Heterogeneity in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and shigella infections in children under 5 years of age from 11 African countries: a subnational approach quantifying risk, mortality, morbidity, and stunting

Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: The Lancet Global HealthAuthor(s): Karoun H Bagamian, John D Anderson, Farzana Muhib, Oliver Cumming, Lindsey A Laytner, Thomas F Wierzba, Richard RheingansSummaryBackgroundDiarrhoea, a global cause of child mortality and morbidity, is linked to adverse consequences including childhood stunting and death from other diseases. Few studies explore how diarrhoeal mortality varies subnationally, especially by cause, which is important for targeting investments. Even fewer examine indirect effects of diarrhoeal morbidity on child mortality. We estimated the subnational distribution of mortality, morbidity, and childhood stunting attributable to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and shigella infection in children younger than 5 years from 11 eastern and central African countries. These pathogens are leading causes of diarrhoea in young children and have been linked to increased childhood stunting.MethodsWe combined proxy indicators of morbidity and mortality risk from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys with published relative risks to estimate the potential distribution of diarrhoeal disease risk. To estimate subnational burden, we used country-specific or WHO region-specific morbidity and mortality estimates and distributed them subnationally by three indices that integrate relevant individual characteristics (ie, underweight, probability of receiving oral rehydration treatment of diarrhoea, and receiving ...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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The objective of our present study was to evaluate the potency of the leaf extract of the plant Psidium guajava (PGE) along with its major biomarker quercetin against Shigella flexneri-induced sub chronic model of infectious diarrhoea. PGE at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and quercetin at 50 mg/kg, p.o. were administered to Shigella flexneri-induced diarrhoeal rats for five days and various behavioural parameters were evaluated on 1st, 3rd and 5th day of treatment. This was followed by assessment of stool water content, density of Shigella flexneri in stools and blood parameters examination. After treatment, colon and s...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, 3540 stool specimens were obtained from children with diarrhoea in Tehran, Iran, from September 2016 through January 2018. PCR assays were performed to evaluate the presence of virulence genes among S. sonnei strains. The genetic relatedness of these strains was also assessed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). A total of 50 S. sonnei strains were obtained, all of which harboured ipaH, sigA, and virA, whereas ial, invE, and sen were positive in 70% (n = 35), 62% (n = 31), and 54% (n = 27) of the strains, respectively. None of the S. sonnei strains carried set1A...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research
We report a 1-year, multisite, age-stratified, matched case-control study following on to the GEMS study. Six sites (Bamako, Mali; Manhiça, Mozambique; Basse, The Gambia; Mirzapur, Bangladesh; Kolkata, India; and Bin Qasim Town, Karachi, Pakistan) participated in this study. Children aged 0–59 months at each site who sought care at a sentinel hospital or health centre during a 12-month period were screened for diarrhoea. New (onset after ≥7 diarrhoea-free days) and acute (onset within the previous 7 days) episodes of diarrhoea in children who had sunken eyes, whose skin lost turgor, who received intravenous...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 3Author(s): John D Anderson, Karoun H Bagamian, Farzana Muhib, Mirna P Amaya, Lindsey A Laytner, Thomas Wierzba, Richard RheingansSummaryBackgroundEnterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and shigella are two major pathogens that cause moderate-to-severe diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years. Diarrhoea is associated with an increased risk of stunting, which puts children at risk of death due to other infectious diseases.MethodsWe modelled ETEC-related and shigella-related mortality and the effect of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea episodes to de...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: The Lancet Global HealthAuthor(s): Elizabeth T Rogawski, Jie Liu, James A Platts-Mills, Furqan Kabir, Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, Mery Siguas, Shaila S Khan, Ira Praharaj, Arinao Murei, Rosemary Nshama, Buliga Mujaga, Alexandre Havt, Irene A Maciel, Darwin J Operario, Mami Taniuchi, Jean Gratz, Suzanne E Stroup, James H Roberts, Adil Kalam, Fatima AzizSummaryBackgroundEnteropathogen infections in early childhood not only cause diarrhoea but contribute to poor growth. We used molecular diagnostics to assess whether particular enteropathogens were associated with linear g...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: The Lancet Global HealthAuthor(s): James A Platts-Mills, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Furqan Kabir, Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, Mery Siguas, Shaila S Khan, Ira Praharaj, Arinao Murei, Rosemary Nshama, Buliga Mujaga, Alexandre Havt, Irene A Maciel, Timothy L McMurry, Darwin J Operario, Mami Taniuchi, Jean Gratz, Suzanne E Stroup, James H Roberts, Adil KalamSummaryBackgroundOptimum management of childhood diarrhoea in low-resource settings has been hampered by insufficient data on aetiology, burden, and associated clinical characteristics. We used quantitative diagnosti...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Abstract In January 2015, Public Health England and the United Kingdom (UK) Ministry of Defence investigated cases of diarrhoea and fever in military personnel recently returned to the UK after supporting the response to the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. Tests for Ebola virus infection were negative. PCR tests detected the ipaH gene in 10/12 faecal specimens, and Shigella boydii serotype 20 was isolated from 7 patients. A case control study was undertaken and analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Consumption of a coronation chicken lunch at the transit camp in Sierra Leone (SL) 24-48 h prior t...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Purpose of review Diarrhoea is a major global health problem, and recent studies have confirmed Shigella as a major contributor to this burden. Here, we review recent advances in Shigella research; focusing on their epidemiology, pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance, and the role of the gut microbiome during infection. Recent findings Enhanced epidemiological data, combined with new generation diagnostics, has highlighted a greater burden of Shigella disease than was previously estimated, which is not restricted to vulnerable populations in low-middle income countries. As we gain an ever more detailed insight into t...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by A Clinton White and Gagandeep Kang Source Type: research
Authors: Chifunda K, Kelly P Abstract Parasitic infections of the gut have major implications for child health, but many questions remain unanswered. Protozoal parasites, especially cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, cause diarrhoea and contribute to impaired growth, neurocognitive development and mortality. Entamoeba histolytica causes dysentery and may have more subtle effects on child growth. Helminth infections are mostly asymptomatic, and untargeted mass deworming has not been shown to be beneficial. However, children with heavy infections certainly benefit from antihelminthic treatment. Hepatosplenic schistoso...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research
Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death among children aged below 5 years. Even though, both preventable and treatable diseases, globally there are nearly 1.7 billion cases of childhood diarrho...
Source: BMC Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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