Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 353: In Vitro Systems for Studying Different Genotypes/Sub-Genotypes of Hepatitis B Virus: Strengths and Limitations

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 353: In Vitro Systems for Studying Different Genotypes/Sub-Genotypes of Hepatitis B Virus: Strengths and Limitations Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12030353 Authors: Constance N. Wose Kinge Nimisha H. Bhoola Anna Kramvis Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects the liver resulting in end stage liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite an effective vaccine, HBV poses a serious health problem globally, accounting for 257 million chronic carriers. Unique features of HBV, including its narrow virus–host range and its hepatocyte tropism, have led to major challenges in the development of suitable in vivo and in vitro model systems to recapitulate the HBV replication cycle and to test various antiviral strategies. Moreover, HBV is classified into at least nine genotypes and 35 sub-genotypes with distinct geographical distributions and prevalence, which have different natural histories of infection, clinical manifestation, and response to current antiviral agents. Here, we review various in vitro systems used to study the molecular biology of the different (sub)genotypes of HBV and their response to antiviral agents, and we discuss their strengths and limitations. Despite the advances made, no system is ideal for pan-genotypic HBV research or drug development and therefore further improvement is required. It is necessary to establish a centralized repository of HBV-related generated materials, which are readily accessible to HBV rese...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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AbstractThe World Health Organisation, in its 2019 progress report on HIV, viral hepatitis and STDs indicates that 257 million people are afflicted with chronic HBV infections, of which, 1 million patients lose their lives every year due to HBV related chronic liver diseases including serious complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The course of HBV infection and associated liver injury depend on several host factors, genetic variability of the virus, and the host viral interplay. The challenge of medical science is the early diagnosis/identification of the potential for development of fatal com...
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionA substantial further reduction in cases of HCC requires a wider application of universal HBV vaccination and effective treatment of HBV- and HCV-related chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, more effective campaigns to favor correct dietary habits and reduce alcohol consumption and the intensification of studies on HCC pathogenesis for future optimized prevention strategies.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
al MN Abstract Despite the implementation of various vaccination programs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) poses a considerable health problem in Saudi Arabia. Insight on HBV evolutionary history in the region is limited. We performed a comprehensive epidemiological and phylogenetic reconstruction based on a large cohort of HBV infected patients. Three hundred and nineteen HBV-infected patients with different clinical manifestations, including inactive and active chronic carriers and patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), were enrolled in this study. The full-length large S gene was amplified and sequ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Despite the availability of an effective prophylactic vaccine leading to sterilizing immunity, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for chronic liver disease in more than 250 million individuals, potentially leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Antiviral drugs able to completely suppress virus replication are indeed available but they are, by and large, unable to eradicate the virus. Several alternative new treatment approaches are currently being developed but none have so far captured the interest of clinicians for possible clinical development. A constant feature of chronic HBV infection is T-cell exhaus...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
THE GORDON WILSON LECTURE: THE HEPATITIS C VIRUS: FROM HIPPOCRATES TO CURE. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common chronic viral infection worldwide and remains a significant global health problem. Chronic HBV infection can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Outcome of chronic HBV infections depends on the host, virus, and environmental factors. Although effective prophylactic vaccines and antiviral therapies exist, curative treatment is not yet available. Intense research into a cure for HBV is ongoing and proposed definitions of cure and endpoints for clinical trials evaluating “curative” therapy are discussed.
Source: Clinics in Liver Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
This article provides updated estimates of worldwide HBV disease prevalence and discusses how implementation of vaccination policies has affected HBV epidemiology.
Source: Clinics in Liver Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The global burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is profound, and represents a public health threat as chronic infection can lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The risk factors for chronic hepatitis B-related liver disease differ according to HBV endemicity, hepatitis B e-antigen seropositivity, and viral load. It is important to identify these risk factors and start antiviral treatment at an appropriate time according to current guidelines. The most crucial step in reducing HBV infection is prevention in infancy or early childhood, as infection at an early stage may lead ...
Source: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Korean J Intern Med Source Type: research
Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a partly double-stranded DNA virus that causes acute and chronic liver infection. Screening for hepatitis B is recommended in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and in adolescents and adults at high risk of chronic infection. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for medically stable infants weighing 2,000 g or more within 24 hours of birth, unvaccinated infants and children, and unvaccinated adults requesting protection from hepatitis B or who are at increased risk of infection. Acute hepatitis B is defined as the discrete onset of symptoms, the presence of jaundice ...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
Authors: Ayoola R, Larion S, Poppers DM, Williams R Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus is a viral infection that can lead to acute and/or chronic liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B vaccination is 95% effective in preventing infection and the development of chronic liver disease and HCC due to hepatitis B. In 2011, the Centers for Disease Control updated their guidelines recommending that adults at high-risk for hepatitis B infection be vaccinated against hepatitis B including those with diabetes mellitus (DM). We hypothesize that adults at high-risk for hepatitis B infection are not ...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
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