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Antibody for fighting cancer emerges
(Brigham and Women's Hospital) While studying the underpinnings of multiple sclerosis, investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital came across important clues for how to treat a very different disease: cancer. Researchers describe an antibody that can precisely target regulatory T cells which in turn unleashes the immune system to kill cancer cells. The team reports that the antibody decreased tumor growth in models of melanoma, glioblastoma and colorectal carcinoma, making it an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

One in 5 cancers diagnosed in the United States is a rare cancer
(American Cancer Society) About one in five cancer diagnoses in the United States is a rare cancer, according to a new American Cancer Society report. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

How cancer cells flood the lung
(Helmholtz Zentrum M ü nchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health) Lung cancer patients are particularly susceptible to malignant pleural effusion, when fluid collects in the space between the lungs and the chest wall. Researchers at the Helmholtz Zentrum M ü nchen, in partnership with the German Center for Lung Research, have discovered a novel mechanism that causes this to happen. Their study, published in 'Nature Communications,' also shows that various active substances could potentially be used to treat this condition. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Educational session helps alleviate distress in prostate cancer patients & their partners
(Wiley) In a recent study, an educational session helped alleviate distress equally in both patients with prostate cancer and their partners. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Erectile dysfunction medicines do not cause melanoma, analysis of large studies finds
(NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine) Use of the erectile dysfunction drug Viagra does not cause the development of melanoma, a deadly form of skin cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Comprehensive cancer study assesses potential targets for personalized medicine and finds new ones
(Baylor College of Medicine) A comprehensive approach confirmed molecular changes in cancer cells most likely involved in the development of the disease and discovered others that had not been typically linked to cancer before. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Customized, frequent emails show promise in tobacco cessation
(American Cancer Society) Smokers who received frequent, tailored emails with quitting tips, motivational messages, and social support had cessation rates rivaling that of the most effective medication available for cessation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

ASTRO's 59th Annual Meeting will explore the art and science of radiation oncology
(American Society for Radiation Oncology) Registration opens today for the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), which will highlight advances in cancer research and clinical care involving radiation therapy, also known as radiotherapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study estimates number of US women living with metastatic breast cancer
(NIH/National Cancer Institute) A new study shows that the number of women in the United States living with distant metastatic breast cancer, the most severe form of the disease, is growing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Chance of colon cancer recurrence nearly cut in half in people who eat nuts
(American Society of Clinical Oncology) An observational study of 826 patients with stage III colon cancer showed that those who consumed two ounces or more of nuts per week had a 42% lower chance of cancer recurrence and 57% lower chance of death than those who did not eat nuts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Healthy lifestyle after colon cancer diagnosis helps patients live longer
(American Society of Clinical Oncology) A study of 992 patients with stage III colon cancer found that those who reported a healthy lifestyle during and following adjuvant (post-surgery) treatment had a 42% lower chance of death and a trend for lower chance of cancer recurrence than those who had less healthy lifestyles. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Oral chemotherapy extends survival by more than a year in biliary tract cancer
(American Society of Clinical Oncology) A phase III randomized clinical trial of 447 patients with biliary tract cancers (BTCs, cancers of the bile duct and gallbladder) showed that giving capecitabine after surgery extends survival by a median of 15 months compared to surgery alone. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Targeted therapy can delay recurrence of intermediate-stage lung cancer
(American Society of Clinical Oncology) The targeted therapy gefitinib appears more effective in preventing recurrence after lung cancer surgery than the standard of care, chemotherapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

HPV vaccination may reduce oral HPV infections -- but still under-utilized
(American Society of Clinical Oncology) In one of the first large studies to explore the possible impact of HPV vaccination on oral HPV infections, researchers found it may confer a high degree of protection. The study of young adults in the United States showed that the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 88% lower among those who reported getting at least one vaccine dose than among those who were not vaccinated. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

More cancers diagnosed at early stage following increase in health insurance coverage
(American Society of Clinical Oncology) An analysis of nearly 273,000 patients showed that between 2013 and 2014 there was a 1% increase in the percentage of breast, lung, and colorectal cancers diagnosed at the earliest, most treatable stage. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Drug improves survival of patients with rare cancer by almost a quarter
(Cancer Research UK) Patients who take capecitabine after surgery for bile duct cancer live for almost a year and a half longer than those not given the drug. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

A counterintuitive finding that could benefit younger colorectal cancer patients
(Georgetown University Medical Center) Younger colon cancer patients appear to have more than three times as many mutations in their tumors as older patients, which could lead to more effective treatment decisions, say researchers at Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Number of mutations in a tumor varies by age and type of cancer
(Georgetown University Medical Center) A team of investigators led by researchers at Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center has found that the tumor mutation load, or TML, in a patient's cancer biopsy varied by age and the type of cancer, along with several other factors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Deficiencies in repair of DNA identified in many types of solid tumors
(Georgetown University Medical Center) A new investigation of more than 48,000 stored tumor samples finds evidence of a key deficiency in a repair mechanism designed to keep DNA from being mutated and causing cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cancer-cardiac connection illuminates promising new drug for heart failure
(Gladstone Institutes) A team of researchers at the Gladstone Institutes uncovered a new strategy to treat heart failure, a leading contributor to mortality and healthcare costs in the United States. Despite widespread use of currently-approved drugs, approximately 40 percent of patients with heart failure die within five years of their initial diagnosis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New imaging technique aims to ensure surgeons completely remove cancer
(Washington University School of Medicine) A new imaging technique produces cellular images detailed enough for doctors to distinguish cancerous from normal tissue. The researchers are working on speeding up the new technique so it can be used during a surgery, allowing surgeons to find out whether they have removed all the cancer while they still have time to take out more. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Antibody that neutralizes sMIC boosts CTLA4 immunotherapy response and reduces colitis
(Medical University of South Carolina) Co-administering a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes tumor-released sMIC improves anti-CTLA4 antibody therapy effectiveness and reduces treatment-related colitis, report Medical University of South Carolina investigators in an article published online May 17, 2017, by Science Advances. Data indicate that this new combination supports anti-CTLA4 immunotherapy by augmenting endogenous anti-tumor immune responses. The findings also suggest that prescreening patients for serum sMIC can help identify patients who will best benefit from anti-CTLA4 immunotherapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Personalized medicine: The promise, the hype and the pitfalls
(Taylor& Francis Group) Who owns your health data and why? Who really benefits from new cancer treatment development? Does personalised medicine live up to the hype? Does personalised medicine help us to know ourselves? What is the real-life value of precision medicine? (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

PBS LearningMedia and Stand Up To Cancer announce 2017 Class of Emperor Science Awards
(Entertainment Industry Foundation) One hundred high school students from 29 states are winners in the second year of PBS LearningMedia's and Stand Up To Cancer's Emperor Science Award program, an initiative designed to encourage high school students to explore careers cancer research and care. Recipients will conduct research in a lab and/or virtually working with an esteemed scientist on a rewarding multi-week cancer research project, will receive a Google Chrome computer and a $1,500 stipend for expenses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers invented tools from flashes of light for controlling signalling circuits in living cells
(University of Turku) Researchers at Turku Centre for Biotechnology have invented new tools for decoding and controlling signalling circuits in living cells with flashes of light. In principle, any cellular circuit can now be targeted with the new method. By using this approach, the researchers discovered that major biological signalling circuits can be made to resonate when driven at their resonant frequency. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Brigatinib first to offer over 1-year control of ALK-positive lung cancer post-crizotinib
(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) Results of a multi-center, 222-person phase 2 clinical trial of the next-generation ALK inhibitor, brigatinib at 180mg/day, used after failure of crizotinib showed a 54 percent response rate and 12.9 month progression-free survival. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Breast cancer risk is more affected by total body fat than abdominal fat
(Society for Endocrinology) A reduction in overall body fat, rather than abdominal fat, is associated with lower levels of breast cancer markers. The study published in Endocrine-Related Cancer, found that levels of several breast cancer risk markers were reduced in postmenopausal women who lost total body fat, rather than just belly fat. These results emphasize the importance of maintaining a healthy weight and could influence the design of diet and exercise plans for overweight women. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

3-D printed ovaries produce healthy offspring
(Northwestern University) 3-D printed bioprosthetic mouse ovaries restored fertility in infertile mice and produced healthy mouse pups. The mothers also were able to nurse their pups. The research is targeted to women whose cancer treatments impaired their fertility and hormone production. The ovaries are constructed of 3-D printed scaffolds that house immature eggs and were successful in boosting hormone production and restoring fertility. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Pitt analysis determines odds of a hookah non-smoker taking first puff
(University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences) A positive attitude toward and desire to take up hookah smoking are the most likely predictors of a young adult becoming a hookah tobacco smoker, University of Pittsburgh researchers found in the first nationally representative analysis of hookah use by young adults over an extended follow-up period. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Complications from thyroid cancer surgery more common than believed, study finds
(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) As thyroid cancer rates rise, more people are having surgery to remove all or part of their thyroid. A new study suggests complications from these procedures are more common than previously believed. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New clinical trial framework tests 'natural' cures for cancer
(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) A University of Colorado Cancer Center clinical trial is now recruiting prostate cancer patients who would otherwise be on a watch-and-wait protocol to test the ability of grape seed extract to slow the rise of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a common marker of prostate cancer progression. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Clinics should choose women's breast screening appointment times to improve attendance
(Queen Mary University of London) For women who miss a breast screening appointment, giving a fixed date and time for a new appointment could improve poor attendance and be a cost-effective way to shift national participation trends, according to an analysis led by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cell changes drive breast cancer relapse
(European Molecular Biology Laboratory) Relapse is now the main cause of death for breast cancer patients. Researchers at EMBL have found that, in mice, the tumor cells that survive therapy and eventually cause a relapse have specific traits that distinguish them from healthy cells. In a study published today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, the scientists revealed that two of these traits could be promising targets for treatments to reduce tumor recurrence in breast cancer patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Metabolic peculiarities betray the identity of relapse-causing breast cancer cells
(JCI Journals) Relapsing breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and relapse-causing tumor cells are difficult to identify and target during remission. In a study published this week in the JCI, research led by Martin Jechlinger at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory discovered that alterations in fat metabolism single out relapse-causing cells, providing insights into future strategies for preventing breast cancer relapse. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Simple post-surgery step significantly reduces bladder cancer recurrence
(SWOG) It's just one step. Flushing the bladder with a common chemotherapy drug after a cancerous tumor is surgically removed reduces the chances of that cancer returning. Canadian and European clinical trials have proven this true and now a major US study has done the same. Results from the SWOG study will be presented at American Urological Association annual meeting held May 12-16 in Boston. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Prototype drug uses novel mechanism to treat lung cancers
(Case Western Reserve University) Lung cancer tumors were prevented in mice by a novel small molecule that directly activates a tumor suppressor protein. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Strategy significantly boosts colorectal screening for groups with low rates
(UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center) UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers and collaborators report in the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine that providing one-on-one support and customized tools for decision-making increased screening rates for patients at two community health centers in North Carolina and New Mexico. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Decision aid, support strategy boosts colorectal testing for groups with low screening
(University of Texas at Austin) Helping patients understand colonoscopy alternatives and make a colorectal cancer screening choice based on their own values -- combined with one-on-one support -- dramatically increases screening completion among patients with historically lower screening rates, a new study finds. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Tumor-trained T cells go on patrol
(Garvan Institute of Medical Research) In cancer, immune cells infiltrate tumors -- but it hasn't been known which immune cells exit the tumor or where they go next.Garvan researchers have shown that activated T cells are the main immune cell to leave tumors, and that these T cells move to other tumors and to draining lymph nodesThe findings will inform the development of T-cell-based immunotherapies for metastatic cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Stem-cell transplants show limited benefit for double-hit lymphoma patients in remission
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Patients with double hit lymphoma (DHL) who undergo autologous stem-cell transplantation (autoSCT) after achieving remission are not more likely to remain in remission or live longer than patients who do not undergo autoSCT, according to a new analysis from the Perelman School of Medicine and the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Parents support policies to limit teens' access to indoor tanning
(Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute) Research led by Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute found that almost two-thirds (65 percent) of parents of adolescents agreed with policies to ban indoor tanning for youth under age 18. About one-quarter of parents had no opinion (23 percent), and only 12 percent disagreed. Support for an indoor tanning ban was high across racial/ethnic groups and geographic regions of the US. The study appears online in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study: New blood test is more accurate in predicting prostate cancer risk than PSA
(Cleveland Clinic) A team of researchers led by Cleveland Clinic have demonstrated that a new blood test known as IsoPSA detects prostate cancer more precisely than current tests in two crucial measures -- distinguishing cancer from benign conditions, and identifying patients with high-risk disease.By identifying molecular changes in the PSA protein, the findings, published online last month by European Urology, suggest that once validated, use of IsoPSA may reduce the need for biopsy, and may lower the likelihood of overdetection and overtreatment of nonlethal prostate cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New finding affecting immune reconstitution related to B cells
(Children's Hospital Los Angeles) Researchers from the Children's Center for Cancer and Blood Diseases at Children's Hospital Los Angeles examined the mechanisms of B cell immune reconstitution in pediatric patients who had undergone bone marrow transplantation and discovered a disruption in the maturation of B cells -- critical to the immune system -- preventing the production of antibodies that fight infection. The results of the study were published in the journal Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation on May 12. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Skin cancer on the rise
(Mayo Clinic) New diagnoses for two types of skin cancer increased in recent years, according to a Mayo Clinic-led team of researchers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

WSU researchers deliver first 'nanotherapeutics' to tumor
(Washington State University) For the first time, WSU researchers have demonstrated a way to deliver a drug to a tumor by attaching it to a blood cell. The innovation could let doctors target tumors with anticancer drugs that might otherwise damage healthy tissues. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scientists light the way for immune system to attack cancer
(University of Rochester Medical Center) The science behind harnessing the immune system to fight cancer is complicated, but a University of Rochester Medical Center laboratory discovered a simple, practical way to use light and optics to steer killer immune cells toward tumors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Chronic childhood illness linked with later life mental health problems
(University of Sussex) A new study into the effects of chronic physical illness in children on their life-long mental health has found that such experiences appear to increase the chances of them having depression and anxiety in adulthood. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Ludwig researchers identify counterintuitive approach to treating a brain cancer
(Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research) The loss of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN has been linked to tumor growth and chemotherapy resistance in the almost invariably lethal brain cancer glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Now, Ludwig researchers have shown that one way to override the growth-promoting effects of PTEN deletion is, surprisingly, to inhibit a separate tumor suppressor gene. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cutting smoking rates could save the NHS £ 67 million a year
(Cancer Research UK) If smoking rates dropped to 5 percent in the UK by 2035, the NHS could save £ 67million in just one year, according to research published in Tobacco Control today. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

First study of Oncolytic HSV-1 in children & young adults with cancer indicates safety, tolerability
(Nationwide Children's Hospital) HSV1716 -- an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 -- has been studied in adults via injection into the brain and superficial tumors. Now, a team of researchers at Nationwide Children's Hospital and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center have completed the first phase 1 trial of the virus in the pediatric population, published online in Clinical Cancer Research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news