The Interplay Between Tissue Niche and Macrophage Cellular Metabolism in Obesity

Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The presence of chronic, low-grade inflammation appears to be an important mechanistic link between excess nutrients and clinical disease. The onset of these metabolic disorders coincides with changes in the number and phenotype of macrophages in peripheral organs, particularly in the liver and adipose tissue. Macrophage accumulation in these tissues has been implicated in tissue inflammation and fibrosis, contributing to metabolic disease progression. Recently, the concept has emerged that changes in macrophage metabolism affects their functional phenotype, possibly triggered by distinct environmental metabolic cues. This may be of particular importance in the setting of obesity, where both liver and adipose tissue are faced with a high metabolic burden. In the first part of this review we will discuss current knowledge regarding macrophage dynamics in both adipose tissue and liver in obesity. Then in the second part, we will highlight data linking macrophage metabolism to functional phenotype with an emphasis on macrophage activation in metabolic disease. The importance of understanding how tissue niche influences macrophage function in obesity will be highlighted. In addition, we will identify important knowledge gaps and outstanding questions that are relevant for future research in this area and will facilitate the identification of novel target...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Obesity Research &Clinical PracticeAuthor(s): Suna Kılınç, Tuna Demirbaş, Enver Atay, Ömer Ceran, Zeynep AtayAbstractContextEvidence suggests that the 1-h post-load plasma glucose (1-h PG) ≥155 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) predicts development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and associated complications, among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), but relevant data on children is scarce.ObjectivesTo investigate whether NGT children with obesity whose 1-h PG is ≥155 mg/dL have an increased carotid intima-media...
Source: Obesity Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are worldwide public health problems, affecting up to 25 –30% (NAFLD), and up to 10–15% (CKD) of the general population. Recently, it has also been established that there is a strong association between NAFLD and CKD, regardless of the presence of potential confounding diseases such as obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Since NAFLD and CKD are both common diseases that often occur alongside other metabolic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome, elucidating the relative impact of NAFLD on the risk of incident C...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ConclusionsUnder a combination of leflunomide and methotrexate, liver toxicity and, for the first time, thrombotic microangiopathy occurred as side effects. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may have predisposed for the drug-induced liver toxicity.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
In conclusion, GCE supplementation improved glycemic parameters and obesity values and may be useful in the management of NAFLD complications. Trial registration number: IRCT201602113664N17
Source: Journal of Herbal Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly recognized public health problem, affecting up to a quarter of the world's adult population. The burden of NAFLD is influenced by the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the prevalence of these conditions is not expected to decrease in the forthcoming decades. Consequently, the burden of NAFLD-related liver complications (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH], cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) and the need for life-saving liver transplantation are also expected to increase further in the near future.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research
Iron, an essential micronutrient, induces pathological conditions at cellular concentrations outranging physiological levels, such as exacerbation of alcoholic liver disease [1] and development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [2] that involve iron overloading. NAFLD is a common metabolic disorder associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity and the side adverse effects of some drug therapies [2,3]. Iron-induced liver pathology is associated with its involvement in oxidation-reduction processes leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with the concomitant oxidative deterioration o...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionThe health economic models identified in this review are associated with limitations primarily driven by a lack of NASH-specific data. Identified models also largely overlooked the intricate association between NASH and other conditions, including obesity and T2DM, and did not capture the increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with NASH. High-quality, transparent, validated health economic models of NASH will be required to evaluate the cost effectiveness of treatments currently in development, particularly compounds that may target other non-hepatic outcomes.
Source: PharmacoEconomics - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
Abstract Obesity is considered a serious chronic disease, associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced protein-1 (MCPIP1) is an RNase decreasing stability of transcripts coding for inflammation-related proteins. In addition, MCPIP1 plays an important role in the regulation of adipogenesis in vitro by reducing the expression of key transcription factors, including C/EBPβ. To elucidate the role of MCPIP1 in adipocyte biology, we performed RNA-Seq and proteome analysis in 3T3-L1 adipocyte...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) figures prominently into the clinical hepatology landscape. NAFLD represents a disease spectrum comprising simple steatosis, steatosis with elevated liver enzymes, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the entity with clear potential for fibrosis progression. Risk factors associated with fibrosis progression in NASH include histologic findings of lobular inflammation and any fibrosis as well as clinical comorbidities that include type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in evaluating NASH; however, noninvasive methods are accumula...
Source: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Farnaz Keyhani-Nejad, Renate Luisa Barbosa Yanez, Margrit Kemper, Rita Schueler, Olga Pivovarova-Ramich, Natalia Rudovich, Andreas F.H. PfeifferAbstractGIP was proposed to play a key role in the development of non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in response to sugar intake. Isomaltulose, is a 1,6-linked glucose-fructose dimer which improves glucose homeostasis and prevents NAFLD compared to 1,2-linked sucrose by reducing glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in mice. We compared effects of sucrose vs. isomaltulose on GIP and gluca...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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