Cryptococcus and cryptococcosis in Iran during 1969-2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Conclusions: Given the significant risk of Cryptococcus species for susceptible humans, mainly HIV-infected patients, it seems quite necessary to adopt concrete preventive strategies to pinpoint the environmental habitats of this yeast.
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused mainly by the pathogenic yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The infection initiates with the inhalation of propagules that are then deposited in the lungs. If not properly treated, cryptococci cells can disseminate and reach the central nervous system. The current recommended treatment for cryptococcosis employs a three-stage regimen, with the administration of amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole. Although effective, these drugs are often unavailable worldwide, can lead to resistance development, and may display toxic effects on the patients. Thus, ne...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we studied eleven clinical strains of theC.gattii species complex isolated from Guangxi, southern China. The genetic identity and variability of these isolates were analyzed via multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and global isolates were evaluated. The mating type, physiological features and antifungal susceptibilities of these isolates were also characterized. Among the eleven isolates, six belonged toC.deuterogattii, while five belonged toC.gattii sensu stricto. TheC.deuterogattii strains from Guangxi, southern China were genetically variable and clu...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The incidence of invasive fungal infections is rising due to the increase in susceptible populations. Current clinically available drugs have therapeutic limitations due to toxicity, narrow spectrum of activity, and more importantly for the consistent rise of fungal species that are intrinsically resistant or develop resistance due to the prolonged therapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for new broad-spectrum antifungal agents with low toxicity and a novel mechanism of action. We previously reported a new class of potent antifungal compounds, acylhydrazones, that target the fungal sphingolipid pathway. Ba...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvaluate the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical outcomes of cryptococcal infections in patients with advanced liver disease or liver transplantation.Recent FindingsCryptococcal infections in patients with advanced liver disease (ALD) are uncommon but associated with high mortality. Less than 10% of patients in a prospective study of non-HIV-infected cryptococcal meningitis patients had ALD. Significantly, fever was uncommon, resulting in delays in diagnosis. Modalities for diagnosing cryptococcal infections include the rapid lateral flow cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) assay from...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This case highlights the risk of transmission of fungal diseases, specifically of C. neoformans, through liver graft during liver transplantation. PMID: 32547692 [PubMed]
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
Pulmonary Cryptococcosis is a common fungal infection mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C.gattii species in immunocompromised patients. Cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis in patients with normal immune func...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic yeast that is present worldwide and interacts with various organisms. In humans, it is responsible for cryptococcosis, a deadly invasive fungal infection that represents around 220,000 cases per year worldwide. Starting from the natural history of the disease in humans, there is accumulating evidence on the capacity of this organism to enter dormancy. In response to the harsh host environment, the yeast is able to adapt dramatically and escape the vigilance of the host’s immune cells to survive. Indeed, the yeast exposed to the host takes on pleiotropic phenotypes, enabling...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
We would like to make some comments on the interesting article by Yokose et al describing a case of cryptococcal meningitis presenting with lower leg cellulitis in a recipient of a kidney transplant.1 The authors state that their case “highlights a good example of an anchoring bias,” but, in our opinion, it could be better defined as an example of overlooked and delayed diagnosis of cryptococcosis for the following reasons: 1) the patient was an immunocompromised host (a solid organ transplant [SOT] recipient receiving immuno suppressive treatment), and the failure of empiric antibiotic treatment should have su...
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
Conclusions: The study results show that 18F-FDG PET/CT could bear a major role in revealing extent of disease especially in deep seated and invasive infections and in monitoring treatment response for the early initiation of second line antifungal therapy as well as timely curtailing the costly antifungal therapy.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Infection/Pulmonary/Outcomes (Poster Session) Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcquired resistance among fungal strains is a growing concern. The reasons for the emergence of this phenomenon, with great clinical implications, are only partially explained and related to the frequent use of fluconazole prophylaxis or therapeutic regimens in medical practice, and evidence of environmental origin of resistance is warranted.Recent FindingsSoil exposed to azole fungicides may select acquired resistant fungal strains and improve the proliferation and maintenance of phenotypes in this environment. So far, the greatest focus on cross-resistance in relation to azoles is with genusAsper...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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