For weight-loss surgery patients who quit smoking, relapse is common
(University of Pittsburgh) Although 1 in 7 adults smoke cigarettes the year prior to undergoing weight-loss surgery, nearly all successfully quit at least a month before their operation. However, smoking prevalence steadily climbs to pre-surgery levels within seven years, according to new research. The findings suggest that there may be missed opportunities to engage patients in interventions to improve long-term smoking cessation rates, particularly at regular post-surgery checkups. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study examines why colon cancer is more deadly in pediatric and young adult patients
(American College of Surgeons) Colon cancer is more likely to be lethal in children and young adults than middle-aged adults. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scientists receive CPRIT grants for lung, kidney cancer research
(University of Texas at Dallas) The Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) has awarded new grants totaling $1.8 million to two University of Texas at Dallas scientists for their research related to lung and kidney cancers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Osteosarcoma profiling reveals why immunotherapy remains ineffective
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) Comprehensive profiling of tumor samples taken from patients with osteosarcoma shows that multiple factors contribute to the traditionally poor responses observed from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, according to new research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers identify novel potential combination therapy for childhood brain tumors
(Write Science Right) Brazilian researchers working in collaboration with Canadian scientists demonstrated that all medulloblastoma tumor subtypes express two stem cell markers: BMI1 and CD133. When they induced DNA chromatin relaxation, tumor cell viability was reduced with down-regulation of BMI1 and CD133. These anti-tumor effects could be potentiated by concurrent inhibition of MAPK/ERK signaling. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Newly discovered immune cell type may be key to improving pancreatic cancer immunotherapy
(Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) Current immunotherapies don't work for most people with cancer. Researchers have identified an overlooked immune cell type that may react to targeted therapies to rally a more powerful immune response in more cancer patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Dana-Farber scientists solve long-debated puzzle of how the intestine heals itself
(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Scientists find that normal intestinal cells 'de-differentiate' en masse into stem cells that generate the cells needed for a healthy intestinal lining. New study establishes de-differentiation as the predominant mode of stem cell recover in the intestine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scientists find many gene 'drivers' of cancer, but warn: Don't ignore 'passengers'
(Yale University) A massive analysis of the entire genomes of 2,658 people with 38 different types of cancer has identified mutations in 179 genes and gene regulators as 'drivers' -- variations in DNA sequences that lead to the development of cancer. The work is part of the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes project, one of the most comprehensive cancer genomics studies to date. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study shows long-term survival benefit for certain patients with advanced lung cancer
(Yale University) According to the results of a large, global study led by Yale Cancer Center researchers, even a tiny amount of a biomarker known as PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand1) can predict a long-term survival benefit from using pembrolizumab (Keytruda). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Clinical trial exposes deadly kidney cancer's Achilles' heel
(UT Southwestern Medical Center) An experimental drug already shown to be safe and help some patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma, a deadly form of kidney cancer, effectively disables its molecular target. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

MD Anderson announces strategic collaboration with Denali Therapeutics to research and develop targeted therapies for neurodegenerative diseases
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) MD Anderson announces a strategic research collaboration with Denali Therapeutics to develop new targeted therapies for Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Huntsman Cancer Institute to host 7th Annual Metastatic Breast Cancer Research Conference
(Huntsman Cancer Institute) The 7th annual Metastatic Breast Cancer Research Conference will be hosted by Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) in partnership with Baylor College of Medicine and Theresa's Research Foundation on September 10 and 11, 2020. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers develop label-free microscopic techniques to visualize extracellular vesicles
(Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology) The Biophotonics Imaging Lab at the Beckman Institute, led by Dr. Stephen Boppart, has recently published papers in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and in Precision Oncology that use label-free microscopic techniques to visualize extracellular vesicles, which are associated with cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Single gene cluster loss may contribute to initiation/progression of multiple myeloma
(American Association for Cancer Research) The loss of one copy of the miR15a/miR16-1 gene cluster promoted initiation and progression of multiple myeloma in mice. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New study finds cellular immunotherapy treatment associated with improved quality of life
(American Society of Hematology) Adult lymphoma patients whose disease was effectively treated with chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy showed marked improvement on a variety of self-reported quality of life measures, according to a study published today in Blood Advances. The study offers evidence that CAR-T may not only extend cancer patients' survival, but also improve their quality of life after treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Controlling CAR T cells with light selectively destroys skin tumors in mice
(University of California - San Diego) UC San Diego bioengineers have developed a control system that could make CAR T-cell therapy safer and more powerful when treating cancer. By programming CAR T cells to switch on when exposed to blue light, the researchers controlled the cells to destroy skin tumors in mice without harming healthy tissue. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Investigating Medicaid expansion's association with insurance status, diagnosis, treatment among patients with cancer
(JAMA Network) More than 925,000 adults in the National Cancer Database with a new diagnosis of invasive breast, colon or lung cancer were included in this observational study that examined how Medicaid expansion under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was associated with insurance status, cancer stage at diagnosis and timely treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Comparing outcomes between African-American, white women after mammography-detected triple-negative breast cancer
(JAMA Network) Researchers compared treatment and survival rates between African American and white women following early detection with mammography of triple-negative breast cancer. African-American women have a higher rate of death from breast cancer compared with white women, a disparity partly explained by a higher rate of this aggressive breast cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Evaluating risk of cancer in patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis
(JAMA Network) This observational study was a systematic review and meta-analysis that included 112 studies and examined the association between risk of cancer in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, including the risk of specific cancers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

From obesity to liver cancer: Can we prevent the worst?
(Universit é de Gen è ve) Hepatocellular carcinoma, a liver cancer linked to the presence of fat in the liver, is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Scientists (UNIGE) have discovered a protein involved in the progression of a " fatty liver " towards cancer. This protein could allow early detection of the risk of developing liver cancer and open the way to new targeted therapies. These results highlight the close links between our diet and cancer development. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Tumor blood vessel detection by a gripping force feedback system
(Kanazawa University) Avoiding unnecessary bleeding during neuroendoscopic surgeries is crucial. When blood vessel location in a tumor cannot be visually confirmed, unintentional damage to the vessel and subsequent bleeding may occur. We propose a method for tumor blood vessel detection using a surgical robot system equipped with a force sensor in the gripper. Using this method, pulsation of a simulated artery inside a simulated tumor was detected by the force sensor, displayed as a gripping force wave. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

One drug, many diseases
(American Chemical Society) It seems too good to be true: a single drug that could treat humanity's worst afflictions, including atherosclerosis, cancer, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and arthritis. All of these diseases have one thing in common -- they involve an inflammatory protein called NLRP3. Now, biotech start-ups and pharmaceutical companies are racing to develop drugs that inhibit the function of this protein, according to an article inChemical& Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society.   (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Certain factors linked with discontinuing breast cancer therapy
(Wiley) For women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, long-term endocrine therapy can greatly reduce the risk of recurrence. Many women, especially those in underserved populations, do not continue treatment, however. A new Psycho-Oncology study uncovers some of the factors that may be involved. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study finds disparities in timing and type of treatment in colorectal cancer patients
(George Mason University) A new study from George Mason University published in Cancer Epidemiology found racial disparities in how the presence of cancer-related diagnostic and treatment technology is related to the time-to-treatment for whites and blacks with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Georgia. The study evaluated the time-to-treatment and survival rates of patients in relation to cancer-related technologies of the diagnosing hospital using data from the Georgia Cancer Registry merged with data from the American Hospital Association. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

UCLA researchers discover new compound that promotes lung health
(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) A molecule identified by UCLA researchers helps maintain a healthy balance of cells in airway and lung tissue. If the compound, so far only studied in isolated human and mouse cells, has the same effect in people, it may lead to new drugs to treat or prevent lung cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

First baby born to cancer patient from eggs matured in the lab and frozen
(European Society for Medical Oncology) Fertility doctors in France have announced the birth of the first baby to be born to a cancer patient from an immature egg that was matured in the laboratory, frozen, then thawed and fertilized five years later. The report is published in Annals of Oncology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Speakers announced for 2020 Experimental Biology meeting
(Experimental Biology) Renowned scientists including Nobel laureates, research pioneers and celebrated educators will convene at the Experimental Biology (EB) 2020 meeting, to be held April 4-7 in San Diego. Bringing together more than 12,000 life scientists in one interdisciplinary community, EB showcases the latest advances in anatomy, biochemistry, molecular biology, investigative pathology, pharmacology and physiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

ESMO Targeted Anticancer Therapies Congress 2020
(European Society for Medical Oncology) The ESMO Targeted Anticancer Therapies Congress 2020 will take place from March 2-4 in Paris, France, where around four hundred stakeholders in the field of new drug development will meet. The Congress is designed for basic scientists, physicians and translational researchers belonging to academic settings, industry and regulatory agencies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

More time between prostate cancer screenings could improve outcomes
(Oxford University Press USA) A new study in JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, published by Oxford University Press, finds significant benefits to lengthening the amount of time between prostate cancer screenings for men. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

IU researcher makes skin cancer discovery
(Indiana University School of Medicine) An Indiana University cancer researcher has identified eight new genomic regions that increase a person's risk for skin cancer. Jiali Han, Ph.D., and colleagues discovered eight new loci--locations on a person's genome--that are susceptible to the development of squamous cell skin cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

GI societies issue updated colorectal cancer screening recommendations
(American Gastroenterological Association) These evidence-based recommendations support closer follow-up after colonoscopy screenings for some groups, less intense follow-up for others, and provide guidance for removing colorectal polyps. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Stop or go: The cell maintains its fine motility balance with the help of tropomodulin
(University of Helsinki) Tropomodulin maintains the fine balance between the protein machineries responsible for cell movement and morphogenesis. Disturbances in this balance are common in many diseases, for example, invasive cancers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

MRI method provides unprecedented insight into the brain's wiring network
(Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown) Thoughts, sensations, and emotions zap across the brain via a meshwork of fine nerve fibers called axons. Axon size is crucially important for general brain function as well as in certain neurological conditions. Experts have been striving to establish a means to noninvasively measure these fibers for many years. An international team of researchers has now developed a novel MRI method that manages to do just that. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Empowering the cell's disposal system to deal with disease-prone garbage
(Goethe University Frankfurt) PROXIDRUGS, the regional network led by Goethe University, aims at developing active molecules for selective intervention, opening new therapeutic avenues. Within the 'Clusters4Future' ideas competition, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research has now selected the project for funding in the concept phase -- as one of 16 finalists out of 137 proposals submitted. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Hippocampal avoidance during WBRT reduces risks on NRG Oncology trial
(NRG Oncology) Results from the NRG Oncology clinical study NRG-CC001 concluded that lowering radiotherapy dose to hippocampal stem cells improves cognitive and patient-reported outcomes for patients with brain metastases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Pancreatic cancer 'time machine' exposes plot twist in cell growth and invasion
(Purdue University) A pancreatic cancer 'time machine' engineered by Purdue University researchers has revealed that the disease is even more unpredictable than previously thought: cancer cells promote each other's invasiveness when they grow together. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

NUS researchers identify novel protein to prevent neuropathy from chemotherapy
(National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine) A team of researchers from the NUS Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine has identified a novel protein that would prevent the development of neuropathy, a major side effect of chemotherapy, in cancer patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New computational tools identify alternative splicing changes in aggressive cancers
(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) A multi-institutional group of researchers led by Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has linked a strong cancer driver gene to changes in proteins that regulate alternative splicing. The researchers created new computational tools and biological model systems for the study. This collaborative research, led by Yi Xing, PhD, at CHOP and Owen Witte, MD, at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), was published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Intratumoral heterogeneity may be responsible for chemotherapy resistance in patients with small cell lung cancer
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) A study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center found that chemotherapy results in increased heterogeneity within small cell lung cancer, leading to the evolution of multiple resistance mechanisms. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study identifies states with highest rates of melanoma due to ultraviolet radiation
(American Cancer Society) A new study finds a wide state-by-state variation in rates of melanoma caused by ultraviolet (UV) exposure with highest rates in several states on the East and West Coast including Hawaii, but also a few landlocked states, including Utah, Vermont, and Minnesota. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Test measures immune response to improve ovarian cancer diagnosis
(RMIT University) About 300,000 new cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed globally each year, with about 60% of women dying within five years after diagnosis. A clinical trial has shown testing for a specific immune biomarker could improve diagnosis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

HPV vaccine hesitancy in Japan could result in 5,000 additional death
(Hokkaido University) The precipitous drop in HPV vaccination rates after suspension of proactive recommendations by the government in 2013 could result in an additional 25,000 cervical cancer cases and more than 5,000 additional deaths among females born between 1994 to 2007 in Japan. However, swift action by the government could mitigate much of this damage according to a study in Lancet Public Health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cancer immunotherapy target helps fight solid tumors
(Biophysical Society) Yvonne Chen engineers immune cells to target their most evasive enemy: cancer. New cancer immunotherapies generate immune cells that are effective killers of blood cancers, but they have a hard time with solid tumors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

A new way to monitor cancer radiation therapy doses
(Biophysical Society) More than half of all cancer patients undergo radiation therapy and the dose is critical. Too much and the surrounding tissue gets damaged, too little and the cancer cells survive. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

The Lancet Oncology: Young cancer survivors face higher risk of severe health problems in later life than the general population, study suggests
(The Lancet) Cancer survivors who are diagnosed during adolescence or early adulthood (age 15-20 years) are at increased risk of premature death compared to the general population. They have an elevated risk of severe or life-threatening conditions compared to a sibling control group, according to an observational study of more than 10,000 cancer patients from 27 academic institutions in the USA and Canada, published in The Lancet Oncology journal on International Childhood Cancer Day (15 February). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scientists have identified protein involved in progression of lung cancer and melanoma
(Far Eastern Federal University) Scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU, Russia), University of Geneva (Switzerland), Minjiang University, and Fuzhou University (China) pointed out WDR74 protein playing an important role in lung cancer and melanoma primary tumors/metastases progression. During the research, the artificially gained WDR74 function brought about a high activity in cancer cells. However, when the function had been dropped cells failed to metastasize becoming more vulnerable to chemotherapy. Related articles are published in Cancer Letters and Oncogene. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

CDI laboratory explores pathway to open up blood cancer treatments
(Hackensack Meridian Health) The CDI team's findings could ultimately improve cancer treatments for people of advanced age, like that of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New CRISPR-based tool can probe and control several genetic circuits at once
(Stanford School of Engineering) Stanford researchers have devised a biological tool that can not only detect faulty genetic circuits but also " debug " them - like running a patch cord around a computer hardware glitch. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Bile duct cancer treatment potential boost from tailored medication -- study
(University of Birmingham) Treatment of patients suffering from bile duct cancer could be improved by tailoring medication to the levels of a key protein in people with the disease, according to new research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers validate link between genetic variant and poor outcomes in advanced prostate cancer
(Cleveland Clinic) In a new Cleveland Clinic-led study published in JAMA Oncology, researchers show that a testosterone-related genetic variant -- HSD3B1(1245C) -- is associated with more aggressive disease and shorter survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news