Researchers link cellular transport pathway to aggressive brain cancer
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers at McGill University have identified a new cellular pathway that limits the growth and spread of brain tumors by controlling the recycling of cell surface receptor proteins. The study, which will be published January 14 in the Journal of Cell Biology (JCB), suggests that the pathway, which involves a protein called Rab35, is defective in many patients with glioblastoma and that restoring Rab35's activity could be a new therapeutic strategy for this deadly form of brain cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Tool that predicts if chemotherapy will produce debilitating side effects in older adults
(City of Hope) Researchers at City of Hope, a world-renowned independent research and treatment center for cancer, diabetes and other life-threatening diseases, have developed a tool that could predict if older adults with early-stage breast cancer will develop a severe or deadly reaction to chemotherapy. This first-of-its-kind risk assessment tool -- called the Cancer and Aging Research Group-Breast Cancer (CARG-BC) Score -- helps oncologists make personalized treatment recommendations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study shows sharp decline in cancer screenings, diagnoses during the first COVID-19 surge
(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) In one of the first studies to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer diagnoses, researchers at Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center document a substantial decline in cancer and precancer diagnoses at the Northeast's largest health care system during the first peak of the pandemic because of a drop in the number of cancer screening tests performed. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Triggering tumor antiviral immune response in triple negative breast cancer
(Baylor College of Medicine) Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine have discovered how therapeutics targeting RNA splicing can activate antiviral immune pathways in triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) to trigger tumor cell death and signal the body's immune response. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Esophageal cancer patients show abundance of oral pathogens
(Tokyo Medical and Dental University) DNA from various oral bacterial pathogens has been found in tumors from esophageal cancer patients. Researchers led by Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) examined bacterial pathogens in plaque and saliva from esophageal cancer patients, determining that a prevalence of three species in particular, along with alcohol consumption, is associated with a high risk of esophageal cancer. Screening of oral pathogens could therefore be used for early disease detection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Exact sciences licenses targeted digital sequencing; adds leadership in precision oncology
(The Translational Genomics Research Institute) Exact Sciences Corp. (Nasdaq: EXAS) today announced that it has acquired a worldwide exclusive license to the proprietary TARDIS technology from the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope. This compelling and technically distinct approach will help expand Exact Sciences' leadership in precision oncology and offers a differentiated patient-specific solution in minimal residual disease testing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New suspicious lesions on breast MRI in neoadjuvant therapy
(American Roentgen Ray Society) According to ARRS'American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR), new suspicious findings occurred in 5.5% of breast MRI examinations performed to monitor response to neoadjuvant therapy; none of these new lesions were malignant. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cancer research reveals how mutations in a specific gene cause different types of disease
(University of Birmingham) Leading cancer expert solve long-standing question of how various types of mutations in just one gene cause different types of diseases (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Bladder cancer -- When to use chemotherapy
(Charit é - Universit ä tsmedizin Berlin) In patients with bladder cancer, chemotherapy effectiveness is partially determined by the body's immune system response to the malignancy. This is the conclusion of research conducted by a team of scientists from Charit é -- Universit ä tsmedizin Berlin and the Berlin Institute of Health. The findings, which have been published in Science Translational Medicine*, can be used to predict treatment success and may increase survival in patients with bladder cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

UNH researchers discover new inhibitor drug combination for rare form of cancer
(University of New Hampshire) Researchers at the University of New Hampshire took the novel approach of targeting specific cell proteins that control DNA information using inhibitors, or drugs, that were effective in reducing the growth of the Waldenstr ö m macroglobulinemia cancer cells and when combined with a third drug were even more successful in killing the WM cancer cells which could lead to more treatment options. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scientists modeled protein behavior of archaeal viruses to crack protein folding mystery
(Far Eastern Federal University) Scientists from the Pacific Quantum Center of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) figured out how the AFV3-109 protein with slipknot structure folds and unfolds depending on temperature. The protein is typical for the viruses of the oldest single-celled organisms that can survive in the extreme conditions of underwater volcanic sources - archaea. The research outcome appears in PLOS ONE. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scoring system to redefine how U.S. patients prioritized for liver transplant
(University of Miami Miller School of Medicine) Researchers with Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine are collaborating with faculty at the University of Pennsylvania to develop a risk score that more comprehensively prioritizes liver cancer patients for transplantation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Inpatient mammograms can reduce disparities in breast cancer screening rates
(Massachusetts General Hospital) Inpatient mammograms are a feasible approach to deliver preventive care to hospitalized women who may face significant barriers to completing the test in the outpatient setting. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Ovarian cancer cells adapt to their surroundings to aid tumor growth
(Frontiers) A description of how ovarian cancer cells adapt to survive and proliferate in the peritoneal cavity has been detailed by a new study. It shows structures inside the cells change as the disease progresses, to help the cells grow in an otherwise hostile environment of low oxygen and nutrients. Understanding how these cellular adaptations are regulated could herald new targeted treatment options against the fifth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

UT Southwestern biochemist recognized for pioneering metabolic research
(TAMEST) DALLAS - UT Southwestern Biochemist Benjamin Tu, Ph.D., is the recipient of the 2021 Edith and Peter O'Donnell Award in Science from TAMEST (The Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas). He was chosen for his pioneering research on cellular roles of small molecule metabolites that may have relevance for cancer treatments and other diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Ukraine genome survey adds missing pieces to human diversity puzzle
(GigaScience) The largest study of genetic diversity in Ukraine was published in the open science journalGigaScience. Led by researchers at Uzhhorod National University and Oakland University in the US, the work provides genetic understanding of the historic and pre-historic migration settlements in one of the key intersections of human trade and migration between the Eurasian peoples and identifies genetic variants of medical interest in the Ukrainian population that differ from other European populations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Weaker skin barrier leads to faster uptake of chemicals
(Karolinska Institutet) The ability of our skin to protect us from chemicals is something we inherit. Some people are less well-protected which could imply an increased risk of being afflicted by skin disease or cancer. A new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden that has been published in Environmental Health Perspectives shows how the rate of uptake of common chemicals is faster in people with a genetically weakened skin barrier. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

UCI researchers use deep learning to identify gene regulation at single-cell level
(University of California - Irvine) In aScience Advances study, UCI researchers describe how they developed a deep-learning framework to observe gene regulation at the cellular level. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Record drop in cancer mortality for second straight year due to improved lung cancer treatment
(American Cancer Society) Overall cancer death rates in the United States dropped continuously from 1991 through 2018 for a total decrease of 31%, including a 2.4% decline from 2017 to 2018. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Immune system killer cells controlled by circadian rhythms
(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) An exhaustive dataset drawn from mammalian macrophage cells establishes that macrophage activity is controlled by circadian timing, and - with a substantial mismatch between oscillating proteins and mRNA - hints at unexpected calibration of that timing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New functions of integrin and talin discovered by an international research network
(Tampere University) Researchers at Tampere University, Finland, have published new results in collaboration with an international research network that help to understand the biological phenomena mediated by cell membrane integrin receptors and contribute to the development of methods for the treatment of cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Rising health risks mean stronger regulations needed for smokeless tobacco
(University of York) Researchers at the University of York are calling for more stringent regulatory measures to reduce the health burden of smokeless tobacco, a product often found in UK stores without the proper health warnings and as a result of illicit trading. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Texas A & M research explores how melanoma grows and spreads
(Texas A&M University) The first step in treating cancer is understanding how it starts, grows and spreads throughout the body. A relatively new cancer research approach is the study of metabolites, the products of different steps in cancer cell metabolism, and how those substances interact. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scientists study use of abundant enzyme in tumor cells to monitor cancer treatment
(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) After 14 years studying the action of the enzyme LMWPTP in tumor cells, Brazilian researchers conclude that the molecule is associated with chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Discovery of a new approach to inhibiting a highly treatment-refractory liver cancer
(Massachusetts General Hospital) Blocking placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor family, inhibits the progression of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy in mouse models. This novel approach to targeting the connective tissue microenvironment of ICC, a rare but notoriously treatment-resistant form of liver cancer, could pave the way for combination therapies, including chemotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Killing cancer by unleashing the body's own immune system
(University of Missouri-Columbia) The body's immune system is the first line of defense against infections like bacteria, viruses or cancers. Some cancers, however, have developed the art of molecular deception to avoid destruction by the body's immune system. Now, a University of Missouri researcher might have found a new way to help the body's immune system get past that deception and destroy the cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Singapore and US scientists uncover the structure of Wnt, Wntless proteins
(Duke-NUS Medical School) Preventing Wnt from hitching a ride may offer new avenue for novel treatments for cancer and fibrosis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

One in five brain cancers fueled by overactive mitochondria
(Columbia University Irving Medical Center) A new study has found that up to 20% of aggressive brain cancers are fueled by overactive mitochondria and new drugs in development may be able to starve the cancers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study identifies exposure to common food-borne pathogen linked to rare brain cancer
(American Cancer Society) A new study suggests a link between toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and the risk of glioma, a type of brain cancer, in adults. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

'Invisible' stem cells evade natural killer cells using immune 'off-switch'
(University of California - San Francisco) UC San Francisco scientists have discovered a new way to control the immune system's 'natural killer' (NK) cells, a finding with implications for novel cell therapies and tissue implants that can evade immune rejection. The findings could also be used to enhance the ability of cancer immunotherapies to detect and destroy lurking tumors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scientists develop a cheaper method that might help create fuels from plants
(Ohio State University) Scientists have figured out a cheaper, more efficient way to conduct a chemical reaction at the heart of many biological processes, which may lead to better ways to create biofuels from plants. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Understanding how to improve antibodies targeting OX40 for the treatment of cancer
(University of Southampton) Scientists at the University of Southampton's Centre for Cancer Immunology have gained new insight into how the immune system can be better used to find and kill cancer cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Virtual care at cancer center during COVID-19
(JAMA Network) The outcomes of a cancer center-wide virtual care program launched in response to the COVID-19 pandemic were examined in this study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Deep learning helps predicting occult peritoneal metastasis in stomach cancer
(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) A new study led by the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences shows that deep learning can help predicting the occult peritoneal metastasis in stomach cancer. It provides a novel and noninvasive approach for stomach cancer patients and may inform individualized surgical management of stomach cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Focused ultrasound shows promise for Parkinson's disease
(University of Virginia Health System) A scalpel-free alternative to brain surgery has the potential to benefit people with Parkinson's disease symptoms that are much more severe on one side of the body, new research suggests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Drug combination increases susceptibility to chemotherapy in cases of severe neuroblastoma
(University of Gothenburg) Researchers at the University of Gothenburg now suggest a possible cure for children with hard-to-treat forms of neuroblastoma using a new combination of drugs. In a new study in the journal Cancer Research, they describe how a two small molecule-based drug combination likely inhibit the tumor's growth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cancer cells hibernate like bears to evade harsh chemotherapy
(University Health Network) Dr. Catherine O'Brien's study is the first to identify that cancer cells hijack an evolutionary conserved program to survive chemotherapy. Furthermore, the researchers show that novel therapeutic strategies aimed at specifically targeting cancer cells in this slow-dividing state can prevent cancer regrowth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

COVID-19 accelerates cancer virtual care with quality, convenience and cost savings
(University Health Network) Patients and healthcare providers at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre rated virtual care during COVID-19 as highly satisfactory overall for quality of care and convenience, while at the same time saving patients millions in costs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Scientists create ON-OFF switches to control CAR T cell activity
(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Mass General Cancer Center have created molecular ON-OFF switches to regulate the activity of CAR T cells, a potent form of cell-based immunotherapy that has had dramatic success in treating some advanced cancers, but which pose a significant risk of toxic side effects. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

'Virtual biopsies' could replace tissue biopsies in future thanks to new technique
(University of Cambridge) A new advanced computing technique using routine medical scans to enable doctors to take fewer, more accurate tumour biopsies, has been developed by cancer researchers at the University of Cambridge. This is an important step towards precision tissue sampling for cancer patients to help select the best treatment. In future the technique could even replace clinical biopsies with 'virtual biopsies', sparing patients invasive procedures. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

An epidemic of overdiagnosis: Melanoma diagnoses sky rocket
(Brigham and Women's Hospital) In a Sounding Board article, Welch and colleagues present evidence for why they believe that increased diagnostic scrutiny is the primary driver of the rapid rise in melanoma diagnoses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

The Mark Foundation announces Inaugural Endeavor Award recipients
(The Mark Foundation for Cancer Research) The Mark Foundation for Cancer Research announces the first recipients of its Endeavor Awards and that the online portal for new Endeavor awards is now open. Endeavor Awards were created to unite scientists with diverse areas of expertise to address urgent questions in cancer research. This collaborative program enables teams of investigators -- working either within a single institution or across multiple organizations -- to tackle research challenges in cancer that are too complex for an individual lab to address on its own. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Gut microbe may promote breast cancers
(Johns Hopkins Medicine) A microbe found in the colon and commonly associated with the development of colitis and colon cancer also may play a role in the development of some breast cancers, according to new research from investigators with the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and its Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

The Lustgarten Foundation and the AACR establish two new career development awards
(American Association for Cancer Research) The Lustgarten Foundation and the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) have established two new career development awards for early-career female and underrepresented pancreatic cancer researchers, representing a generous commitment of the Lustgarten Foundation of up to $1.8 million. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

uOttawa study shows that mindfulness can help ease the pain of breast cancer survivors
(University of Ottawa) A study led by University of Ottawa researchers provides empirical evidence that mindfulness has a significant impact on the brain of women suffering from neuropathic pain related to breast cancer treatment. The researchers showed that mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) helps modulate neuropathic pain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

The link between opioid medication and pancreatic cancer
(Rush University Medical Center) Using Center for Disease Control's national population health and cancer statistics datasets, Rush University Medical Center researchers determined that a state's opioid death rate significantly predicted the trend in the incidence of pancreatic cancer years later. This is the first study showing opioid use may be a risk factor contributing to the increasing incidence of pancreatic cancer (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

MD Anderson and Xencor enter strategic collaboration to develop novel T cell-engaging bispecific antibodies for potential treatment of patients with cancer
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Xencor, Inc. today announced a strategic research collaboration and commercialization agreement to develop novel CD3 bispecific antibody therapeutics for the potential treatment of patients with cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

How effective are educational support programs for children with cancer?
(Wiley) As children undergo treatment for cancer, they may miss school and risk falling behind in their education. An analysis published in Pyscho-Oncology has examined the educational support programs provided to children with cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New clues to prostate cancer
(Flinders University) Australian research has identified a new mechanism in which prostate cancer cells can 'switch' character and become resistant to therapy. These findings, just published in Cell Reports, are an important development in unravelling how an aggressive subtype of prostate cancer, neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), develops after hormonal therapies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Viewing upper gastrointestinal cancers in a new light
(Tokyo Medical and Dental University) Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) report the use of Linked Color Imaging, an innovative modality that specifically combines selected wavelengths of light for illumination in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. This method, by enhancing the subtle variations in red and white hues that indicate mucosal transformation, greatly improves the early detection of upper gastrointestinal tract neoplasms as compared with conventional white light illumination. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news