Hormone adjustment may lead to new ways to prevent and treat lung damage in premature infants

(Elsevier) Prematurely born babies often need oxygen therapy to prevent brain damage or death. Unfortunately, excessive oxygen can damage immature lungs and cause severe life-long problems including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH). A new study in The American Journal of Pathology, published by Elsevier, provides insights into the important role that the hormone adrenomedullin plays in the development, recovery, and prevention of BPD and PH.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Abstract Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic infantile lung disease that lacks curative therapies. Infants with BPD-associated PH are often exposed to hyperoxia and additional insults such as sepsis that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Animal models that simulate these scenarios are necessary to develop effective therapies; therefore, we investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hyperoxia exposure during saccular lung development cooperatively induce experimental BPD-PH in mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to normoxia or 70% O2 (hyperoxia) during postnata...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research
Extremely low birth weight infants are at increased risk of developing acute and chronic lung disease from inflammation; they have low fat stores at birth and thus low circulating levels of the adipokine, adiponectin. Adiponectin is a potent anti ‐inflammatory and anti‐oxidant adipokine. Here we show that recombinant adiponectin (rAPN) given to newborn rats in the saccular stage of lung development decreases LPS‐induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in lung homogenates and histopathological changes in the lung as shown in this graphical abstract. LPS was given intrapharyngeally and rAPN was g...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
This retrospective study reviews outcomes of 281 pediatric patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) managed with extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Data from 1982 to 2018 from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry were queried for children aged 60 days to 18 years with a prior diagnosis of BPD, and all patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH) were identified. Overall survival of patients with and without PH was 86.7% and 68.0%, respectively (p = 0.23). There was no report of patients with PH before 2004. Patients with BPD + PH were more likely to have associated intraventricular hem...
Source: ASAIO Journal - Category: Medical Devices Tags: Pulmonary Source Type: research
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a disease that can affect preterm neonates. Infants with severe BPD may develop pulmonary hypertension (PHN) and may require chronic mechanical ventilation with tracheostomy...
Source: BMC Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The risk of composite adverse outcomes and SGA among low-risk nulliparous women at 39-41 weeks of gestation is significantly higher than among multiparous counterparts. However, nulliparous women had a lower risk of shoulder dystocia with maneuvers and LGA. PMID: 32769638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Recent advances have allowed the use of cardiovascular magn...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major complication in prematurely born infants. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with BPD (BPD-PH) is characterized by alveolar diffusion impairment, abnormal vascular remodeling, and rarefication of pulmonary vessels (vascular growth arrest), which lead to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure. About 25% of infants with moderate to severe BPD develop BPD-PH that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The recent evolution of broader PH-targeted pharmacotherapy in adults has opened up new treatment options for infants with BPD-...
Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research
Abstract Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), first described by Northway in 1967, is a process of neonatal lung injury that is most strongly associated with prematurity. The "old" form of the disease associated with the oxidative damage and volutrauma from perinatal mechanical ventilation has been increasingly supplanted by a "new" form resulting from interrupted growth of the lung at earlier stages of fetal development. Given the significant improvement in the survival of children with BPD since the 1980s, many more of these patients are living into adulthood and are being seen in adult pulmonar...
Source: Chest - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Chest Source Type: research
AbstractElective closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) is usually recommended during preschool ages. However, ASD may contribute to deteriorating health in the presence of significant comorbidity and, thus, may need earlier closure. There is a lack of clarity regarding the indications for and outcomes after ASD closure in infancy and early childhood. We investigated the benefits and safety of surgical ASD closure in symptomatic patients under 2  years of age. Retrospective chart review was conducted in patients who underwent surgical ASD closure within the first 2 years of life. Of 31 symptomatic ASD patients, 22...
Source: Pediatric Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Our study utilized a murine bleomycin model of pulmonary hypertension (PH) to study the hypothesis that platelets from mice with PH circulate in an activated state and that circulating and lung platelet ‐derived factors, as well as the number of platelets in the lungs of neonatal mice with PH, is significantly increased. Through an extensive characterization of the functional status of platelets from bleomycin‐treated mice, we demonstrate that mice with bleomycin‐induced PH exhibit qualitativ e but not quantitative platelet changes. Circulating platelets from mice with PH exhibit hyperactivity as measured directly by...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
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