Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness against the risk of hospitalization and the impact of public expense for the vaccine on a regional rotavirus gastroenteritis epidemic in Japan.

This study examined the RV vaccine effectiveness against risk of hospitalization based on a retrospective cohort study and the impact of public expense for the RV vaccine on this regional RV gastroenteritis epidemic. The vaccination coverage was significantly higher in children in Shari and Koshimizu than in Abashiri (87.8% vs. 42.7%, respectively, p
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

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Since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, norovirus has become the leading cause of medically-attended acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in many countries including the US [1,2]. Of the other viruses associated with AGE, sapoviruses have increasingly been detected in endemic and epidemic AGE [3 –6]. Using real-time RT-PCR, studies from low-, middle-, and high-income countries have shown that the prevalence of sapovirus in children
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract From September 2015 to May 2016, epidemic outbreaks of a diarrheal disease caused severe economic losses to the swine industry in northwest China. Typical clinical symptoms of the disease included severe diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and death. In order to identify the pathogen, 27 intestinal samples were collected from dead piglets in Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai provinces and from Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. All samples were tested using RT-PCR to detect rotavirus (RV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). Twenty-five fecal samples were PEDV positive ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 006 Our medical student who caught shigella on a Nepalese elective has a thirst for adventure. They plan to help at a Bangladesh refugee camp but the latest CDC report states there have been some cases of cholera. They’ve done a little bit of reading and want your help to teach them all about cholera and how they may prepare and best serve their new community. Questions: Q1. What is cholera and how is it transmitted? Answer and inte...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine cholera diarrhoea john snow ORS rice water diarrhoea watery diarrhoea Source Type: blogs
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 004 A medical student who has just returned from their elective in Nepal presents with 1 week of bloody diarrhoea. He has been in the lowlands and stayed with a family in the local village he was helping at. It started three days before he left and he decided to get home on the plane in the hope it would settle. He is now opening his bowels 10x a day with associated cramps, fevers and has started feeling dizzy. Questions: Q1. What is dyse...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine amoebic dysentery bacillary dysentery e.histolytica entamoeba histolytica shigellosis Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: Our review identifies knowledge gaps in Indonesia about the burden of norovirus diseases and the circulating genotypes. Therefore, there is a pressing need to conduct national surveillance to raise awareness of the community and national health authority about the actual burden of norovirus disease in Indonesia. Continuing rotavirus surveillance is also important to assess vaccine effectiveness and to continue tracking any substantial changes of circulating rotavirus genotypes. PMID: 29446040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: World Journal of Pediatrics : WJP - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: World J Pediatr Source Type: research
AbstractGroup A rotaviruses (RVA) are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The introduction of universal mass vaccination around the world has contributed to a reduction in hospitalizations and outpatient visits associated with rotavirus infection. Continued surveillance of RVA strains is needed to determine long-term effects of vaccine introduction. In the present work, we carried out the analysis of the genotypic diversity of RVA strains isolated in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia) during the 2015 –2016 epidemic season. Also we conducted a comparative analysis of the amino acid sequence...
Source: Virus Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundAcute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major reason for presentation to pediatric primary emergency medical centers. Because rotavirus vaccines were introduced in November 2011 for voluntary vaccination in Japan, we analyzed the changes in the numbers of AGE patients.MethodsThe number and proportion of patients visiting Kobe children ’s primary emergency medical center from January 2011 to February 2015 due to AGE, out of all visiting children, were investigated retrospectively. The rotavirus and norovirus epidemic periods were defined as the periods from March to June and from November to February, respe...
Source: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Abstract As a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, the pathogenic role of rotavirus in adults has been underestimated for a long time. A hospital-based prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study of rotavirus infections in adults was performed between April 2014 and March 2015 in Shanghai, China. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 48 of 441 (10.9%) specimens with prevalence peaking in December (33.3%) and January (27.9%), whereas bacteria were identified in 45 of 846 (5.3%) samples (p
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
In this study, a nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR) assay targeting the ORF3 of PEDV was developed to distinguish PEDV field strains from attenuated strains by using a specific pair of primers. The PCR products of field strains and attenuated strains were 264 bp and 215 bp in length, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were also assessed. The nanoparticle-assisted RT-PCR assay was 10-100 times more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR assay, with no cross-reactions when amplifying porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
This study provides insights in to the prevalence of diarrhea viruses and their prevention and control in China. PMID: 26982468 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
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