accidentally involved in this transmission cycle. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been a growing public health problem in Europe and Asia over the past 30 years. The mechanisms involved in the development of TBE are very complex and likely multifactorial, involving both host and viral factors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current lite...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Velay A, Paz M, Cesbron M, Gantner P, Solis M, Soulier E, Argemi X, Martinot M, Hansmann Y, Fafi-Kremer S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Rewiring of transcriptional networks as a major event leading to the diversity of asexual multicellularity in fungi.
Abstract Complex multicellularity (CM) is characterized by the generation of three-dimensional structures that follow a genetically controlled program. CM emerged at least five times in evolution, one of them in fungi. There are two types of CM programs in fungi, leading, respectively, to the formation of sexual or asexual spores. Asexual spores foment the spread of mycoses, as they are the main vehicle for dispersion. In spite of this key dependence, there is great morphological diversity of asexual multicellular structures in fungi. To advance the understanding of the mechanisms that control initiation and progr...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Etxebeste O, Otamendi A, Garzia A, Espeso EA, Cortese MS Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Tackling drug resistance with efflux pump inhibitors: from bacteria to cancerous cells.
Abstract Drug resistance is a serious concern in a clinical setting jeopardizing treatment for both infectious agents and cancers alike. The wide-spread emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes from bacteria to cancerous cells necessitates the need to target resistance mechanisms and prevent the emergence of resistant mutants. Drug efflux seems to be one of the preferred approaches embraced by both microbial and mammalian cells alike, to thwart the action of chemotherapeutic agents thereby leading to a drug resistant phenotype. Relative to microbes, which predominantly employs proton motive force (PMF) p...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lowrence RC, Subramaniapillai SG, Ulaganathan V, Nagarajan S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Dribbling through the host defence: targeting the TLRs by pathogens.
Abstract The immune system is well-equipped with sensors that detect invading pathogens and dictate subsequent immune responses for clearing the infections. One such class of sensor is the toll-like receptor (TLR), that can sense diverse molecules of pathogen origin such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrate, DNA, RNA, and trigger suitable immune responses to prevent infections. However, successful pathogens have evolved strategies to bypass the TLR-driven host immune responses to enable their survival inside the host. In this review, we have discussed about the recent advances in TLR biology and strategies adopted by...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Udgata A, Dolasia K, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Quorum sensing in Vibrio spp.: the complexity of multiple signalling molecules in marine and aquatic environments.
Abstract Quorum sensing (QS) is a density-dependent mechanism enabling bacteria to coordinate their actions via the release of small diffusible molecules named autoinducers (AIs). Vibrio spp. are able to adapt to changing environmental conditions by using a wide range of physiological mechanisms and many species pose a threat for human health and diverse marine and estuarine ecosystems worldwide. Cell-to-cell communication controls many of their vital functions such as niche colonization, survival strategies, or virulence. In this review, I summarize (1) the different known QS pathways (2) the diversity of AIs as ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Girard L Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of polyketides by trans-AT polyketide synthases in Burkholderiales.
Abstract Widely used as drugs and agrochemicals, polyketides are a family of bioactive natural products, with diverse structures and functions. Polyketides are produced by megaenzymes termed as polyketide synthases (PKSs). PKS biosynthetic pathways are divided into the cis-AT PKSs and trans-AT PKSs; a division based mainly on the absence of an acyltransferase (AT) domain in the trans-AT PKS modules. In trans-AT biosynthesis, the AT activity is contributed via one or several independent proteins, and there are few other characteristics that distinguish trans-AT PKSs from cis-AT PKSs, especially in the formation of ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen H, Bian Z, Ravichandran V, Li R, Sun Y, Huo L, Fu J, Bian X, Xia L, Tu Q, Zhang Y Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Engineering of the Dsb (disulfide bond) proteins - contribution towards understanding their mechanism of action and their applications in biotechnology and medicine.
Abstract The Dsb protein family in prokaryotes catalyzes the generation of disulfide bonds between thiol groups of cysteine residues in nascent proteins, ensuring their proper three-dimensional structure; these bonds are crucial for protein stability and function. The first Dsb protein, Escherichia coli DsbA, was described in 1991. Since then, many details of the bond-formation process have been described through microbiological, biochemical, biophysical and bioinformatics strategies. Research with the model microorganism E. coli and many other bacterial species revealed an enormous diversity of bond-formation mec...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Banaś AM, Bocian-Ostrzycka KM, Jagusztyn-Krynicka EK Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

An introduction of the role of probiotics in human infections and autoimmune diseases.
Abstract During the last decades, studies exploring the role of microorganisms inhabiting human body in different scenarios have demonstrated the great potential of modulating them to treat and prevent diseases. Among the most outstanding applications, probiotics have been used for over a century to treat infections and inflammation. Despite the beneficial role of other probiotics, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are the most frequently used, and have been effective as a therapeutic option in the treatment/prevention of dental caries, periodontal diseases, urogenital infections, and gastrointestinal infe...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sales-Campos H, Soares SC, Oliveira CJF Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Genomic metrics made easy: what to do and where to go in the new era of bacterial taxonomy.
Abstract With the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, traditional methodologies for taxonomic classification of bacteria as DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA identity analyses are being challenged by the development of a fast-growing number of genomic metrics. The large amount of portable and digitized genome sequences available in public repositories constitutes an invaluable data for bacterial classification. Consequently, several genomic metrics and tools were developed to aid the interpretation of these massive data. Genomic metrics are based on the assumption that higher genome similaritie...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hayashi Sant'Anna F, Bach E, Porto RZ, Guella F, Hayashi Sant'Anna E, Passaglia LMP Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

The role of viral infections in the development of autoimmune diseases.
Abstract The exact aetiology of most autoimmune diseases remains unknown, nonetheless, several factors contributing to the induction or exacerbation of autoimmune reactions have been suggested. These include the genetic profile and lifestyle of the affected individual in addition to environmental triggers such as bacterial, parasitic, fungal and viral infections. Infections caused by viruses usually trigger a potent immune response that is necessary for the containment of the infection; however, in some cases, a failure in the regulation of this immune response may lead to harmful immune reactions directed against...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hussein HM, Rahal EA Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

The rise and spread of mcr plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance.
Abstract Polymyxins are important lipopeptide antibiotics that serve as the last-line defense against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial infections. Worryingly, the clinical utility of polymyxins is currently facing a serious threat with the global dissemination of mcr, plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance. The first plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance gene, termed as mcr-1 was identified in China in November 2015. Following its discovery, isolates carrying mcr, mainly mcr-1 and less commonly mcr-2 to -7, have been reported across Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America and Oceania. Th...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nang SC, Li J, Velkov T Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Targeting strategies for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: does gut microbiota play a role?
Abstract Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a progressive, often irreversible condition that produces severe neurological deficits. Emerging data suggest that chemotherapy also exerts detrimental effects on gut microbiota composition and intestinal permeability, contributing to dysbiosis and inflammation. Compared with other complications associated with chemotherapy, such as diarrhoea and mucositis, CIPN is of particular concern because it is the most common reason for terminating or suspending treatment. However, specific and effective curative treatment strategies are lacking. In this review, ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhong S, Zhou Z, Liang Y, Cheng X, Li Y, Teng W, Zhao M, Liu C, Guan M, Zhao C Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Recent perspectives on the virulent factors and treatment options for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is one of the most notorious and opportunistic pathogens, which caused high morbidity and mortality rate and World Health Organization (WHO) declared this bacterium as priority-1 pathogen in 2017. The current antibacterial agents, such as colistins, carbapenems, and tigecyclines have limited applications, which necessitate novel and alternative therapeutic remedies. Thus, the understanding of recent perspectives on the virulent factors and antibiotic resistance mechanism exhibited by the bacteria are extremely important. In addition to many combinatorial therapies of antibacte...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Skariyachan S, Taskeen N, Ganta M, Venkata Krishna B Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Targeted antibiotic discovery through biosynthesis-associated resistance determinants: target directed genome mining.
tilde;aga N Abstract Intense competition between microbes in the environment has directed the evolution of antibiotic production in bacteria. Humans have harnessed these natural molecules for medicinal purposes, magnifying them from environmental concentrations to industrial scale. This increased exposure to antibiotics has amplified antibiotic resistance across bacteria, spurring a global antimicrobial crisis and a search for antibiotics with new modes of action. Genetic insights into these antibiotic-producing microbes reveal that they have evolved several resistance strategies to avoid self-toxicity, including ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: O'Neill EC, Schorn M, Larson CB, Millán-Aguiñaga N Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Iron/iron oxide nanoparticles: advances in microbial fabrication, mechanism study, biomedical, and environmental applications.
Abstract Microbially synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (FeONPs) hold great potential for biomedical, clinical, and environmental applications owing to their several unique features. Biomineralization, a process that exists in almost every living organism playing a significant role in the fabrication of FeONPs through the involvement of 5-100 nm sized protein compartments such as dodecameric (Dps), ferritin, and encapsulin with their diameters 9, 12, and ∼32 nm, respectively. This contribution provides a detailed overview of the green synthesis of FeONPs by microbes and their applications in biomedical and e...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ashraf N, Ahmad F, Da-Wei L, Zhou RB, Feng-Li H, Yin DC Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic adjuvants: an alternative approach to overcome multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Abstract Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative pathogens has emerged and constituted a global crisis, thereby novel antibiotics and other anti-infective strategies are urgently needed. However, the growing gap between clinical need and drug innovation, coupled with the membrane permeability barrier in Gram-negative bacteria restricts the discovery of Gram-negative antibiotics. Antibiotic adjuvants approach provides an alternative and complementary strategy for new antibiotic discovery. These compounds restore or potentiate the activity of commonly used antibiotics against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu Y, Li R, Xiao X, Wang Z Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Silver, biofilms and wounds: resistance revisited.
Abstract Silver is added to an array of commercially available healthcare products including wound dressings. However, overuse of silver is being raised as a potential health concern due to the possible selection of tolerant or resistant bacteria and as a factor that may induce cross resistance to antibiotics. To date, there are only a limited number of studies that have documented evidence of silver resistance in bacteria isolated from medical situations. These studies have indicated low levels of silver resistance in bacteria. However, in comparison to antibiotics, only a small number of studies have been undert...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Percival SL, Salisbury AM, Chen R Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Biofilm formation by staphylococci in health-related environments and recent reports on their control using natural compounds.
Abstract Staphylococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and able to form biofilms on a range of surfaces. They have been associated with a range of human health issues such as medical device-related infection, localized skin infection, or direct infection caused by toxin production. The extracellular material produced by these bacteria resists antibiotics and host defence mechanism which complicates the treatment process. The commonly reported Staphylococcus species are Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis as they inhabit human bodies. However, the emergence of other staphyloco...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yong YY, Dykes GA, Choo WS Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Role of abnormal microRNA expression in Helicobacter pylori associated gastric cancer.
Abstract Epidemiological studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is a risk factor for gastric cancer (GC). HP infection may induce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, and abnormally increase the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines in mucosal epithelial cells of the stomach. However, the specific mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of HP-associated GC is still poorly understood. Recent studies have revealed that abnormal microRNA expression may affect the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of mucosal epithelial cells of the stomach to furth...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zou D, Xu L, Li H, Ma Y, Gong Y, Guo T, Jing Z, Xu X, Zhang Y Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Establishment of an ideal gut microbiota to boost healthy growth of neonates.
Abstract For decades, supporting the optimal growth of low birth weight (LBW) infants has been considered one of the most important paediatric challenges, despite advances in neonatal intensive care technology and nutrition interventions. Since gut microbiota affects such diverse phenotypes in adults, the difference in gut microbiota composition between normal infants and LBW infants raises the possibility of gut microbiota playing an important role in different growth rates of neonates. Based on the concept that probiotics are generally beneficial to the health, numerous studies have been made on probiotics as a ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nguyen TTB, Chung HJ, Kim HJ, Hong ST Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 30773116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

An update on possible pathogenic mechanisms of periodontal pathogens on renal dysfunction.
Abstract Periodontitis is a potential source of permanent systemic inflammation that initiates renal dysfunction and contributes to the development of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Although numerous studies have confirmed the bidirectional role of periodontal infection and renal inflammation, no literature has yet highlighted the sophisticated pathogenic mechanisms by which periodontal pathogens, particularly Porphynomonas Gingivalis, induce renal dysfunction and contributed in the development of CKDs. The present review aims to critically analyze and highlight the novel pathogenesis of periodontitis induced CKD...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chopra A, Sivaraman K Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Life inside and out: making and breaking protein disulfide bonds in Chlamydia.
Abstract Disulphide bonds are widely used among all domains of life to provide structural stability to proteins and to regulate enzyme activity. Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria that are especially dependent on the formation and degradation of protein disulphide bonds. Members of the genus Chlamydia have a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between two distinct cell types; the extracellular infectious elementary body (EB) and the intracellular replicating reticulate body. The proteins in the envelope of the EB are heavily cross-linked with disulphides and this is known to be critical...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Christensen S, McMahon RM, Martin JL, Huston WM Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Fructose-rich niches traced the evolution of lactic acid bacteria toward fructophilic species.
Abstract Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are found in fructose-rich habitats associated with flowers, fruits, fermented foods, and the gastrointestinal tract of several insects having a fructose-based diet. FLAB are heterofermentative lactobacilli that prefer fructose instead of glucose as carbon source, although additional electron acceptor substrates (e.g. oxygen) remarkably enhance their growth on glucose. As a newly discovered bacterial group, FLAB are gaining increasing interest. In this review, the ecological context in which these bacteria exist and evolve was resumed. The wide frequency of isolati...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Filannino P, Di Cagno R, Tlais AZA, Cantatore V, Gobbetti M Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Targeting nuclear proteins for control of viral replication.
Abstract Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that exploit host cell machineries for replication. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of host cell nuclear proteins whose translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm is induced and utilized by viruses to support viral replication and infection. Utilization of nuclear proteins for viral replication and infection involves disruption of nuclear import, enhancement of nuclear export, removal of nuclear localization signal (NLS) from nuclear proteins and alteration of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) to cooperatively support viral replication. Under...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Meng W, Wang XJ, Wang HR Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Anaerobes in cystic fibrosis patients' airways.
aud G Abstract Anaerobes are known to constitute an important part of the airway microbiota in both healthy subjects and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Studies on the potential role of anaerobic bacteria in CF and thus their involvement in CF pathophysiology have reported contradictory results, and the question is still not elucidated. The aim of this study was to summarize anaerobe diversity in the airway microbiota and its potential role in CF, to provide an overview of the state of knowledge on anaerobe antibiotic resistances (resistome), and to investigate the detectable metabolites produced by anaerobes in CF...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lamoureux C, Guilloux CA, Beauruelle C, Jolivet-Gougeon A, Héry-Arnaud G Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Protein glycosylation: Sweet or bitter for bacterial pathogens?
Abstract Protein glycosylation systems in many bacteria are often associated with crucial biological processes like pathogenicity, immune evasion and host-pathogen interactions, implying the significance of protein-glycan linkage. Similarly, host protein glycosylation has been implicated in antimicrobial activity as well as in promoting growth of beneficial strains. In fact, few pathogens notably modulate host glycosylation machineries to facilitate their survival. To date, diverse chemical and biological strategies have been developed for conjugate vaccine production for disease control. Bioconjugate vaccines, la...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bhat AH, Maity S, Giri K, Ambatipudi K Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Prognostic factors in 264 adults with invasive Scedosporium spp. and Lomentospora prolificans infection reported in the literature and FungiScope ®.
Prognostic factors in 264 adults with invasive Scedosporium spp. and Lomentospora prolificans infection reported in the literature and FungiScope®. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2019 Jan 10;:1-21 Authors: Seidel D, Meißner A, Lackner M, Piepenbrock E, Salmanton-García J, Stecher M, Mellinghoff S, Hamprecht A, Durán Graeff L, Köhler P, Cheng MP, Denis J, Chedotal I, Chander J, Pakstis DL, Los-Arcos I, Slavin M, Montagna MT, Caggiano G, Mares M, Trauth J, Aurbach U, Vehreschild MJGT, Vehreschild JJ, Duarte RF, Herbrecht R, Wisplinghoff H, Cornely OA, Bachmann B, Borchert K, Burchardt A, Chakra...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Seidel D, Meißner A, Lackner M, Piepenbrock E, Salmanton-García J, Stecher M, Mellinghoff S, Hamprecht A, Durán Graeff L, Köhler P, Cheng MP, Denis J, Chedotal I, Chander J, Pakstis DL, Los-Arcos I, Slavin M, Montagna MT, Caggiano G, Mares M, Trauth J Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial Min proteins beyond the cell division.
Abstract Min system in Escherichia coli is one of the well-studied phenomena of self-organization and spatial distribution of proteins. Several multidisciplinary approaches were used to study the oscillation phenomena of the Min system. The focus of most of these studies was to understand the role of Min system in placement of the Z-ring to the mid-cell and to characterize its interaction with divisome proteins. The involvement of Min system in other cellular processes is poorly characterized. Few recent studies have suggested that Min proteins play an important role in various cellular processes such as bacterial...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - December 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Taviti AC, Beuria TK Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

The biotechnological potential of Epicoccum spp.: diversity of secondary metabolites.
jo WL Abstract Epicoccum is a genus of ubiquitous fungi typically found in air, in soil, and on decaying vegetation. They also commonly display an endophytic lifestyle and are isolated from diverse plant tissues. The fungi from the genus Epicoccum are mainly known for their use as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens and for their ability to produce many secondary metabolites with potential biotechnological applications, such as antioxidant, anticancer,r and antimicrobial compounds. Among the bioactive compounds produced by Epicoccum spp., epicocconone is a commercially available fluorophore, D8646-2-6 is a pa...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - October 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Braga RM, Padilla G, Araújo WL Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Beyond the expected: the structural and functional diversity of bacterial amyloids.
A, Romero D Abstract Intense research has confirmed the formerly theoretical distribution of amyloids in nature, and studies on different systems have illustrated the role of these proteins in microbial adaptation and in interactions with the environment. Two lines of research are expanding our knowledge on functional amyloids: (i) structural studies providing insights into the molecular machineries responsible for the transition from monomer to fibers and (ii) studies showing the way in which these proteins might participate in the microbial fitness in natural settings. Much is known about how amyloids play a rol...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - October 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cámara-Almirón J, Caro-Astorga J, de Vicente A, Romero D Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Photodynamic inactivation as an emergent strategy against foodborne pathogenic bacteria in planktonic and sessile states.
;es M Abstract Foodborne microbial diseases are still considered a growing public health problem worldwide despite the global continuous efforts to ensure food safety. The traditional chemical and thermal-based procedures applied for microbial growth control in the food industry can change the food matrix and lead to antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, currently applied disinfectants have limited efficiency against biofilms. Therefore, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has become a novel alternative for controlling foodborne pathogenic bacteria in both planktonic and sessile states. The use of aPDT in the ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - October 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Silva AF, Borges A, Giaouris E, Graton Mikcha JM, Simões M Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Scavenger Receptors: Promiscuous Players during Microbial Pathogenesis.
Abstract Innate immunity is the most broadly effective host defense, being essential to clear the majority of microbial infections. Scavenger Receptors comprise a family of sensors expressed in a multitude of host cells, whose dual role during microbial pathogenesis gained importance over recent years. SRs regulate the recruitment of immune cells and control both host inflammatory response and bacterial load. In turn, pathogens have evolved different strategies to overcome immune response, avoid recognition by SRs and exploit them to favor infection. Here, we discuss the most relevant findings regarding the interp...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - October 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pombinho R, Sousa S, Cabanes D Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Human endogenous retrovirus-K (HML-2): a comprehensive review.
Abstract The human genome contains a large number of retroviral elements acquired over the process of evolution, some of which are specific to primates. However, as many of these are defective or silenced through epigenetic changes, they were historically considered "junk DNA" and their potential role in human physiology or pathological circumstances have been poorly studied. The most recently acquired, human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K), has multiple copies in the human genome and some of them have complete open reading frames that are transcribed and translated, especially in early embryogenesis. P...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - October 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Garcia-Montojo M, Doucet-O'Hare T, Henderson L, Nath A Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Sources and mechanisms of bioaerosol generation in occupational environments.
Abstract The primary purpose of this study was to critically review published data related to the sources and mechanisms of aerosolization of microorganisms, their fragments and metabolites in a variety of occupational environments. The processes and mechanisms considered in the review include bursting bubbles; liquid dispersion as the result of irrigation, separation, high pressure cleaning and technological water recycling; manual and automated handling of contaminated material in agriculture, waste processing and industrial processes; as well as high temperature industrial processes. The review identifies the g...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - October 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mirskaya E, Agranovski IE Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

miRNAs in enterovirus infection.
Abstract During the last years, it has become evident that miRNAs are important players in almost all physiological and pathological processes, including viral infections. Enterovirus infections range from mild to severe acute infections concerning several organ systems and are also associated with chronic diseases. In this review, we summarize the findings on the impact of acute and persistent enterovirus infection on the expression of cellular miRNAs. Furthermore, the currently available data on the regulation of cellular or viral targets by the dysregulated miRNAs are reviewed. Finally, a translational perspect...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - August 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Engelmann I, Alidjinou EK, Bertin A, Sane F, Hober D Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Recent progress in bio-inspired biofilm-resistant polymeric surfaces.
lli F Abstract Any surface of human interest can serve as a substrate for biofilm growth, sometimes with detrimental effects. The social and economic consequences of biofilm-mediated damage to surfaces are significant, the financial impact being estimated to be billions of dollars every year. After describing traditional biocide-based approaches for the remediation of biofilm-affected surfaces, this review deals with more recent developments in material science, focusing on non-toxic, eco-sustainable nature-inspired biomaterials with anti-biofilm properties superior to the conventional biocide-based approaches in ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - July 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cattò C, Villa F, Cappitelli F Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

E. coli and colorectal cancer: a complex relationship that deserves a critical mindset.
Abstract To the multiple factors that may eventually result in colorectal cancer (CRC), strains of E. coli have now been added, in particular strains producing colibactin from their polyketide synthesis (pks) locus. The evidence and mechanistic explanations for this unfortunate effect of what is in most cases a harmless commensal are discussed in the first part of this review. In the second part, observations are presented and discussed that do not fit with the hypothesis that colibactin-producing E. coli produce CRC. The last part of this review is reserved for an alternative explanation of the function of this e...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wassenaar TM Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Biosensor for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes: emerging trends.
Abstract The early detection of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and understanding the disease burden is of paramount interest. The failure to detect pathogenic bacteria in the food industry may have terrible consequences, and poses deleterious effects on human health. Therefore, integration of methods to detect and trace the route of pathogens along the entire food supply network might facilitate elucidation of the main contamination sources. Recent research interest has been oriented towards the development of rapid and affordable pathogen detection tools/techniques. An innovative and new approach like ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Soni DK, Ahmad R, Dubey SK Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacteriolysis - a mere laboratory curiosity?
Abstract The role of bacteriolysis in the pathophysiology of microbial infections dates back to 1893 when Buchner and Pfeiffer reported for the first time the lysis of bacteria by immune serum and related this phenomenon to the immune response. Later on, basic anti-microbial peptides and certain beta-lactam antibiotics have been shown not only to kill microorganisms but also to induce bacteriolysis and the release of cell-wall components. In 2009, a novel paradigm was offered suggesting that the main cause of death in sepsis is due to the exclusive release from activated human phagocytic neutrophils (PMNs) traps a...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ginsburg I, Koren E Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy - what we know and what we don't.
Abstract Considering increasing number of pathogens resistant towards commonly used antibiotics as well as antiseptics, there is a pressing need for antimicrobial approaches that are capable of inactivating pathogens efficiently without the risk of inducing resistances. In this regard, an alternative approach is the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The antimicrobial effect of aPDT is based on the principle that visible light activates a per se non-toxic molecule, the so-called photosensitizer (PS), resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species that kill bacteria unselectively via an oxidative burst....
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cieplik F, Deng D, Crielaard W, Buchalla W, Hellwig E, Al-Ahmad A, Maisch T Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Alternative antimicrobials: the properties of fatty acids and monoglycerides.
Abstract With the rising antibiotic resistance of many bacterial species, alternative treatments are necessary to combat infectious diseases. The World Health Organization and the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have warned that some infections, such as those from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may be untreatable within a few years. One avenue of exploration is the use of antimicrobial fatty acids and their derivatives for therapeutic prevention or treatment of bacterial infections. Several studies have explored the activity of fatty acids and their derivatives, including monoglycerides against a variety of ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Churchward CP, Alany RG, Snyder LAS Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Nitrogen metabolism in cyanobacteria: metabolic and molecular control, growth consequences and biotechnological applications.
ice R Abstract Cyanobacteria are one of the earliest branching groups of organisms on the planet, and during their evolutionary history were submitted to varying selective pressures. Nowadays, cyanobacteria can grow in a variety of conditions, using a large number of nitrogen sources. The control of the nitrogen metabolism in cyanobacteria depends on a fine-tuning regulatory network involving 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), PII, PipX, and NtcA. This network answers to the cellular 2-OG levels, which reflects the cellular carbon/nitrogen balance, and as an output regulates gene expression, translation, protein activities an...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - March 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Esteves-Ferreira AA, Inaba M, Fort A, Araújo WL, Sulpice R Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Bunyavirales ribonucleoproteins: the viral replication and transcription machinery.
Abstract The Bunyavirales order is one of the largest groups of segmented negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes many pathogenic strains that cause severe human diseases. The RNA segments of the bunyavirus genome are separately encapsidated by multiple copies of nucleoprotein (N), and both termini of each N-encapsidated genomic RNA segment bind to one copy of the viral L polymerase protein. The viral genomic RNA, N and L protein together form the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that constitutes the molecular machinery for viral genome replication and transcription. Recently, breakthroughs have ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - March 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sun Y, Li J, Gao GF, Tien P, Liu W Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Exploitation of microbial forensics and nanotechnology for the monitoring of emerging pathogens.
Abstract Emerging infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of global mortality. Traditional laboratory diagnostic approaches designed to detect and track infectious disease agents provide a framework for surveillance of bio threats. However, surveillance and outbreak investigations using such time-consuming approaches for early detection of pathogens remain the major pitfall. Hence, reasonable real-time surveillance systems to anticipate threats to public health and environment are critical for identifying specific aetiologies and preventing the global spread of infectious disease. The current review di...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - March 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bokhari H Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Endemic and emerging acute virus infections in Indonesia: an overview of the past decade and implications for the future.
Abstract Being the largest archipelago country in the world, with a tropical climate and a unique flora and fauna, Indonesia habitats one of the most diverse biome in the world. These characteristics make Indonesia a popular travel destination, with tourism numbers increasing yearly. These characteristics also facilitate the transmission of zoonosis and provide ideal living and breading circumstances for arthropods, known vectors for viral diseases. A review of the past 10 years of literature, reports of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia and ProMED-mail shows a significant increase in dengue infection ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Jong W, Rusli M, Bhoelan S, Rohde S, Rantam FA, Noeryoto PA, Hadi U, Gorp ECMV, Goeijenbier M Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Correction to: Chamoun et  al., Bacterial pathogenesis and interleukin-17: interconnecting mechanisms of immune regulation, host genetics, and microbial virulence that influence severity of infection.
Correction to: Chamoun et al., Bacterial pathogenesis and interleukin-17: interconnecting mechanisms of immune regulation, host genetics, and microbial virulence that influence severity of infection. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2018 Feb 02;:1 Authors: PMID: 29390931 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research