Origins of rheumatoid arthritis

Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: Joint Bone SpineAuthor(s): Marie-Christophe Boissier, Jérome Biton, Luca Semerano, Patrice Decker, Natacha BessisABSTRACTWhile the exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, several mechanisms have been described extensively. The genetic predisposition for this autoimmune disease is largely attributed to MHC class II genes, especially the main polymorphism in the HLA shared epitope. Non-genetic factors account for the rest. The best known are autoantigens to citrullinated or carbmylated proteins, although there are many others. They are recognized by an immune system with defective control mechanisms, in which regulator T-cells are unable to prevent inflammation and the destruction of tissue, joint and vascular structures (among others). Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, which are very abundant at sites of inflammation, interfere with attempts at regulation. Cell metabolism, which typically participates in fighting against the autoantigen attack, does not respond correctly to the demands, making the inflammatory phenomenon worse. This is also the case for environmental factors such as atmospheric pollution, dust, diet (especially salt intake) and infections. Inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-17, are certain implicated, but not initially. They appear as a common execution pathway for a lengthy sentence following an unfortunate encounter between genetic predisposition and a harmful environm...
Source: Joint Bone Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

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In this study, we aim to investigate whether and whereby the oral microbiome communities alter prior to symptoms of RA. Seventy-nine saliva samples were collected from 29 high-risk individuals, who were positive for anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and have no clinical arthritis, 27 RA patients and 23 healthy controls (HCs). The salivary microbiome was examined using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Alpha and beta diversity analysis and the linear discriminant analysis were applied to examine the bacterial diversity, community structure and discriminatory taxa between three groups, respectively. The correlati...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
There is increasing recognition of the role the microbiome plays in states of health and disease. Microbiome studies in systemic autoimmune diseases demonstrate unique microbial patterns in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus to a lesser extent, whereas there is no single bug or pattern that characterizes Multiple Sclerosis. Autoimmune diseases tend to share a predisposition for vitamin D deficiency, which alters the microbiome and integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. In this review, we summarize the influence of intestinal bacteria on the immune system, explore the microb...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a member of the pro-inflammatory cytokine family, induces the expression of a variety of proteins responsible for acute inflammation, and plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of cells in humans. IL-6 signaling is mediated by building a complex of IL-6, the transmembrane IL-6 receptor (mIL-6R) or with soluble forms of IL-6R (sIL-6R), and the signal-transducing subunit molecule gp130. Therefore, three modes for IL-6 signaling may occur in which IL-6 is binding to mIL-6R (classic), to sIL-6R (trans-signaling), or is joined through IL-6R to gp130 on nearby l...
Source: Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Protein Science - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we tested the role of damp and heat environments in exacerbating RA inflammation and the anti-inflammatory effect of BHGZ, based on succinate/SUCNR1/IL-1β pathway in the adjuvant arthritis (AA) model with damp and heat environment (AA + DHE). Results showed that paw swelling and synovial pathology were significantly increased in AA rats, and these results were aggravated by stimulation in damp and heat environment. BHGZ improved AA + DHE rats' paw swelling, synovial hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltration and reduced IL-1β. In addition, AA rats significantly incr...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Abstract Methotrexate (MTX)-associated classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is unlikely to regress following discontinuation of MTX, and its treatment usually requires chemotherapy. Standard chemotherapy for CHL is the ABVD regimen, which contains pneumotoxic bleomycin. This can be problematic in MTX-CHL patients suffering from an autoimmune disease (AID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as they frequently have pulmonary complications. However, brentuximab vedotin (BV)-containing chemotherapy without bleomycin (A + AVD regimen) was recently reported to show favorable efficacy for CHL, and could therefore ...
Source: International Journal of Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Int J Hematol Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur patient ’s case highlights the importance of assessing the clonal relationships of the lymphoid components of a composite lymphoma and Epstein-Barr virus screening in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in patients with autoimmune disease.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
a Rocha Pitta MG Abstract BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic and progressive inflammation that can cause a high degree of disability in affected individuals. Proinflammatory cytokines play central roles in the development of degradative and inflammatory responses in RA. IL-29 has been identified in RA and reported as a biomarker of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyze serum levels and accuracy of IL-29 in RA patients compared to healthy subjects and patients with other rheumatic diseases. METHODS: IL-29 serum levels were measured in 121 patients ...
Source: Immunology Letters - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by dysregulated immune tolerance to self and inflammatory damage to tissues and organs. The development of inflammation involves multiple innate and adaptive immune pathways. Inflammasomes are multimeric cytosolic protein complexes that form to mediate host immune responses upon recognizing pathogen ‐ or damage‐associated molecular patterns via pattern‐recognition receptors (PRRs). The accelerating pace of inflammasome research has demonstrated important roles for inflammasome activation in many pathologic conditions, including infectious, metabolic, autoinflammatory, and autoimm...
Source: Arthritis and Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: ADVANCES IN DISEASE MECHANISMS AND TRANSLATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES Source Type: research
This study highlights the possible role of NFC as biomarker of AICTD, particularly in SSc and IIM.
Source: Rheumatology International - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
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