Non-immune Traits Triggered by Blood Intake Impact Vectorial Competence

Blood-feeding arthropods are considered an enormous public health threat. They are vectors of a plethora of infectious agents that cause potentially fatal diseases like Malaria, Dengue fever, Leishmaniasis, and Lyme disease. These vectors shine due to their own physiological idiosyncrasies, but one biological aspect brings them all together: the requirement of blood intake for development and reproduction. It is through blood-feeding that they acquire pathogens and during blood digestion that they summon a collection of multisystemic events critical for vector competence. The literature is focused on how classical immune pathways (Toll, IMD, and JAK/Stat) are elicited throughout the course of vector infection. Still, they are not the sole determinants of host permissiveness. The dramatic changes that are the hallmark of the insect physiology after a blood meal intake are the landscape where a successful infection takes place. Dominant processes that occur in response to a blood meal are not canonical immunological traits yet are critical in establishing vector competence. These include hormonal circuitries and reproductive physiology, midgut permeability barriers, midgut homeostasis, energy metabolism, and proteolytic activity. On the other hand, the parasites themselves have a role in the outcome of these blood triggered physiological events, consistently using them in their favor. Here, to enlighten the knowledge on vector–pathogen interaction beyond the immune pathwa...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Journal of Genetics and GenomicsAuthor(s): Chengqi Wang, Justin Gibbons, Swamy R. Adapa, Jenna Oberstaller, Xiangyun Liao, Min Zhang, John H. Adams, Rays H.Y. Jiang
Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Abdeta D, Kebede N, Giday M, Terefe G, Abay SM Abstract Microbial resistance to the few conventional antitrypanosomal drugs, increasing resistance of vectors to insecticides, lack of effective vaccines, and adverse effects of the existing antitrypanosomal drugs justify the urgent need for effective, tolerable, and affordable drugs. We assessed antitrypanosomal effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Echinops kebericho Mesfin roots against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Parasite load, packed cell volume (PCV), body weight, and rectal temperature in Swiss albino...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the crude extract of A. hispidum DC, one of the plants used traditionally to treat malaria, inhibits the growth of P. falciparum in vitro and could be a potential source of antimalarial drug. The report has highlighted genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the selected plant extracts on human leukocytes as well. PMID: 33029160 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
(Nagoya University) Using the model Orobanchaceae parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum, scientists have discerned the molecular mechanisms underlying plant parasitism and cross-species grafting, pinpointing enzymeβ-1,4-glucanase (GH9B3) as an important contributor to both phenomena. Targeting this enzyme may help control plant parasitism in crops.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news
Conclusions: The low prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriage by the children living in the Cape Coast Metropolis suggests that the malaria control interventions in place in CCMA are highly effective and that additional malaria control interventions are required for the KEEA district to reduce the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers. No molecular evidence of P. ovale and P. vivax was identified in the afebrile children sampled from the selected schools. PMID: 33029151 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research
Steve Lindsay, a public health entomologist at Durham University, is midway through explaining how dogs might play a role in detecting COVID-19 infections when a decidedly less-well trained canine interrupts our conversation. “If you’ll excuse me for a minute, I’ve got a naughty black Labrador out in the back garden doing something it shouldn’t be doing,” Lindsay says. He disappears. I hear barking. He returns accompanied by a chocolate lab. “She’s not as skilled as the detection dogs,” Lindsay says as the pup tries to lick his face. “But it’s really interesting t...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Source Type: news
Condition:   Dengue Intervention:   Other: Dengue module and rapid diagnostic tests Sponsors:   Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Switzerland;   Ministry of Health, Burkina Faso;   Terre des hommes, Burkina Faso & Switzerland Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
This study determined the level of ownership and usage of ITNs and associated factors among households in the Sunyani West district two years after the mass distribution campaign. Methods: Study participants were identified using the systematic approach in all five subdistricts of the Sunyani West district and interviewed, and data were collected on household ITN ownership. Data were also collected on the source of the ITN and whether the respondent slept under an ITN the previous night. Data on individual and community factors associated with ITN ownership and usage were also collected. Pearson chi-square tests and lo...
Source: Journal of Environmental and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Environ Public Health Source Type: research
The leaf MeOH extract of Psychotria leiocarpa (Rubiaceae) showed in vitro non-cytotoxic and anti-dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) activity in human hepatocarcinoma cell lineage (HepG2). A one-step and cost-effective reversed-phase solid-phase extraction method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) parameters allowed the isolation, directly from this bioactive extract, of the monoterpene indole alkaloids: N-glucopyranosyl vincosamide (1), vincosamide (2) and strictosidinic acid (3). The chemical structures were characterized based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV and high-resolution mass spe...
Source: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
by Simon Pollett, Benjamin M. Althouse, Brett Forshey, George W. Rutherford, Richard G. Jarman Internet-based surveillance methods for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) using “big data” sources such as Google, Twitter, and internet newswire scraping have recently been developed, yet reviews on such “digital disease detection” methods have focused on respiratory pathogens, particularly in high-income regions. Here, we present a narrative review of the literature that has examined the performance of internet-based biosurveillance for diseases caused by vector-borne viruses, parasites, and other pathogens,...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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