Multimodal therapy may hold key to treating aggressive childhood cancer

(Children's Cancer Institute Australia) Scientists at Children's Cancer Institute found combination of therapies appears to be effective against high-risk neuroblastoma.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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ith Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial pediatric solid tumor that accounts for more than 15% of childhood cancer-related deaths. High risk neuroblastomas that recur during or after intense multimodal therapy have a <5% chance at a second sustained remission or cure. The solid tumor microenvironment (TME) has been increasingly recognized to play a critical role in cancer progression and resistance to therapy, including in neuroblastoma. The Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) in the Hippo pathway can regulate cancer proliferation, tumor initiation, and therapy response in many cancer types and as such, its r...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Robotic surgery for pediatric tumors is a safe option in highly selected cases. Indications should be discussed by tumor boards to avoid widespread and uncontrolled application.PMID:34523002 | DOI:10.1245/s10434-021-10777-6
Source: Ann Oncol - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
September is Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, which makes this a good time to learn about three of the most common types of cancers in children: acute lymphocytic leukemia, neuroblastoma and pediatric brain tumors. Acute lymphocytic leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. It's the most common type of cancer in children, and treatments result in a good chance for a cure. Acute lymphocytic leukemia also can occur in adults, though…
Source: News from Mayo Clinic - Category: Databases & Libraries Source Type: news
To describe the outcomes of elective cancer surgeries and adverse consequences on the patients and medical staff due to the surgical interventions in children during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study included children younger than 15 years who underwent elective cancer surgeries from March 4, 2020 and December 3, 2020. A total of 121 patients (62% male; median age, 3 years) underwent surgery. The surgical procedures included nephrectomies (n = 18), neuroblastoma (n = 26) and soft tissue tumor resections (n = 24) and complex surgical procedures like extended liver resections (...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
to Bei Loredana Cifaldi High-risk neuroblastoma (NB) is a rare childhood cancer whose aggressiveness is due to a variety of chromosomal genetic aberrations, including those conferring immune evasion. Indeed, NB cells adopt several molecular strategies to evade recognition by the immune system, including the downregulation of ligands for NK-cell-activating receptors. To date, while molecular strategies aimed at enhancing the expression of ligands for NKG2D- and DNAM-1-activating receptors have been explored, no evidence has been reported on the immunomodulatory mechanisms acting on the expression of death receptors su...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundThere is a well-recognized male excess in childhood cancer incidence; however, it is unclear whether there is etiologic heterogeneity by sex when defined by epidemiologic risk factors.MethodsUsing a 5-state registry-linkage study (casesn = 16,411; controlsn = 69,816), we estimated sex-stratified odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) between birth and demographic characteristics for 16 pediatric cancers. Evidence of statistical interaction (p-interaction   50% of cases for all cancers, except Wilms tumor (49.6%). Sex interacted with a number of ris...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Maeda Most pediatric cancers are highly chemo-sensitive, and cytotoxic chemotherapy has always been the mainstay of treatment. Anthracyclines are highly effective against most types of childhood cancer, such as neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, nephroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and so forth. However, acute and chronic cardiotoxicity, one of the major disadvantages of anthracycline use, limits their utility and effectiveness. Hydroxypropyl acrylamide polymer-conjugated pirarubicin (P-THP), which targets tumor tissue highly selectively via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and secondarily ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Mol Cell Biochem. 2021 Jul 22. doi: 10.1007/s11010-021-04226-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe transcription factor Zinc finger E-box binding 1 (ZEB1) displays a range of regulatory activities in cell function and embryonic development, including driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Several aspects of ZEB1 function can be regulated by its functional interactions with noncoding RNA types, namely microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Increasing evidence indicates that ZEB1 importantly influences cancer initiation, tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Cancer is the main disease-...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn this study, we applied artificial intelligence methods to improve the accuracy of neuroblastoma survival prediction based on gene expression and provide explanations for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying neuroblastoma.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, a potential association between maternal occupational exposure and the occurrence of neuroblastoma in offspring. Further studies involving the large pediatric cancer registries are needed to confirm these preliminary results.IMPACT: Healthcare workers are often exposed to hazardous agents and are at risk for adverse health consequences that affect not only themselves but also their infants. This study examined the association between such occupational exposure and offspring's cancers that developed until the age of 1 year. Maternal exposure to ionizing radiat...
Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Source Type: research
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