The Interplay Between Tissue Niche and Macrophage Cellular Metabolism in Obesity

Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The presence of chronic, low-grade inflammation appears to be an important mechanistic link between excess nutrients and clinical disease. The onset of these metabolic disorders coincides with changes in the number and phenotype of macrophages in peripheral organs, particularly in the liver and adipose tissue. Macrophage accumulation in these tissues has been implicated in tissue inflammation and fibrosis, contributing to metabolic disease progression. Recently, the concept has emerged that changes in macrophage metabolism affects their functional phenotype, possibly triggered by distinct environmental metabolic cues. This may be of particular importance in the setting of obesity, where both liver and adipose tissue are faced with a high metabolic burden. In the first part of this review we will discuss current knowledge regarding macrophage dynamics in both adipose tissue and liver in obesity. Then in the second part, we will highlight data linking macrophage metabolism to functional phenotype with an emphasis on macrophage activation in metabolic disease. The importance of understanding how tissue niche influences macrophage function in obesity will be highlighted. In addition, we will identify important knowledge gaps and outstanding questions that are relevant for future research in this area and will facilitate the identification of novel target...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Authors: Arab JP, Dirchwolf M, Álvares-da-Silva MR, Barrera F, Benítez C, Castellanos-Fernandez M, Castro-Narro G, Chavez-Tapia N, Chiodi D, Cotrim H, Cusi K, de Oliveira CPMS, Díaz J, Fassio E, Gerona S, Girala M, Hernandez N, Marciano S, Masson W, Mendez-Sanchez N, Leite N, Lozano A, Padilla M, Panduro A, Paraná R, Parise E, Perez M, Poniachik J, Restrepo JC, Ruf A, Silva M, Tagle M, Tapias M, Torres K, Vilar-Gomez E, Costa Gil JE, Gadano A, Arrese M Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) currently represents an epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is the most frequently diagnosed chr...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), a progressive liver disease that is closely associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, represents an increasing global public health challenge. There is significant variability in the disease course: the majority exhibit only fat accumulation in the liver but a significant minority develop a necroinflammatory form of the disease (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Source: Contemporary Clinical Trials - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Klujszo EH, Parcheta P, Witkowska AB, Krecisz B Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver pathology in the western countries. Psoriatic patients are at higher risk of having NAFLD, and at higher risk of experiencing a more severe form of the disease with poorer outcomes. The components of the metabolic syndrome - obesity, lipid abnormalities, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes - significantly correlate with NAFLD progression. The inflammatory state present in psoriasis plays a significant role in development of NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome. All patients with psoriasis a...
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has now become a relevant health care problem worldwide, as it affects approximately 25 –30% of adults in the general population, nearly 70% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and almost all patients with obesity [1]. At present, the diagnosis of NAFLD is based on the following criteria: (a) hepatic steatosis on serum biomarker scores, imaging methods or histology, (b) no excess ive alcohol consumption (i.e.,
Source: Digestive and Liver Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our study provides evidence for insulin and lipid regulation of endocrine FGFs in healthy and PCOS women, suggesting that FGF family members play a role in lipid and glucose metabolism.Clinical Trial, Identifier: ISRCTN42448814.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
L, Mateos Briz R Abstract Over the last few years the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, affecting in certain parts of the world more than half of the adult population. Obesity has been related to disorders such as type-2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases, among others, which has made of obesity the second cause of preventable death, only behind smoking. Bearing this in mind, it is necessary to find new strategies to overcome overweight/obesity and its associated pathologies. In this context, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements have become interesting too...
Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Nutr Hosp Source Type: research
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver disease worldwide with rising rates in parallel to those of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD encompasses a wide spectrum of pathology from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, which are linked to poor outcomes. Studies confirm a significant amount of undiagnosed NAFLD and related fibrosis within the community increasing the overall burden of the disease. NAFLD appears to be more prevalent in certain populations such as those with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study showed improvement in lipid profile and hsCRP levels with exenatide treatment. We also showed decrease in both visceral fat volume and subcutaneous fat thickness. We demonstrated significant decrease in liver enzymes with significant decrease in liver diameter. These findings supports the use of exenatide in patients with NAFLD and T2DM. Additionally this study showed that twice daily exenatide treatment reduces CIMT in obese T2DM patients. PMID: 32892547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease and represent a common finding in highly prevalent metabolic disorders (i.e. type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) requires liver biopsy for grading and staging the liver damage by the assessment of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.In parallel with the development of numerous ‘liquid’ biomarkers and algorithms that combine anthropometric and laboratory parameters, innovative hepatic imaging techniques have increasingly been developed to attempt to overcome the need for biopsy, b...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Authors: Kjær MB, George J, Kazankov K, Grønbæk H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new nomenclature for fatty liver replacing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MAFLD has emerged as the leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality with increasing incidence due to its close association with the global epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Macrophages play a key role in MAFLD development and progression of steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Therefore, targeting macrophages may be a new therapeutic approach for MAFLD and MAFLD with...
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
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