Combining three treatment strategies may significantly improve melanoma treatment
(Massachusetts General Hospital) A study by a team led by a Massachusetts General Hospital investigator finds evidence that combining three advanced treatment strategies for malignant melanoma -- molecular targeted therapy, immune checkpoint blockade and the use of tumor-targeting viruses -- may markedly improve outcomes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Surgery unnecessary for many prostate cancer patients
(Uppsala University) Otherwise healthy men with advanced prostate cancer may benefit greatly from surgery, but many with this diagnosis have no need for it. These conclusions were reached by researchers after following a large group of Scandinavian men with prostate cancer for 29 years. The results are now published in The New England Journal of Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Loss of tight junction protein promotes development of precancerous cells
(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) BIDMC researchers demonstrated that the lack of claudin 18 prompted the development of precancerous, abnormal cells and polyps in the engineered mouse model. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Excess body weight responsible for nearly 4 percent of cancers worldwide
(American Cancer Society) Excess body weight accounted for approximately 3.9 percent of all cancers worldwide in 2012, a figure that is expected to rise in the coming decades given current trends. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New insight into stem cell behavior 'highlights therapeutic target for cancer treatment'
(University of Plymouth) Research led by the University of Plymouth and Technische Universit ä t Dresden has identified a new therapeutic target for cancer treatment and tooth regeneration -- a protein called Prominin-1. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Pesticide exposure raises risk for cardiovascular disease among Latino workers
(University of Illinois at Chicago) Latinos who are exposed to pesticides in their workplaces are twice as likely to have cardiovascular disease compared with Latinos who are not exposed to pesticides at work, according to a new study published in the journal Heart. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study evaluates efficacy and safety of pancreatic cancer treatment
(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) In a new study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Manuel Hidalgo, MD, PhD, and colleagues conducted a phase I/II trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel given in combination with gemcitabine in patients with pancreatic cancer and reduced health status. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Exercise following weight loss may reduce colorectal cancer risk, study finds
(American Physiological Society) New research suggests that exercise is a key factor in reducing colorectal cancer risk after weight loss. According to the study, physical activity causes beneficial changes in the bone marrow. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology -- Endocrinology and Metabolism. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

An integrated approach to finding new treatments for breast cancer
(Baylor College of Medicine) An integrated, multipronged approach aiming at identifying therapeutic targets in cancer has uncovered gene DPYSL3 as a potential contributor to a specific subset of triple-negative breast cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Does work stress increase cancer risk?
(Wiley) In an International Journal of Cancer study of data on more than 280,000 people from North America and Europe, work stress was associated with a significantly increased risk of colorectal, esophagus, and lung cancers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Faster, cheaper test can help predict risk of metastasis in prostate cancer patients
(Elsevier) A report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics describes a new assay to assess copy number alterations that is cheaper, faster, reproducible, and requires less tissue than other diagnostic techniques and has the potential to significantly enhance prostate cancer evaluation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Digital mammography increases breast cancer detection
(Radiological Society of North America) The shift from film to digital mammography increased the detection of breast cancer by 14 percent overall in the United Kingdom without increasing the recall rate, according to a major new study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Novel technique may significantly reduce breast biopsies
(Radiological Society of North America) A novel technique that uses mammography to determine the biological tissue composition of a tumor could help reduce unnecessary breast biopsies, according to a new study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Stop sterilizing your dust
(Northwestern University) A new Northwestern University study has found that an antimicrobial chemical called triclosan is abundant in dust -- and linked to changes in its genetic makeup. The result is dust with organisms that could cause an antibiotic-resistant infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cells 'dance' through endocytosis, metastasis
(American Society for Cell Biology) Celldance, a program of the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB), helps researchers tell the story of their research through video. Two new Celldance videos premiere at the Society's annual meeting, held jointly with the European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO), in San Diego, CA. Videos will be shown Dec 11 at 1:00 pm in Theatre 3 of the Learning Center at the San Diego Convention Center. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Loss of two genes drives a deadly form of colorectal cancer, reveals a potential treatment
(Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) Scientists from Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP), in collaboration with clinicians from Scripps Clinic, have identified that the loss of two genes drives the formation of serrated colorectal cancer--yielding potential biomarkers. The research has also identified a combination treatment that has treated the cancer in mice. The study published today in Immunity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Successful anti-PD-1 therapy requires interaction between CD8+ T cells and dendritic cells
(Massachusetts General Hospital) A team led by a Massachusetts General Hospital investigator has found that successful cancer immunotherapy targeting the PD-1 molecule requires interaction between cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which have been considered the primary therapeutic target, and dendritic cells, critical activators of T cell response. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

The source of stem cells points to two proteins
(Michigan State University) While other animal embryos grow outside the mother, their embryonic cells can get right to work accepting assignments, such as head, tail or vital organ. By contrast, mammalian embryos must first choose between forming the placenta or creating the baby. New research at MSU has pinpointed two proteins that are the keys to this decision making. The process of assigning cells to placenta or baby is important because that is when pluripotent cells are made. These adaptable pluripotent cells are critical to stem cell research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Pushing closer to a new cancer-fighting strategy
(Johns Hopkins Medicine) A molecular pathway that's frequently mutated in many different forms of cancer becomes active when cells push parts of their membranes outward into bulging protrusions, Johns Hopkins researchers report in a new study. The finding, published Nov. 7 in Nature Communications, could eventually lead to new targets for cancer-fighting therapeutics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers use computer model to predict prostate cancer progression
(University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) An international team of cancer researchers from Denmark and Germany have used cancer patient data to develop a computer model that can predict the course of disease for prostate cancer. The model is currently being implemented at a prostate cancer clinic in Germany. The researchers have also found the enzyme that appears to trigger some of the first mutations in prostate cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

ESMO Immuno-Oncology Congress showcases new technologies set to improve cancer treatment
(European Society for Medical Oncology) Innovation in immuno-oncology is exploding and new technologies that are set to benefit many patients with cancer are being showcased in the highly diverse array of topics to be discussed at the ESMO Immuno-Oncology Congress, to be held 13-16 December in Geneva, Switzerland. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Integral Molecular partners with Merus to discover novel therapeutic monoclonal antibodies
(Integral Molecular) Integral Molecular, the industry leader in the discovery of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against membrane proteins, and Merus N.V. (Nasdaq:MRUS), a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company developing innovative bispecific antibody therapeutics, announced that they have entered into a collaboration on multiple undisclosed targets. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Harrington Discovery Institute at University Hospitals announces 2019 grant funding
(University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center) The Harrington Discovery Institute at University Hospitals has announced the 2019 Harrington Scholar-Innovator Award recipients. Projects supported by the awards include new therapeutics to treat metabolic disorders, autoimmune disorders and cancer, and new approaches to eradicate parasitic diseases in developing countries. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

ToxicDocs: World's largest database exposing once-secret documents on industrial poisons
(Columbia University) ToxicDocs consists of more than 20 million discovery documents from myriad lawsuits made public once they were introduced in court but were extremely hard for the public to access. The data includes internal memos, unpublished scientific studies, planning reports for public relations campaigns, meeting minutes and presentations--some dating back to the 1920s--related to the introduction of new products and chemicals into workplaces and commerce. The companies represented range from a small brake manufacturer to multinational giants like J&J and Monsanto. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

USC study examines disruption of circadian rhythm as risk factor for diseases
(University of Southern California) USC scientists report a time-keeping mechanism in liver cells that helps sustain key organ tasks can contribute to diseases when its natural rhythm is disrupted. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Whole-body PET/MRI provides one-stop shop for staging high-risk prostate cancer patients
(Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) New research shows that molecular imaging--specifically, PSMA PET/MR--performs as well as currently used tools and provides additional information on tumor location that could help guide treatment for prostate cancer patients. The research is featured in the December 2018 issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (http://jnm.snmjournals.org). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Increased risk for breast cancer after childbirth may last more than 20 years
(American College of Physicians) The increased risk for breast cancer that occurs after childbirth can last more than 20 years. The risk may be enhanced when a woman is older at first birth or has a family history of breast cancer, and is not mitigated by breastfeeding. Findings from pooled analysis of 15 prospective studies are published in Annals of Internal Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Study finds higher risk of breast cancer for women after giving birth
(UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center) Researchers from the Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group identified elevated breast cancer risk after childbirth in women younger than 55. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Death rates from cancer will fall in Australasian countries and Russia in 2018
(European Society for Medical Oncology) Researchers predict that death rates from cancer will fall in 2018 in Australasian countries and in Russia. However, a greater proportion of the population will die in Russia from the disease than in any of the other countries, mainly because of the large numbers of men who still smoke. The study is published in Annals of Oncology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

MD Anderson study shows key enzyme linked to therapy resistance in deadly lung cancer
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have identified a link between an enzyme tied to cancer formation and therapy resistance in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They believe two existing therapies may hold promise for clinical studies for this deadly and common lung cancer for which relapse often occurs within one year following treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Media Advisory: Young age associated with worse prognosis in specific breast cancer subtype
(Johns Hopkins Medicine) Researchers at Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center are rapidly advancing the understanding of biological factors, including hormones, as predictors of longer disease-free survival for certain subtypes of breast cancer. The implications for treatment -- especially among younger women -- can be profound, but uncertainties remain and decision-making by patients and their physicians can be complicated. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

How does cancer spread?
(McGill University Health Centre) How does cancer spread? While studying human brain tumour cells, a team of scientists at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) found some answers to this crucial, yet so far unanswered question. They looked at a gene called EGFRvIII, which is present in patients with glioblastoma -- a highly aggressive form of brain cancer that spreads quickly and that is difficult to treat. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cancer cells distinguished by artificial intelligence-based system
(Osaka University) A research team at Osaka University created a system that uses a convolutional neural network to learn the features distinguishing different cancer cells, based on images from a phase-contrast microscope. This system accurately differentiated human and mouse cancer cells, as well as their radioresistant clones. This novel approach can improve the speed and accuracy of cancer diagnosis by avoiding the laboriousness and potential errors associated with equivalent analyses by humans. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New insights into childhood cancer
(Charit é - Universit ä tsmedizin Berlin) Peripheral nervous system tumors, known as neuroblastoma, are one of the most common types of childhood tumors. As part of an international research endeavor, researchers from Charit é - Universit ä tsmedizin Berlin have studied the genetic factors behind different tumor subtypes and their prognoses. Their findings enable clinicians to predict the precise clinical course of the disease, and to adapt their treatment regimens accordingly. The study has been published in the prestigious journal Science*. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Breast cancer recruits bone marrow cells to increase cancer cell proliferation
(American Friends of Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv University researchers have discovered that breast cancer tumors boost their growth by recruiting stromal cells that originate in bone marrow. The study suggests that targeting these cells with new therapies could be an effective way of treating the disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Interplay between MicroRNAs and targeted genes in cellular homeostasis of adult zebrafish
The objective of study was to understand the damages induced by toxins in the liver and the intestine as well as the interplay between the miRNome and transcriptome baseline characterization in these tissues in healthy animals under cellular homeostasis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers develop personalized medicine tool for inherited colorectal cancer syndrome
(Huntsman Cancer Institute) An international team of researchers led by Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) has developed, calibrated, and validated a novel tool for identifying the genetic changes in Lynch syndrome genes that are likely to be responsible for causing symptoms of the disease. The results were published this week in the journal Genetics in Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Increased cervical cancer risk in women with positive HPV, but no cellular abnormalities
(Wiley) Researchers have uncovered an increased risk of cervical cancer in women whose cervical cells test positive for certain high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types but do not show any signs of cellular abnormalities. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings may help refine guidelines for cervical cancer screening. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Breast cancer screening: New emphasis on shared decision-making between women and their doctors
(Canadian Medical Association Journal) An updated guideline on screening for breast cancer emphasizes shared decision-making between women and their doctors, supporting women to make an informed decision based on personal preferences when the balance between benefits and harms is uncertain. The guideline, released by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, is published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

UC San Diego researcher gets $4 million NCI award to study cancer drug resistance, spread
(University of California - San Diego) David Cheresh, Distinguished Professor at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, received a $4.2 million National Cancer Institute Outstanding Investigator Award to continue his research into cancer's ability to overcome stress, gain drug resistance and metastasize. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Potential seen for tailoring treatment for acute myeloid leukemia
(University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine) Rapid screening of leukemia cells for drug susceptibility and resistance are bringing scientists closer to patient-tailored treatment for acute myeloid leukemia. Research on the differing drug response patterns of leukemia stem cells and blasts may show why some attempts to treat are not successful and why some patients relapse. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Choice of surgery may affect quality of life for young breast cancer survivors
(American Association for Cancer Research) Younger breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy reported lower breast satisfaction and poorer psychosocial and sexual well-being compared with those who underwent breast-conserving surgery, according to results of a trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Lifestyle intervention helped breast cancer survivors lose weight
(American Association for Cancer Research) Survivors of early-stage breast cancer who participated in a lifestyle intervention on healthy habits lost weight and experienced higher rates of disease-free survival if they completed the program, according to results presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Oxybutynin decreased frequency of hot flashes, improved QOL for breast cancer survivors
(American Association for Cancer Research) Treatment with oxybutynin helped reduce the frequency and intensity of hot flashes for women who could not take hormone replacement, including breast cancer survivors, according to results of a trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Exercise performed during adjuvant breast cancer treatment may improve cardio function
(American Association for Cancer Research) Women who underwent a supervised program of cardiovascular exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment experienced better cardiovascular function than those who were not part of the exercise program, according to results of the EBBA-II trial presented at the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Choice of surgery may affect quality of life for young breast cancer survivors
(Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) Even as more young women with breast cancer opt to have mastectomies, many experience a persistent decline in their sexual and psychosocial well-being following the procedure, as detailed in new research by Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

A mechanistic approach to neuroblastoma prognosis and risk
(American Association for the Advancement of Science) A new study reveals key molecular indicators that could help doctors select the best form of treatment for patients with neuroblastoma -- the most common type of cancer in infants. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

The naked eye alone is not enough to ensure the accurate diagnosis of skin cancer, say experts
(University of Birmingham) The visual inspection of a suspicious skin lesion using the naked eye alone is not enough to ensure the accurate diagnosis of skin cancer, a group of experts have concluded. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Black breast cancer patients have worse outcomes than whites, despite similar treatments
(Loyola University Health System) Black women with the most common form of early breast cancer had worse outcomes than white women even after receiving equivalent care, according to a major new study led by Loyola Medicine medical oncologist Kathy Albain. Dr. Albain presented findings of the international study at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

'Chemo brain' caused by malfunction in three types of brain cells, Stanford study finds
(Stanford Medicine) In a new study explaining the cellular mechanisms behind cognitive impairment from chemotherapy, scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine have demonstrated that a widely used chemotherapy drug, methotrexate, causes a complex set of problems in three major cell types within the brain's white matter. The study, which will be published online Dec. 6 in Cell, also identifies a potential remedy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news