B-cell enrichment predictive of immunotherapy response in melanoma, sarcoma and kidney cancer

(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) Multiple studies out in Nature indicate that a patient's response to immune checkpoint blockade may depend on B cells located in special structures within the tumor.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, several biopsies from a patient-derived primary renal-cell carcinoma were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing and aligned to healthy tissue. Next to several shared mutations between different subclones, ca. 23% of the mutations were only found in specific regions of the tumor. Strikingly, a single biopsy of that same tumor only covered around 55% of the total mutational diversity, underlining the need for multi-region sampling. Tracing the order of mutations in different subclones revealed that they develop in a branching fashion from the primary tumor clone, harboring the driver mutation, rather than in a li...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, osmotic burst of inflated complement-damaged cells may occur, but these bursts are most likely a consequence of metabolic collapse of the cell rather than the cause of cell death. The Complement Cell Death Mediator: A Concerted Action of Toxic Moieties Membrane pores caused by complement were first visualized by electron microscopy on red blood cell membranes as large ring structures (22). Similar lesions were viewed on E. coli cell walls (23). Over the years, ample information on the fine ultrastructure of the MAC that can activate cell death has been gathered (24) and has been recently further examined (...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body's own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review. Introduction Chimeric antigen receptors and engineered T cell receptors (based on previously identified high affinity T cell receptors) function by redirecting T cells to a predefined tumor-specific (or tumor-associated) target. Most of these modifications use retroviral or lentiviral vectors to integrate the construct, and most of the receptors ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions. APAVAC is a simple method for AV with high clinical impact in very bad situations. It could be used in combination with other therapy and for residual disease control. Further clinical studies are planned in solid C as well as in HM.DisclosuresRouquet: URODELIA: Employment. Frayssinet: URODELIA: Employment.
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 703. Adoptive Immunotherapy Source Type: research
Purpose of review The advent of immunotherapy significantly improved clinical outcomes in cancer patients, although immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) still lack of efficacy in a consistent proportion of treated patients. The purpose of this article is to review the most innovative and clinically promising ICB-based combinations designed to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Recent findings First-line combinatorial treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab has recently shown to be superior to the standard of care in a subset of metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The com...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research
This article reviews the history of and current state of immunotherapy research in the treatment of soft tissue and bone sarcomas, with particular regard to vaccine trials, adoptive T‐cell therapy, and immune checkpoint blockade.
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review, Sarcomas Source Type: research
Conclusion This early-stage study gives us some insights into factors that might influence people's responses to a specific type of cancer treatment (immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies). The findings are of interest, but don't have any immediate implications for cancer treatment. We don't know what the conditions that required antibiotic treatment were and whether these could have affected the response to immunotherapy. We don't know whether the antibiotics themselves influenced how well the immunotherapy worked, or whether it was their effect on gut bacteria. We also don't know whether having high levels of part...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Cancer Source Type: news
This article reviews the history of and current state of immunotherapy research in the treatment of soft tissue and bone sarcomas, with particular regard to vaccine trials, adoptive T-cell therapy, and immune checkpoint blockade. PMID: 28935774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
Authors: Dhupkar P, Gordon N Abstract Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a very well-known cytokine that has been studied for the past 35 years. It plays a major role in the growth and proliferation of many immune cells such NK and T cells. It is an important immunotherapy cytokine for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Systemic delivery of IL-2 has shown clinical benefit in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma patients. However, its use has been limited by the numerous toxicities encountered with the systemic delivery. Intravenous IL-2 causes the well-known "capillary leak syndrome," or the leakage of...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
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