Recent advances in tackling microbial multidrug resistance with essential oils: combinatorial and nano-based strategies.
Abstract The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens is a great challenge to the medical field and a major global health threat requiring novel therapeutic strategies. Among plant products, essential oils have significant antimicrobial properties that make them promising agents in the fight against drug resistant human pathogens. The aim of the present review was to highlight the most important essential oil-based antimicrobial strategies as revealed by recent studies. Synergistic interactions between essential oils or their bioactive compounds in combination with known antibiotics are presented. Also, nanoform...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - July 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Trifan A, Luca SV, Greige-Gerges H, Miron A, Gille E, Aprotosoaie AC Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

H2A.Z and chromatin remodelling complexes: a focus on fungi.
Abstract Chromatin is a highly dynamic structure that closely relates with gene expression in eukaryotes. ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling, histone post-translational modification and DNA methylation are the main ways that mediate such plasticity. The histone variant H2A.Z is frequently encountered in eukaryotes, and can be deposited or removed from nucleosomes by chromatin remodelling complex SWR1 or INO80, respectively, leading to altered chromatin state. H2A.Z has been found to be involved in a diverse range of biological processes, including genome stability, DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Due t...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen Z, Ponts N Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Conventional genetic manipulation of desulfurizing bacteria and prospects of using CRISPR-Cas systems for enhanced desulfurization activity.
Abstract Highly active and stable biocatalysts are the prerequisite for industrial scale application of the biodesulfurization process. Scientists are making efforts for increasing the desulfurizing activity of native strains by employing various genetic engineering approaches. Nevertheless, the achieved desulfurization rate is lower than the industrial requirements. Thus, there is a dire need to use efficient genetic tools for precise genome editing of desulfurizing bacteria for enhanced efficiency. In comparison to the previously used genetic engineering tools the newly developed CRISPR-Cas is a more efficient a...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Parveen S, Akhtar N, Ghauri MA, Akhtar K Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Oral microbiome-systemic link studies: perspectives on current limitations and future artificial intelligence-based approaches.
Abstract In the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in studies on the link between oral microbiome and systemic diseases. However, variations in study design and confounding variables across studies often lead to inconsistent observations. In this narrative review, we have discussed the potential influence of study design and confounding variables on the current sequencing-based oral microbiome-systemic disease link studies. The current limitations of oral microbiome-systemic link studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, pregnancy, atherosclerosis, and pancreatic cancer are discusse...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Seneviratne CJ, Balan P, Suriyanarayanan T, Lakshmanan M, Lee DY, Rho M, Jakubovics N, Brandt B, Crielaard W, Zaura E Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial infection and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
ult D Abstract One quarter of all cancers are linked to infectious diseases. The link between viral infection and cancer has been widely studied, but few reports have focused on the carcinogenic role of bacterial infection. Nonetheless, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia psittaci, Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi and Campylobacter jejuni are bacteria that can be associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), the most common haematologic malignancy. Here, we review the evidence in favour of a link between these bacterial infections and NHL. Sero-epidemiological observation makes it possible to identify a link bet...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Melenotte C, Mezouar S, Mège JL, Gorvel JP, Kroemer G, Raoult D Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

A review of antibiotic resistance in Group B Streptococcus: the story so far.
Abstract Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal disease worldwide, and invasive disease in adults is becoming more prevalent. Currently, some countries adopt an intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis regime to help prevent the transmission of GBS from mother to neonate during delivery. This precaution has reduced the incidence of GBS-associated early-onset disease; however, rates of late-onset disease and stillbirths associated with GBS infections remain unchanged. GBS is still recognized as being universally susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics; however, there have been reports of reduced susc...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hayes K, O'Halloran F, Cotter L Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

The role of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) in non-bacterial infections.
Abstract The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a receptor of the innate immune system, expressed mostly by myeloid cells and primarily associated with pro- inflammatory responses. Although the exact nature of its ligands has not yet been fully elucidated, many microorganisms or danger signals have been proposed as inducers of its activation or the secretion of sTREM-1, the soluble form with putative anti-inflammatory effects. In the course of the 20 years since its first description, several studies have investigated the involvement of TREM-1 in bacterial infections. However, the ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: de Oliveira Matos A, Dos Santos Dantas PH, Figueira Marques Silva-Sales M, Sales-Campos H Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Emergence of Novel Coronavirus and COVID-19: whether to stay or die out?
Abstract The last century has witnessed several assaults from RNA viruses, resulting in millions of death throughout the world. The 21st century appears no longer an exception, with the trend continued with escalated fear of SARS coronavirus in 2002 and further concern of influenza H5N1 in 2003. A novel influenza virus created the first pandemic of the 21st century, the pandemic flu in 2009 preceded with the emergence of another deadly virus, MERS-CoV in 2012. A novel coronavirus "SARS-CoV-2" (and the disease COVID-19) emerged suddenly, causing a rapid outbreak with a moderate case fatality rate. This vi...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Biswas A, Bhattacharjee U, Chakrabarti AK, Tewari DN, Banu H, Dutta S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Porphyromonas gingivalis and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a review on its intricate pathogenic mechanisms.
Abstract Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe of the oral cavity, is associated with the onset of various adverse pregnancy outcomes. P. gingivalis is linked with the development of preeclampsia, preterm labour, spontaneous abortion, gestational diabetes, foetal growth restriction, and misconception. The unique virulence factors, surface adhesions, enzymes of P. gingivalis can directly injure and alter the morphology, microbiome the foetal and maternal tissues. P. gingivalis can even exaggerate the production of cytokines, free radicals and acute-phase proteins in the uter...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chopra A, Radhakrishnan R, Sharma M Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection, treatment and prevention of endodontic biofilm infections: what's new in 2020?
Abstract Endodontic disease, a biofilm infection of the root canal space, is a significant cause of dental morbidity worldwide. Endodontic treatment, or root canal treatment, as it is commonly known is founded on the ability to eradicate microbial biofilm infection and prevent re-infection of the highly complex root canal space. Despite many "advances" in clinical endodontics we have seen little improvement in outcomes. The aim of this critical review paper is to provide a contemporary view of endodontic microbiology and biofilm polymicrobiality, provide an understanding of the host response, and how tog...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abusrewil S, Alshanta OA, Albashaireh K, Alqahtani S, Nile CJ, Scott JA, McLean W Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Host receptors: the key to establishing cells with broad viral tropism for vaccine production.
Abstract Cell culture-based vaccine technology is a flexible and convenient approach for vaccine production that requires adaptation of the vaccine strains to the new cells. Driven by the motivation to develop a broadly permissive cell line for infection with a wide range of viruses, we identified a set of the most relevant host receptors involved in viral attachment and entry. This identification was done through a review of different viral entry pathways and host cell lines, and in the context of the Baltimore classification of viruses. In addition, we indicated the potential technical problems and proposed some...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - March 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dai X, Zhang X, Ostrikov K, Abrahamyan L Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Role of interspecies bacterial communication in the virulence of pathogenic bacteria.
Abstract Bacteria live in a polymicrobial community where it interacts with biotic and abiotic factors using specific signalling molecules. Acyl homoserine lactones, autoinducing peptides, bacteriocins and polyamines are a few signals documented for interspecies signalling. The signalling system could be used for a coordinated behaviour categorised as Quorum sensing (QS). QS is a term used to define a cell - cell communication process amongst bacteria that helps to gather cell density information and regulate gene expression accordingly. QS had been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in bacterial pathogenesis by ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - March 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Banerji R, Kanojiya P, Saroj SD Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

The interplay between host haemostatic systems and Leptospira spp. infections.
Abstract Hemostasis is a defence mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system and is comprised of the coagulation cascade, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation, and vascular endothelium. Besides the primary function in preserving the vascular integrity, the haemostatic system cooperates with immune and inflammatory processes to eliminate invading pathogens during microbial infections. Under pathological manifestations, hemostasis must therefore interact in a coordinated manner with inflammatory responses and immune reactions. Several pathogens can modulate these host-derived countermeasures by specif...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - March 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vieira ML, Herwald H, Nascimento ALTO Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Ureaplasma species and preterm birth: current perspectives.
Abstract Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the human Ureaplasma species are most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid and placenta in these cases. Ureaplasma colonisation is associated with infertility, stillbirth, histologic chorioamnionitis, and neonatal morbidities, including congenital pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, meningitis and perinatal death. The human Ureaplasma spp. are separated into Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum with 14 known serotypes. The small genome has several genes, which code for surface proteins; most significant...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - March 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sprong KE, Mabenge M, Wright CA, Govender S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Phage therapy efficacy: a review of the last 10 years of preclinical studies.
Abstract Due to the rise of multidrug-resistant infections in humans, phage therapy is gaining renewed attention in Western medicine. Despite the increasing number of publications focussed on the isolation, characterization and in vitro performance of different phages, there is still a lack of concise pre-clinical information to guide the application of phage therapy in clinical practice. Nevertheless, over the last decade, efforts have been made to conduct more detailed studies of the in vivo efficacy of phages. Here, we review the most relevant in vivo studies performed in the last decade covering...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Melo LDR, Oliveira H, Pires DP, Dabrowska K, Azeredo J Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Chlamydia: what is on the outside does matter.
Abstract This review summarises major highlights on the structural biology of the chlamydial envelope. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria, characterised by a unique biphasic developmental cycle. Depending on the stage of their lifecycle, they appear in the form of elementary or reticulate bodies. Since these particles have distinctive functions, it is not surprising that their envelope differs in lipid as well as in protein content. Vice versa, by identifying surface proteins, specific characteristics of the particles such as rigidity or immunogenicity may be deduced. Detailed information on the bacter...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gitsels A, Van Lent S, Sanders N, Vanrompay D Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Fontes, t écnicas de quantificação, riscos associados e medidas de controle de contaminação por micotoxinas da alimentação aquática.
Fontes, técnicas de quantificação, riscos associados e medidas de controle de contaminação por micotoxinas da alimentação aquática. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2020 Feb 17;:1-13 Authors: Nogueira WV, de Oliveira FK, Garcia SO, Sibaja KVM, Tesser MB, Garda Buffon J Abstract Com a intensificação produtiva da piscicultura, a substituição parcial ou total da farinha de peixe por ingredientes de origem vegetal tornou-se realidade na indústria de ração, com o objetivo de reduzir custos. No entanto, essa pr&aacut...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nogueira WV, de Oliveira FK, Garcia SO, Sibaja KVM, Tesser MB, Garda Buffon J Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Exploring the putative interactions between chronic kidney disease and chronic periodontitis.
Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic periodontitis (CP) are both common diseases, which are found disproportionately comorbid with each other and have been reported to have a detrimental effect on the progression of each respective disease. They have an overlap in risk factors and both are a source of systemic inflammation along with a wide selection of immunological and non-specific effects that can affect the body over the lifespan of the conditions. Previous studies have investigated the directionality of the relationship between these two diseases; however, there is a lack of literature that has e...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - February 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hickey NA, Shalamanova L, Whitehead KA, Dempsey-Hibbert N, van der Gast C, Taylor RL Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

How the evolving epidemics of opioid misuse and HIV infection may be changing the risk of oral sexually transmitted infection risk through microbiome modulation.
Abstract The epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is constantly evolving, and the mechanisms of infection risk in the oral cavity (OC) are poorly characterized. Evidence indicates that microbial community (microbiota) compositions vary widely between the OC, genitalia and the intestinal and rectal mucosa, and microbiome-associated STI susceptibility may also similarly vary. The opioid misuse epidemic is at an epidemic scale, with>11 million US residents misusing in the past 30 days. Opioids can substantially influence HIV progression, microbiota composition and immune function, and these...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jenkins WD, Beach LB, Rodriguez C, Choat L Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Non-coding RNAs as cell wall regulators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Abstract The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an extracellular organelle crucial for preserving its cellular integrity and detecting environmental cues. The cell wall is composed of mannoproteins attached to a polysaccharide network and is continuously remodelled as cells undergo cell division, mating, gametogenesis or adapt to stressors. This makes yeast an excellent model to study the regulation of genes important for cell wall formation and maintenance. Given that certain yeast strains are pathogenic, a better understanding of their life cycle is of clinical relevance. This is why transcriptional regula...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Novačić A, Vučenović I, Primig M, Stuparević I Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

The lipid raft markers stomatin, prohibitin, flotillin, and HflK/C (SPFH)-domain proteins form an operon with NfeD proteins and function with apolar polyisoprenoid lipids.
Abstract SPFH-domain proteins are found in almost all organisms across three domains: archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. In eukaryotic organelles, their subfamilies exhibit overlapping distribution and functions; thus, the rationality of annotation to discriminate these subfamilies remains unclear. In this review, the binding ability of prokaryotic SPFH-domain proteins towards nonpolar polyisoprenoides such as squalene and lycopene, rather than cholesterol, is discussed. The hydrophobic region at the C-terminus of SPFH-domain proteins constitutes the main region that binds apolar polyisoprenoid lipids as well as c...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yokoyama H, Matsui I Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the local farm environment and livestock: challenges to mitigate antimicrobial resistance.
Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the local farm environment and livestock: challenges to mitigate antimicrobial resistance. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2020 Jan 24;:1-14 Authors: Lee S, Mir RA, Park SH, Kim D, Kim HY, Boughton RK, Morris JG, Jeong KC Abstract The effectiveness of antibiotics has been challenged by the increasing frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AR), which has emerged as a major threat to global health. Despite the negative impact of AR on health, there are few effective strategies for reducing AR in food-producing animals. Of the antimicrobial resistant microorganism...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - January 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lee S, Mir RA, Park SH, Kim D, Kim HY, Boughton RK, Morris JG, Jeong KC Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbial transmission from mother to child: improving infant intestinal microbiota development by identifying the obstacles.
Abstract Industrialisation has introduced several lifestyle changes and medical advancements but their impact on intestinal microbiota acquisition is often overlooked. Even though these consequential changes in the microbiota could contribute to the disease burden that accompanies industrialisation, such as obesity and atopic disease. A healthy intestinal microbiota is acquired early in life but its exact origin is not fully elucidated. The maternal microbiota is a likely source because the infant and mother intestinal microbiota share identical strains. Successfully transmitting microbes from mother to child requ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - December 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Van Daele E, Knol J, Belzer C Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial translocation in acute pancreatitis.
Abstract Bacterial translocation is a phenomenon in which live bacteria or their products cross the intestinal barrier to other organs or the circulatory system. Gut translocation of bacteria has been reported in both animal models, and clinical trials often accompany acute pancreatitis and are believed to be linked to patient outcome, especially in severe acute pancreatitis. Therefore, the mechanisms of intestinal bacterial translocation in acute pancreatitis have become a topic of interest in recent years. This review discusses Bacterial translocation in acute pancreatitis, identifies possible mechanisms of acti...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - December 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu J, Huang L, Luo M, Xia X Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

The current novel therapeutic regimens for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the potentials of Traditional Chinese Medicine in treatment of CDI.
Abstract Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is featured as the dysbiosis of gut microbiota and consequent mild diarrhoea or severe pseudomembranous colitis. However, the frequent recurrence of CDI following treatment course challenged the antibiotic therapy. Currently, to address the relapse of CDI, several novel therapeutic approaches have emerged, including Bezlotoxumab, SYN-004 (Ribaxamase), RBX2660, and faecal microbial transplant. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is an old medical system accumulated for thousands of years. Orientated by syndrome-based treatment, TCM functions in a multicomponent and mult...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - December 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gao Y, Li H, Yang H, Su J, Huang L Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus communication in biofilm infections: insights through network and database construction.
This study aimed at collecting and analysing experimental information on the molecular basis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus interactions in biofilms. Data were systematically annotated from relevant full-text papers optimally retrieved from PubMed, reconstructed as networks and integrated with specialized databases to identify promising antimicrobial targets. Network analysis revealed key entities regulating P. aeruginosa/S. aureus interactions, for instance the PqsABCDE/PqsR quorum-sensing system, which affects S. aureus growth and biofilm formation. By identifying the most reported P. aeruginosa viru...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - December 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Magalhães AP, Jorge P, Pereira MO Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Steering soil microbiome to enhance soil system resilience.
Abstract Pathogens in soil play a tremendous role in soil health and subsequent food production. Soil-borne pathogens can cause serious losses to global harvest and are considered as a difficult problem to manage worldwide. The emergence of soil disease is largely dependent on the pathogen-host-environment complex, which can be employed to generate pathogen control strategies. Usually, the resources of resistant plant varieties are limited, and chemical control is insufficiently effective with possible secondary soil pollution. Therefore, there is now a compulsory need to enhance the ability of soil per se to defe...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - December 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang L, Li X Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Fungi in archives, libraries, and museums: a review on paper conservation and human health.
Abstract The action of fungi on books, documents, maps, and works of art on paper can result in inestimable cultural losses. Plus, some of the fungi present in paper documents, surfaces and air from archives, libraries and museums are also a threat to human health. This work aims to review the literature on the most important and frequent microfungal populations found in paper-based collections all over the world, and correlate these data with human health risks. A total of 71 studies, dating between 1997 and 2018 were reviewed and organized. From 27 different countries, 207 fungal genera and 580 species were repo...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - December 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pinheiro AC, Sequeira SO, Macedo MF Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Phages amid antimicrobial resistance.
This article presents a comprehensive account of weighing the odds of phage therapy verses phage-mediated antimicrobial resistance. PMID: 31775552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology)
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - November 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mohan Raj JR, Karunasagar I Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

mNGS in clinical microbiology laboratories: on the road to maturity.
Abstract Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is increasingly being applied in clinical laboratories for unbiased culture-independent diagnosis. Whether it can be a next routine pathogen identification tool has become a topic of concern. We review the current implementation of this new technology for infectious disease diagnostics and discuss the feasibility of transforming mNGS into a routine diagnostic test. Since 2008, numerous studies from over 20 countries have revealed the practicality of mNGS in the work-up of undiagnosed infectious diseases. mNGS performs well in identifying rare, novel, difficult...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - November 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Han D, Li Z, Li R, Tan P, Zhang R, Li J Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Betaproteobacteria are predominant in drinking water: are there reasons for concern?
Abstract Betaproteobacteria include some of the most abundant and ubiquitous bacterial genera that can be found in drinking water, including mineral water. The combination of physiology and ecology traits place some Betaproteobacteria in the list of potential, yet sometimes neglected, opportunistic pathogens that can be transmitted by water or aqueous solutions. Indeed, some drinking water Betaproteobacteria with intrinsic and sometimes acquired antibiotic resistance, harbouring virulence factors and often found in biofilm structures, can persist after water disinfection and reach the consumer. This literature rev...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - November 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ferro P, Vaz-Moreira I, Manaia CM Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Roles of HSV-1 infection-induced microglial immune responses in CNS diseases: friends or foes?
Abstract Microglia, as brain-resident macrophages, are the first line of defense against brain invading pathogens. Further, their dysfunction has been recognized to be closely associated with mounting CNS diseases. Of note, chronic HSV-1 infection leads to the persistent activation of microglia, which elicit a comprehensive response by generating certain factors with neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. CNS infection with HSV-1 results in herpes simplex encephalitis and herpes simplex keratitis. Microglial immune response plays a crucial role in the development of these diseases. Moreover, HSV-1 infection is st...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - September 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang Y, Jia J, Wang Y, Li F, Song X, Qin S, Wang Z, Kitazato K, Wang Y Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Otitis media pathogens - A life entrapped in biofilm communities.
Abstract Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear with great impact on children worldwide. The most common reported bacterial pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Over the last years, the role of biofilms formed by otopathogens that contribute to otitis media recurrence and chronicity has been established. An improved understanding of the properties of biofilms formed by these bacteria, which factors influence them, and how these affect the host inflammatory response is important for the development of novel strategies for the treatment...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Silva MD, Sillankorva S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Non-antibiotic microbial solutions for bovine mastitis - live biotherapeutics, bacteriophage, and phage lysins.
Abstract Bovine mastitis is a disease with a multi-etiological nature, defined as an inflammation of the udder. The main treatment for mastitis is the administration of antibiotics - usually directly to the udder. There is an urgent need for novel therapies to treat and prevent the disease, given the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistance and concomitant problems in the treatment of human and animal infections. We provide an overview of treatments for bovine mastitis, with emphasis on probiotics, bacteriocins, bacteriophages (phages), and phage endolysins. Probiotics have in recent years proved to be partic...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - August 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Angelopoulou A, Warda AK, Hill C, Ross RP Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Tick-borne encephalitis virus: molecular determinants of neuropathogenesis of an emerging pathogen.
Abstract Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis. The transmission cycle involves the virus, the Ixodes tick vector, and a vertebrate reservoir, such as small mammals (rodents, or shrews). Humans are accidentally involved in this transmission cycle. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been a growing public health problem in Europe and Asia over the past 30 years. The mechanisms involved in the development of TBE are very complex and likely multifactorial, involving both host and viral factors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current lite...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Velay A, Paz M, Cesbron M, Gantner P, Solis M, Soulier E, Argemi X, Martinot M, Hansmann Y, Fafi-Kremer S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Rewiring of transcriptional networks as a major event leading to the diversity of asexual multicellularity in fungi.
Abstract Complex multicellularity (CM) is characterized by the generation of three-dimensional structures that follow a genetically controlled program. CM emerged at least five times in evolution, one of them in fungi. There are two types of CM programs in fungi, leading, respectively, to the formation of sexual or asexual spores. Asexual spores foment the spread of mycoses, as they are the main vehicle for dispersion. In spite of this key dependence, there is great morphological diversity of asexual multicellular structures in fungi. To advance the understanding of the mechanisms that control initiation and progr...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Etxebeste O, Otamendi A, Garzia A, Espeso EA, Cortese MS Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Tackling drug resistance with efflux pump inhibitors: from bacteria to cancerous cells.
Abstract Drug resistance is a serious concern in a clinical setting jeopardizing treatment for both infectious agents and cancers alike. The wide-spread emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes from bacteria to cancerous cells necessitates the need to target resistance mechanisms and prevent the emergence of resistant mutants. Drug efflux seems to be one of the preferred approaches embraced by both microbial and mammalian cells alike, to thwart the action of chemotherapeutic agents thereby leading to a drug resistant phenotype. Relative to microbes, which predominantly employs proton motive force (PMF) p...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lowrence RC, Subramaniapillai SG, Ulaganathan V, Nagarajan S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Dribbling through the host defence: targeting the TLRs by pathogens.
Abstract The immune system is well-equipped with sensors that detect invading pathogens and dictate subsequent immune responses for clearing the infections. One such class of sensor is the toll-like receptor (TLR), that can sense diverse molecules of pathogen origin such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrate, DNA, RNA, and trigger suitable immune responses to prevent infections. However, successful pathogens have evolved strategies to bypass the TLR-driven host immune responses to enable their survival inside the host. In this review, we have discussed about the recent advances in TLR biology and strategies adopted by...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Udgata A, Dolasia K, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay S Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Quorum sensing in Vibrio spp.: the complexity of multiple signalling molecules in marine and aquatic environments.
Abstract Quorum sensing (QS) is a density-dependent mechanism enabling bacteria to coordinate their actions via the release of small diffusible molecules named autoinducers (AIs). Vibrio spp. are able to adapt to changing environmental conditions by using a wide range of physiological mechanisms and many species pose a threat for human health and diverse marine and estuarine ecosystems worldwide. Cell-to-cell communication controls many of their vital functions such as niche colonization, survival strategies, or virulence. In this review, I summarize (1) the different known QS pathways (2) the diversity of AIs as ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Girard L Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of polyketides by trans-AT polyketide synthases in Burkholderiales.
Abstract Widely used as drugs and agrochemicals, polyketides are a family of bioactive natural products, with diverse structures and functions. Polyketides are produced by megaenzymes termed as polyketide synthases (PKSs). PKS biosynthetic pathways are divided into the cis-AT PKSs and trans-AT PKSs; a division based mainly on the absence of an acyltransferase (AT) domain in the trans-AT PKS modules. In trans-AT biosynthesis, the AT activity is contributed via one or several independent proteins, and there are few other characteristics that distinguish trans-AT PKSs from cis-AT PKSs, especially in the formation of ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen H, Bian Z, Ravichandran V, Li R, Sun Y, Huo L, Fu J, Bian X, Xia L, Tu Q, Zhang Y Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Engineering of the Dsb (disulfide bond) proteins - contribution towards understanding their mechanism of action and their applications in biotechnology and medicine.
Abstract The Dsb protein family in prokaryotes catalyzes the generation of disulfide bonds between thiol groups of cysteine residues in nascent proteins, ensuring their proper three-dimensional structure; these bonds are crucial for protein stability and function. The first Dsb protein, Escherichia coli DsbA, was described in 1991. Since then, many details of the bond-formation process have been described through microbiological, biochemical, biophysical and bioinformatics strategies. Research with the model microorganism E. coli and many other bacterial species revealed an enormous diversity of bond-formation mec...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Banaś AM, Bocian-Ostrzycka KM, Jagusztyn-Krynicka EK Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

An introduction of the role of probiotics in human infections and autoimmune diseases.
Abstract During the last decades, studies exploring the role of microorganisms inhabiting human body in different scenarios have demonstrated the great potential of modulating them to treat and prevent diseases. Among the most outstanding applications, probiotics have been used for over a century to treat infections and inflammation. Despite the beneficial role of other probiotics, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are the most frequently used, and have been effective as a therapeutic option in the treatment/prevention of dental caries, periodontal diseases, urogenital infections, and gastrointestinal infe...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sales-Campos H, Soares SC, Oliveira CJF Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Genomic metrics made easy: what to do and where to go in the new era of bacterial taxonomy.
Abstract With the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, traditional methodologies for taxonomic classification of bacteria as DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA identity analyses are being challenged by the development of a fast-growing number of genomic metrics. The large amount of portable and digitized genome sequences available in public repositories constitutes an invaluable data for bacterial classification. Consequently, several genomic metrics and tools were developed to aid the interpretation of these massive data. Genomic metrics are based on the assumption that higher genome similaritie...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hayashi Sant'Anna F, Bach E, Porto RZ, Guella F, Hayashi Sant'Anna E, Passaglia LMP Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

The role of viral infections in the development of autoimmune diseases.
Abstract The exact aetiology of most autoimmune diseases remains unknown, nonetheless, several factors contributing to the induction or exacerbation of autoimmune reactions have been suggested. These include the genetic profile and lifestyle of the affected individual in addition to environmental triggers such as bacterial, parasitic, fungal and viral infections. Infections caused by viruses usually trigger a potent immune response that is necessary for the containment of the infection; however, in some cases, a failure in the regulation of this immune response may lead to harmful immune reactions directed against...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hussein HM, Rahal EA Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

The rise and spread of mcr plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance.
Abstract Polymyxins are important lipopeptide antibiotics that serve as the last-line defense against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial infections. Worryingly, the clinical utility of polymyxins is currently facing a serious threat with the global dissemination of mcr, plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance. The first plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance gene, termed as mcr-1 was identified in China in November 2015. Following its discovery, isolates carrying mcr, mainly mcr-1 and less commonly mcr-2 to -7, have been reported across Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America and Oceania. Th...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nang SC, Li J, Velkov T Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Targeting strategies for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: does gut microbiota play a role?
Abstract Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a progressive, often irreversible condition that produces severe neurological deficits. Emerging data suggest that chemotherapy also exerts detrimental effects on gut microbiota composition and intestinal permeability, contributing to dysbiosis and inflammation. Compared with other complications associated with chemotherapy, such as diarrhoea and mucositis, CIPN is of particular concern because it is the most common reason for terminating or suspending treatment. However, specific and effective curative treatment strategies are lacking. In this review, ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - May 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhong S, Zhou Z, Liang Y, Cheng X, Li Y, Teng W, Zhao M, Liu C, Guan M, Zhao C Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Recent perspectives on the virulent factors and treatment options for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) is one of the most notorious and opportunistic pathogens, which caused high morbidity and mortality rate and World Health Organization (WHO) declared this bacterium as priority-1 pathogen in 2017. The current antibacterial agents, such as colistins, carbapenems, and tigecyclines have limited applications, which necessitate novel and alternative therapeutic remedies. Thus, the understanding of recent perspectives on the virulent factors and antibiotic resistance mechanism exhibited by the bacteria are extremely important. In addition to many combinatorial therapies of antibacte...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Skariyachan S, Taskeen N, Ganta M, Venkata Krishna B Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Targeted antibiotic discovery through biosynthesis-associated resistance determinants: target directed genome mining.
tilde;aga N Abstract Intense competition between microbes in the environment has directed the evolution of antibiotic production in bacteria. Humans have harnessed these natural molecules for medicinal purposes, magnifying them from environmental concentrations to industrial scale. This increased exposure to antibiotics has amplified antibiotic resistance across bacteria, spurring a global antimicrobial crisis and a search for antibiotics with new modes of action. Genetic insights into these antibiotic-producing microbes reveal that they have evolved several resistance strategies to avoid self-toxicity, including ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: O'Neill EC, Schorn M, Larson CB, Millán-Aguiñaga N Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Iron/iron oxide nanoparticles: advances in microbial fabrication, mechanism study, biomedical, and environmental applications.
Abstract Microbially synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (FeONPs) hold great potential for biomedical, clinical, and environmental applications owing to their several unique features. Biomineralization, a process that exists in almost every living organism playing a significant role in the fabrication of FeONPs through the involvement of 5-100 nm sized protein compartments such as dodecameric (Dps), ferritin, and encapsulin with their diameters 9, 12, and ∼32 nm, respectively. This contribution provides a detailed overview of the green synthesis of FeONPs by microbes and their applications in biomedical and e...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ashraf N, Ahmad F, Da-Wei L, Zhou RB, Feng-Li H, Yin DC Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic adjuvants: an alternative approach to overcome multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Abstract Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative pathogens has emerged and constituted a global crisis, thereby novel antibiotics and other anti-infective strategies are urgently needed. However, the growing gap between clinical need and drug innovation, coupled with the membrane permeability barrier in Gram-negative bacteria restricts the discovery of Gram-negative antibiotics. Antibiotic adjuvants approach provides an alternative and complementary strategy for new antibiotic discovery. These compounds restore or potentiate the activity of commonly used antibiotics against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative ...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - April 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu Y, Li R, Xiao X, Wang Z Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research