Deep learning segmentation of orbital fat to calibrate conventional MRI for longitudinal studies

Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Robert A. Brown, Dumitru Fetco, Robert Fratila, Giulia Fadda, Shangge Jiang, Nuha M. Alkhawajah, E. Ann Yeh, Brenda Banwell, Amit Bar-Or, Douglas L. Arnold, Canadian Pediatric Demyelinating Disease NetworkAbstractIn conventional non-quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, image contrast is consistent within images, but absolute intensity can vary arbitrarily between scans. For quantitative analysis of intensity data, images are typically normalized to a consistent reference. The most convenient reference is a tissue that is always present in the image, and is unlikely to be affected by pathological processes. In multiple sclerosis neuroimaging, both the white and gray matter are affected, so normalization techniques that depend on brain tissue may introduce bias or remove biological changes of interest. We introduce a complementary procedure, image “calibration,” the goal of which is to remove technical intensity artifacts while preserving biological differences. We demonstrate a deep learning approach to segmenting fat from within the orbit of the eyes on T1-weighted images at 1.5 and 3 T to use as a reference tissue, and use it to calibrate 1018 scans from 256 participants in a study of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. The machine segmentations agreed with the adjudicating expert (DF) segmentations better than did those of other expert humans, and calibration resulted in better ...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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In this study, we propose a fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) to detect new T2-w lesions in longitudinal brain MR images.Methods: One year apart, multichannel brain MR scans (T1-w, T2-w, PD-w, and FLAIR) were obtained for 60 patients, 36 of them with new T2-w lesions. Modalities from both temporal points were preprocessed and linearly coregistered. Afterwards, an FCNN, whose inputs were from the baseline and follow-up images, was trained to detect new MS lesions. The first part of the network consisted of U-Net blocks that learned the deformation fields (DFs) and nonlinearly registered the baseline image to the fol...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): T Ding, AD Cohen, EE O’Connor, HT Karim, A Crainiceanu, J Muschelli, O Lopez, WE Klunk, HJ Aizenstein, R Krafty, CM Crainiceanu, DL TudorascuAbstractAutomated segmentation of the aging brain raises significant challenges because of the prevalence, extent, and heterogeneity of white matter hyperintensities. White matter hyperintensities can be frequently identified in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of older individuals and among those who have Alzheimer’s disease. We propose OASIS-AD, a method for automatic segmenta...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Ferran Prados, Marcello Moccia, Aubrey Johnson, Marios Yiannakas, Francesco Grussu, Manuel Jorge Cardoso, Olga Ciccarelli, Sebastien Ourselin, Frederik Barkhof, Claudia Wheeler-KingshottAbstractSpinal cord atrophy measurements obtained from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with disability in many neurological diseases and serve as in vivo biomarkers of neurodegeneration. Longitudinal spinal cord atrophy rate is commonly determined from the numerical difference between two volumes (based on 3D surface fitting) or two cr...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions: CSF Aβ levels seem to be crucial in MS early brain volume loss as GM atrophy manifests in regions particularly vulnerable to early Aβ deposition.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we used a sequence combining magnetization transfer (MT) with UTE (“UTE-MT”, TE = 76 μs) and with short TE (“STE-MT”, TE = 3000 μs) to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in brain myelin content in the cuprizone mouse model for MS on a clinical 7 T scanner. During demyelination, UTE-MT ratio (UTE-MTR) and STE-MT ratio (STE-MTR) values were significantly decreased in most white matter and grey matter regions. However, only UTE-MTR detected cortical changes. After remyelination in subcortical and cortical areas, UTE-MTR values remained lower than baseline values, i...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ConclusionsSyMRI can be used in clinical practice because it has a similar diagnostic accuracy which reduces the scanning time compared to the conventional one. However, synthetic T2-FLAIR images need to be improved.
Source: Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: SyMRI can be used in clinical practice because it has a similar diagnostic accuracy which reduces the scanning time compared to the conventional one. However, synthetic T2-FLAIR images need to be improved. PMID: 31782035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Magma - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: MAGMA Source Type: research
Conclusions: Cranial nerve enhancement, present in 8.2% of our patients, was associated with a younger age at MS onset, brainstem lesions, and a more severe disease course.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The correlation between fatigue and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) is well reported, but the intimate mechanisms of the fatigue impact on cognition are not fully defined yet. The aim of this study is to investigate blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) activations in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients with and without cognitive dysfunction and the impact of fatigue on cortical activations. Forty-two patients with RRMS were enrolled in the study. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and Paced Serial Addition Test (PASAT). A cutoff point of a total score of 5...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, FAS is a rare motor speech disorder, often related to cerebrovascular accidents involving critical regions in the dominant hemisphere. In addition, the present case adds further evidence to the role of the left primary motor cortex in modulation of prosody. In rare cases FAS can be the only sign of stroke or can appear after recovery from post-stroke aphasia.
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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