Typhoid Outbreaks, 1989-2018: Implications for Prevention and Control.

Typhoid Outbreaks, 1989-2018: Implications for Prevention and Control. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Mar 30;: Authors: Appiah GD, Chung A, Bentsi-Enchill AD, Kim S, Crump JA, Mogasale V, Pellegrino R, Slayton RB, Mintz ED Abstract Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, with large outbreaks reported from Africa and Asia. Although the WHO recommends typhoid vaccination for control of confirmed outbreaks, there are limited data on the epidemiologic characteristics of outbreaks to inform vaccine use in outbreak settings. We conducted a literature review for typhoid outbreaks published since 1990. We found 47 publications describing 45,215 cases in outbreaks occurring in 25 countries from 1989 through 2018. Outbreak characteristics varied considerably by WHO region, with median outbreak size ranging from 12 to 1,101 cases, median duration from 23 to 140 days, and median case fatality ratio from 0% to 1%. The largest number of outbreaks occurred in WHO Southeast Asia, 13 (28%), and African regions, 12 (26%). Among 43 outbreaks reporting a mode of disease transmission, 24 (56%) were waterborne, 17 (40%) were foodborne, and two (5%) were by direct contact transmission. Among the 34 outbreaks with antimicrobial resistance data, 11 (32%) reported Typhi non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 16 (47%) reported multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, and one reported extensively drug-resistant strains. Our review showed a longer...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

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Lab Chip, 2020, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/D0LC00579G, PaperYang LIU, Thomas Lehnert, Martin Gijs Fast spreading of antimicrobial resistance is now considered a major global health threat. New technologies are required, enabling rapid diagnostics of bacterial infection combined with fast antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST)... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
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This article is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.M. P. Chrysouli, C. N. Banti, N. Kourkoumelis, E. E. Moushi, A. J. Tasiopoulos, A. Douvalis, C. Papachristodoulou, A. G. Hatzidimitriou, T. Bakas, S. K. Hadjikakou The stereoisomer Δ-cis-[Ph2Sn(CIP)2] (CIPTIN) was obtained from ciprofloxacin and DPTC.CIPTIN exhibits stronger activity than that of ciprofloxacin against Gram positive or negative bacteria. To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
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While the government offers only mixed messages on face coverings, a ridiculous outlaw machismo has been on the riseBarefaced masculinity stares at us everywhere we go. Its boastful machismo says that it ’s inviolable. “Real men” don’t wear masks even when they are told to. On a train in England the other day, where all the other passengers were masked and distanced, two young men were telling each other how much they liked to be off their heads and how they wouldn’t wear masks because … at that point I stopped listening. This was not going to be a discussion about civil liberties, was ...
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Authors: Jiang ZZ, He C, Wang DQ, Shen HL, Sun JL, Gan WN, Lu JY, Liu XT Abstract In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus infection emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China, which is now named Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The outbreak spread rapidly within mainland China and globally. This paper reviews the different imaging modalities used in the diagnosis and treatment process of COVID-19, such as chest radiography, computerized tomography (CT) scan, ultrasound examination, and positron emission tomography (PET/CT) scan. A chest radiograph is not recommended as a first-line imaging modality for COVI...
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Condition:   Hand Foot & Mouth Disease Intervention:   Biological: Inactivated Enterovirus Type 71 (EV71) Vaccine (Vero Cell) Sponsor:   International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Enrolling by invitation
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Conditions:   Covid19;   Measles Vaccine;   Mortality Intervention:   Other: Case fatality rate Sponsor:   Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Conclusions: The higher prevalence of ESBL producingSalmonella typhi clinical strains raises the concern about transmission prevention and infection management in the community as well as clinical settings. Moreover, the study highlights the problem concerning the declining antibiotic arsenal for the therapeutic management of typhoid fever and the emergence and spread of XDR strains in Pakistan.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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