Preclinical Targeting of Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Using CD4-specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells and NK Cells

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy lacking targeted therapy due to shared molecular and transcriptional circuits as well as phenotypic markers with normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Identifying leukemia specific markers expressed on AML or AML subtypes for therapeutic targeting is of exquisite clinical value. Here we show that CD4, a T lymphocytes membrane glycoprotein that interacts with major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and is also expressed in certain AML subsets but not on HSCs is a proper target for genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells). Treatment with CD4 redirected CAR-T cell (CD4CAR) specifically eliminated CD4-expressing AML cell lines in vitro and exhibited a potent anti-leukemic effect in a systemic AML murine model in vivo. We also utilized natural killers as another vehicle for CAR engineered cells and this strategy similarly and robustly eliminated CD4- expressing AML cells in vitro and had a potent in vivo anti-leukemic effect and was noted to have shorter in vivo persistence. Our data offer a proof of concept for immunotherapeutic targeting of CD4 as a strategy to treat CD4 expressing refractory AML as a bridge to stem cell transplant (SCT) in a first in human clinical trial.
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

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Relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) remains a major cause of treatment failure with associated poor prognosis. Low-dose post-HSCT maintenance azacitidine (AZA) has proved to be beneficial in preventing relapses (de Lima et al. Cancer 2010). Herein, we retrospectively evaluated outcomes of patients (pts) treated with low-dose AZA post-HSCT.
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 175 Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeThe impact of myeloid sarcoma (MS) on clinical outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients remains controversial. Moreover, little is known about the role of stem cell transplantation (SCT) in such patients.MethodsClinical data of patients with AML under 18  years of age were retrieved from the TARGET dataset. We analyzed the prevalence, clinical profile, molecular characteristics, and prognosis of MS in these patients.ResultsAmong 884 pediatric patients with AML, the frequency of MS was 12.3%. Pediatric AML with MS was associated with age under 1-year, abnormal cytogenetics, andKMT2A rea...
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion A great deal of progress is being made in the matter of treating aging: in advocacy, in funding, in the research and development. It can never be enough, and it can never be fast enough, given the enormous cost in suffering and lost lives. The longevity industry is really only just getting started in the grand scheme of things: it looks vast to those of us who followed the slow, halting progress in aging research that was the state of things a decade or two ago. But it is still tiny compared to the rest of the medical industry, and it remains the case that there is a great deal of work yet to be done at all...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion A great deal of progress is being made in the matter of treating aging: in advocacy, in funding, in the research and development. It can never be enough, and it can never be fast enough, given the enormous cost in suffering and lost lives. The longevity industry is really only just getting started in the grand scheme of things: it looks vast to those of us who followed the slow, halting progress in aging research that was the state of things a decade or two ago. But it is still tiny compared to the rest of the medical industry, and it remains the case that there is a great deal of work yet to be done at all...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs
sani Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. Recent advances in understanding its molecular basis have opened the way to new therapeutic strategies, including targeted therapies. However, despite an improvement in prognosis it has been documented in recent years (especially in younger patients) that allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains the only curative treatment in AML and the first therapeutic option for high-risk patients. After allo-HSCT, relapse is still a major complication, and is observed in about 50% of patients. Current evidence sugges...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ardi After intensive induction chemotherapy and complete remission achievement, patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are candidates to receive either high-dose cytarabine-based regimens, or autologous (ASCT) or allogeneic (allo-SCT) hematopoietic stem cell transplantations as consolidation treatment. Pretreatment risk classification represents a determinant key of type and intensity of post-remission therapy. Current evidence indicates that allo-SCT represents the treatment of choice for high and intermediate risk patients if clinically eligible, and its use is favored by increasing availability of unrelated or h...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, by adenovirus-mediated delivery and inducible transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate the proliferation of both HCs and SCs by combined Notch1 and Myc activation in in vitro and in vivo inner ear adult mouse models. These proliferating mature SCs and HCs maintain their respective identities. Moreover, when presented with HC induction signals, reprogrammed adult SCs transdifferentiate into HC-like cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, our data suggest that regenerated HC-like cells likely possess functional transduction channels and are able to form connections with adult auditory neurons. Epige...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsOral complications in HSCT survivors are common and may include GVHD, dry mouth, and taste changes. All patients must be screened prior to HSCT and followed up by a dentist periodically to assess the oral health status and modify treatment, if needed.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Background: Actinins are major cytoskeletal proteins that mediate sarcomere function, and they also have important non-muscle functions such as regulating cytokinesis, cell adhesion and migration. There are four isoforms of actinins in mammals (ACTN1-4). Recently, the relationship between actinins and cancer has been discovered in many types of malignancy, yet their prognostic significance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unclear.Methods: We collected data of 155 de novo AML patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database; 85 patients received chemotherapy only and 70 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoieti...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
DOCK family proteins are evolutionarily conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho GTPase with different cellular functions. It has been demonstrated that DOCK1 had adverse prognostic effect in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We first analyzed data of 85 AML patients who were treated with chemotherapy and had available DOCK1 to DOCK11 expression information and found that DOCK1 and DOCK2 had prognostic significance in AML. In view of the known prognosis of DOCK1 in AML, we then explored the prognostic role of DOCK2. One hundred fifty-six AML patients with DOCK2 expression data were extracted from The Cancer Genome...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
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