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Positive, negative or neutral, it all matters: NASA explains space radiation
(NASA/Johnson Space Center) Charged particles may be small, but they matter to astronauts. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is investigating these particles to solve one of its biggest challenges for a human journey to Mars: space radiation and its effects on the human body. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Russian scientists have studied the genes that allow cancer cells to resist drugs
(RUDN University) Researchers from the People's Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University) have studied the mechanism of drug resistance for ovarian and breast cancer cells. They discovered that these cancer cells have redox-dependent mechanism which is tasked with sustaining their drug resistance. The results have been published in two articles in the journal of Free Radical Biology and Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Novel assay shows promise for non-invasive detection of PD-L1 on circulating tumor cells
(Future Science Group) Researchers have presented the first report of a new microfluidics-based approach for detecting circulating cancer biomarkers in blood samples. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Discovery of a new genetic syndrome which predisposes the body to cancer
(Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona) A new syndrome caused by biallelic mutations -- those produced in both gene copies inherited from the mother and father -- in the FANCM gene predisposes the body to the appearance of tumors and causes rejection to chemotherapy treatments. Contrary to what scientists believed, the gene does not cause Fanconi anaemia. Researchers recommend modifying the clinical monitoring of patients with these mutations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Forgoing chemo linked to worse survival in older patients with advanced colon cancer who had dementia
(American Association for Cancer Research) A pre-existing diagnosis of dementia was associated with increased risk of death for older patients with advanced colon cancer; however, some of the effects of dementia on survival could be mediated by receipt of chemotherapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

A rapid alternative to standard safety tests for lentiviral vectors
(Cell Press) A new, publicly available test to assess the safety of cell therapy products altered by lentivirus generates results within a few hours, potentially hastening the pace at which viral immunotherapies move into clinical trial. Current assays required by the US Food and Drug Administration take about six weeks to complete. The rapid test, which does not have a significant risk of false positives, is also a fraction of the cost of the standard approach. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Breathing dirty air may harm kidneys
(Washington University in St. Louis) Outdoor air pollution may increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and contribute to kidney failure, according to researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the Veterans Affairs (VA) St. Louis Health Care System. Scientists used VA data to evaluate the effects of air pollution and kidney disease on nearly 2.5 million people and compared it to air-quality levels collected by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

'Labyrinth' chip could help monitor aggressive cancer stem cells
(University of Michigan) Inspired by the Labyrinth of Greek mythology, a new chip etched with fluid channels sends blood samples through a hydrodynamic maze to separate out rare circulating cancer cells into a relatively clean stream for analysis. It is already in use in a breast cancer clinical trial. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

When good immune cells turn bad
(Children's Hospital Los Angeles) Investigators at CHLA have identified the molecular pathway used to foster neuroblastoma and demonstrated use of a clinically available agent, ruxolitinib, to block the pathway. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Smoking negatively impacts long-term survival after breast cancer
(Oxford University Press USA) A new study published in JNCI Cancer Spectrum finds that smoking negatively impacts long-term survival after breast cancer. Quitting smoking after diagnosis may reduce the risk of dying from breast cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Alternative splicing, an important mechanism for cancer
(Sanford-Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) Scientists discover several alterations in this cellular process with implications in cancer by analyzing samples from more than 4,000 patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

'Capicua' gene plays a key role in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
(Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncol ó gicas (CNIO)) Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre have discovered a genetic alteration that is directly involved in at least 10 percent of cases of one of the most common cancers in children, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In a paper published this week in the printed edition of Genes and Development, the scientists explain how the mice in which a specific gene, known as Capicua, has been inactivated, inevitably develop this type of leukemia. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Poliovirus therapy induces immune responses against cancer
(Duke University Medical Center) An investigational therapy using modified poliovirus to attack cancer tumors appears to unleash the body's own capacity to fight malignancies by activating an inflammation process that counter's the ability of cancer cells to evade the immune system. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scientists restore tumor-fighting structure to mutated breast cancer proteins
(Virginia Tech) Scientists have revealed the architecture of the breast cancer susceptibility protein (BRCA1) for the first time. The finding may provide answers toward restoring the protein's cancer-fighting ability. Triple negative breast cancer is often linked to inherited mutations in the BRCA1 gene. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers identify millions of new genes in the human microbiome
(University of Maryland School of Medicine) A new study of the human microbiome has uncovered millions of previously unknown genes from microbial communities in the human gut, skin, mouth, and vaginal microbiome, allowing for new insights into the role these microbes play in human health and disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

The right way to repair DNA
(Salk Institute) Salk scientists discover that microprotein helps cells choose best path to repair genes and avoid cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Tibetan yoga practice may improve sleep quality for breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) Participating in twice-weekly practice of Tibetan yoga may reduce sleep disturbances and improve sleep quality in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, according to a study from researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Space radiation is risky business for the human body
(NASA/Johnson Space Center) NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is working to protect the whole human body from radiation in space. Space radiation is dangerous and one of the primary health risks for astronauts. Virtually any cell in the body is susceptible to radiation damage. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers hit the brakes on lethal brain cancers in mice
(NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) New research conducted in mice provides evidence that highly lethal brain tumors, called high-grade gliomas, stop growing when deprived of a specific molecule naturally produced when brain cells fire. The experiments, led by a group of scientists from Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, suggest that targeting a protein called neuroligin-3 may prove beneficial in patients with these diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

'Capicua' gene plays a key role in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
(Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncol ó gicas (CNIO)) Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have discovered a genetic alteration that is directly involved in at least 10% of cases of one of the most common cancers in children, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In a paper published this week in the printed edition of Genes and Development, the scientists explain how the mice in which a specific gene, known as Capicua, has been inactivated, inevitably develop this type of leukaemia. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Penn researchers identify new target, develop new drug for cancer therapies
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Opening up a new pathway to fight cancer, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have found a way to target an enzyme that is crucial to tumor growth while also blocking the mechanism that has made past attempts to target that enzyme resistant to treatment. Researchers were able to use this finding to develop a drug that successfully inhibits tumor growth of melanoma as well as pancreatic and colorectal cancer in mice. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New study offers novel treatment strategy for patients with colon cancer
(Boston University School of Medicine) Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In a new study, researchers demonstrate for the first time that a previously uncharacterized protein is increased in colon cancer. The protein is immunoglobulin containing proline rich receptor-1 (IGPR-1) which was recently identified in the same laboratory as a cell adhesion molecule. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Slowly proliferating melanoma cells with high metastatic properties
(The Wistar Institute) A study conducted at The Wistar Institute has led to the identification of a slowly proliferating and highly invasive melanoma cell subpopulation, characterized by production of a protein associated with invasive behavior. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New clinical trial explores combining immunotherapy and radiation for sarcoma patients
(University of Maryland Medical Center) University of Maryland School of Medicine researchers are investigating a new approach to treat high-risk soft-tissue sarcomas by combining two immunotherapy drugs with radiation therapy to stimulate the immune system to destroy the main tumor as well as leftover microscopic cancer cells that may seed other tumors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Screening for cervical abnormalities in women offered HPV vaccination
(PLOS) Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing detects a higher number of precancerous cervical lesions than cytology-based Pap smears in a female population including a proportion offered HPV vaccination, according to a new study published in PLOS Medicine by Karen Canfell of Cancer Council New South Wales, Australia, researchers at the Victorian Cytology Service, Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Brain powered: Increased physical activity among breast cancer survivors boosts cognition
(University of California - San Diego) It is estimated that up to 75 percent of breast cancer survivors experience problems with cognitive difficulties following treatments, perhaps lasting years. Currently, few science-based options are available to help. University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers report in a pilot study of 87 female breast cancer survivors an increase in physical activity more than doubled the women's post-treatment mental processing speed. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Red cosmetic powder used in Hindu ceremonies contains unsafe lead levels
(Rutgers University) Sindoor -- a cosmetic powder sold in the United States and used during Hindu religious and cultural ceremonies -- has unsafe levels of lead, according to a Rutgers University study. Researchers from the School of Public Health say at a minimum there is a need to monitor sindoor lead levels and make the public aware of the potential hazards. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cancer Health Disparities Conference set for Sept. 25-28 in Atlanta
(American Association for Cancer Research) The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) will host its 10th AACR Conference on The Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved, Sept. 25-28, at the Sheraton Atlanta Hotel. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Lack of trust less of a barrier to clinical trial participation, say minority populations
(Research!America) Significantly fewer African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians and non-Hispanic whites say 'lack of trust' is a reason why individuals do not participate in clinical trials, indicating a more favorable perception of this research. In a recent public opinion survey commissioned by Research!America, the percentage of respondents citing 'lack of trust' as a reason declined by as much as 15% among minority groups and the population overall, compared to the results of a 2013 survey. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers compose guidelines for handling CAR T cell side effects
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) Immune-cell based therapies opening a new frontier for cancer treatment carry unique, potentially lethal side effects that provide a new challenge for oncologists, one addressed by a team led by clinicians at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center with proposed guidelines for systematically dealing with the toxicities of these drugs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New model may help science overcome the brain's fortress-like barrier
(University of Portsmouth) Scientists have helped provide a way to better understand how to enable drugs to enter the brain and how cancer cells make it past the blood brain barrier. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New lung cell type discovered
(Boston University School of Medicine) A recent study has identified a new lung cell type that is implicated in the body's innate immune defense against the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae -- one of the leading causes of pneumonia worldwide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

People with HIV who smoke are more likely to die from lung cancer than from HIV itself
(Massachusetts General Hospital) People living with HIV who adhere to antiretroviral therapy but smoke cigarettes are around 10 times more likely to die from lung cancer than from HIV itself, according to a study led by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

NUS scientists combine antimalarial drug with light sensitive molecules for promising treatment of cancer
(National University of Singapore) NUS scientists discovered that a combination of artemisinin, which is a potent anti-malarial drug, and aminolaevulinic acid, which is a photosensitizer, could kill colorectal cancer cells and suppress tumor growth more effectively than administering artemisinin alone. This novel combination therapy could also have fewer side effects. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Metabolism can be used to subtype hepatoblastoma
(Ecole Polytechnique F é d é rale de Lausanne) Looking at cell metabolism instead of histology, EPFL scientists have identified new biomarkers that could help more accurately classify the two main subtypes of hepatoblastoma, a children's liver cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Altitude training for cancer-fighting cells
(Weizmann Institute of Science) Oxygen starvation could toughen up immune T cells for cancer immunotherapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cholesterol-like molecules switch off the engine in cancer-targeting Natural Killer cells
(Trinity College Dublin) The engine used by cancer-killing 'Natural Killer' cells is turned on by a protein called Srebp, which can be blocked by certain sterols like cholesterol. Tumor cells can produce oxysterols and cholesterol levels tend to be higher in people with obesity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

How bacteria hinder chemotherapy
(Weizmann Institute of Science) Scientists find bacteria in pancreatic tumors that metabolize a common drug. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Springer Healthcare's Medicine Matters expands to include oncology and rheumatology resources
(Springer) Springer Healthcare has launched two new websites specializing in oncology and rheumatology to complement their flagship medical education platform, Medicine Matters diabetes. The three therapy-specific medical education platforms now form a family of products to support healthcare professionals around the world. The resources offered are invaluable for professionals who are increasingly short of time and require the flexibility of free online materials and tools. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

ASTRO awards early-career research grants to physician-scientists
(American Society for Radiation Oncology) The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is awarding $275,000 in research awards to four early-career scientists as part of the Society's efforts to retain and foster the intellectual research talent currently entering the field of radiation oncology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

UMass Amherst epidemiologist will seek hormone biomarkers of breast cancer risk
(University of Massachusetts at Amherst) Hankinson, who was the principal investigator of the Nurses' Health Study cohort at Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2006-11 and is now at UMass Amherst's School of Public Health and Health Sciences, says the investigation will take two directions, both related to recent findings that suggest measuring only 'the classic estrogens' as risk biomarkers may miss 'a sizeable component of estrogenic activity' also relevant to risk. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

MicroRNA helps cancer evade immune system
(Salk Institute) Salk researchers discover how oxygen-deprived tumors survive body's immune response. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

NCI awards $12.4 million lymphoma research grant to University of Iowa and Mayo Clinic
(University of Iowa Health Care) University of Iowa Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center and Mayo Clinic have received a five-year, $12.4 million grant renewal from the National Cancer Institute to continue the Specialized Program of Research Excellence for lymphoma research. First funded in 2002 and competitively renewed in 2007, 2012, and now again in 2017, it is the nation's longest-standing lymphoma SPORE and has now received more than $46 million from the NCI. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

A fat-regulating enzyme could hold the key to obesity, diabetes, cancer, other diseases
(Rutgers University) It had already been known that the enzyme known as phosphatidic acid phosphatase plays a crucial role in regulating the amount of fat in the human body. Controlling it is therefore of interest in the fight against obesity. But scientists at Rutgers University-New Brunswick have now found that getting rid of the enzyme entirely can increase the risk of cancer, inflammation and other ills. Their findings were published online in the Journal of Biological Chemistry last month. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Chemotherapy pain could be eased by jetlag drug, study suggests
(University of Edinburgh) Painful side effects from cancer medicines could be tackled with a drug that eases the effects of jetlag, research suggests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Thirdhand smoke exposure effects on liver and brain found to worsen over time
(University of California - Riverside) Thirdhand-smoke (THS) results when exhaled smoke and smoke emanating from the tip of burning cigarettes gets on surfaces such as clothing, hair, homes, and cars. Using a mouse model, researchers at the University of California, Riverside have found that THS exposure has a significant effect on health, specifically the liver and brain, as early as one month after initiation of exposure -- an effect that worsens with time. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Link between breast cancer and obesity influenced by type of obesity, says Chinese study
(Wiley) Obese women with large bellies may be at risk of developing a different subtype of breast cancer than those with widespread fat accumulation, according to a new study published in The Oncologist. This suggests that the link between breast cancer and obesity may be more complex than previously thought. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New study shows that genomic profiling can help improve treatment of brain tumors in children
(Wiley) The largest genomic profiling study ever conducted into a type of brain tumor known as glioma in children has identified genetic alterations in 96% of cases. As reported in The Oncologist, this genetic information could help to identify the most effective treatments for specific cases of glioma, hopefully improving the prognosis for what is currently the leading cause of death for children with cancer in the US. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Natural molecule appears to shut off cancer cells' energy source
(Duke University Medical Center) Researchers at Duke Cancer Institute have not only untangled an unusual wiring system that cancer cells use for carbohydrate metabolism, but also identified a natural compound that appears to selectively shut down this system in laboratory studies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Rare genetic cause of peritoneal mesothelioma points to targeted therapy
(Brigham and Women's Hospital) BWH investigators have uncovered a new genetic cause of mesothelioma: a genetic rearrangement in the ALK gene, observed in three patients with peritoneal mesothelioma. Unlike previously known causes, this new discovery points to a potential therapeutic approach for those few patients whose tumors harbor the mutation. The team's findings are published in JAMA Oncology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news