A combination of dietary fat intake and nicotine exposure enhances CB1 endocannabinoid receptor expression in hypothalamic nuclei in male mice

ConclusionsCB1R was widely distributed in multiple hypothalamic nuclei. The expression of CB1R was augmented only when mice were treated with HFD and nicotine in combination. These data suggest that the exposure to nicotine may provoke an enhanced endocannabinoid response in diet-induced obesity.Graphical abstract
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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These days, you can’t go anywhere without hearing about how technology is ruining everything, including our happiness. There is some truth to this, but it’s not the whole story. Technology can be bad for us—for example, when social media gives us FOMO (fear of missing out) or traps us in filter bubbles that prevent us from seeing multiple points of view on important issues. As a society, we are increasingly concerned that technologies like smartphones and social media result in more social comparison, bullying, and loneliness—all stumbling blocks to happiness. Technology seems to be bad for our happ...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Education & Lifelong Learning Health & Wellness Technology boost your health CBT cognitive-behavioral-therapy depression digital detox emotion regulation Facebook Gratitude happiness mental health challenge Source Type: blogs
This article is excerpted from TIME: The Science of Addiction—What We Know. What We’re Learning. In some ways, of course, food is more insidious than drugs, because there’s no such thing as abstinence, no such thing as never starting in the first place, no such thing as being able to say, “Food? Never touch the stuff.” You eat because you’ll die if you don’t, so you spend your life in a sort of nutritional two-step—a little but not too much; go overboard today, cut back tomorrow; eat the good stuff but never the junk. Sometimes you succeed at all of that, and other times yo...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Addiction Diet/Nutrition Obesity Source Type: news
Abstract Butyrylcholinesterase is a serine hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters in the body. Unlike its sister enzyme acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase has a broad substrate scope and lower acetylcholine catalytic efficiency. The difference in tissue distribution and inhibitor sensitivity also points to its involvement external to cholinergic neurotransmission. Initial studies on butyrylcholinesterase showed that the inhibition of the enzyme led to the increment of brain acetylcholine levels. Further gene knockout studies suggested its involvement in the regulation of amyloid-beta, a brain p...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): M.F. Rossetti, R. Schumacher, M.P. Gastiazoro, G.P. Lazzarino, M.F. Andreoli, C. Stoker, J. Varayoud, J.G. RamosAbstractDopamine is a neurotransmitter crucial for motor, motivational, and reward-related functions. Our aim was to determine the effect of a palatable maternal diet on the transcriptional regulation of dopaminergic-related genes during perinatal development of the offspring. For that, female offspring from dams fed with a control (CON) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet were sacrificed on embryonic day 21 (E21) and postnatal day 10 (PND10)....
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In the beginning, there were single-cell bacteria. They were the only life on earth for billions of years, then larger cells evolved, then multicellular organisms, and then plants and animals. But the bacteria never went away, and all organisms, including us humans, have had to learn to live with them. Today, the lessons they are teaching us could change the trajectory of human health for generations. When bacteria were first discovered more than three centuries ago, most attention was on the ones we fought, which caused diseases like cholera, typhoid and tuberculosis. Through vaccines and antibiotics, we have made amazing...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized medicine Source Type: news
Orexins [orexin-A (OXA) and orexin-B (OXB)] are two isoforms of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus. The main biological actions of orexins, focused on the central nervous system, are to control the sleep/wake process, appetite and feeding, energy homeostasis, drug addiction, and cognitive processes. These effects are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes named OX1R and OX2R. In accordance with the synergic and dynamic relationship between the nervous and immune systems, orexins also have neuroprotective and immuno-regulatory (i.e., anti-inflammatory) properties. The present review gathers recen...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Participants' baseline psychosocial and demographic factors may support or impede successful weight loss. Trialists should attend to these factors when designing treatments in order to promote participants' likelihood of completing the trial and achieving their weight-loss goals. PMID: 31633313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The 'deceiving' and 'escapism' criteria had relatively lower diagnostic accuracy. Both the Internet gaming disorder and gaming disorder groups demonstrated functional impairments and unhealthy behaviors. They also exhibited complications, such as obesity and sleep disorders. These results support the utility of the DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder and ICD-11 gaming disorder criteria in identifying individuals who need treatment for both gaming addiction symptoms and complications resulting from the addiction. PMID: 31631668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Aust N Z J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Physiology &BehaviorAuthor(s): Janelle A Skinner, Manohar L Garg, Christopher V Dayas, Tracy L BurrowsABSTRACTThe neuropeptide oxytocin is best known for its role during parturition and the milk-let down reflex. Recent evidence identifies a role for oxytocin in eating behaviour. After oxytocin administration, caloric intake is reduced with stronger inhibitory effects in individuals with obesity. Whether the experience of visual food cues affects secretion or circulating levels of oxytocin is unknown. This pilot study had three aims: 1) to measure fasting appetit...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
This article provides a review of the preclinical and clinical pharmacology of lorcaserin, including its pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Preclinical studies with lorcaserin initially focused on simple measures of food intake and body weight gain, but have now expanded to include studies on its effects on appetitive aspects of feeding behaviour and models of binge-eating. A significant number of studies have also shown that lorcaserin alters behaviours related to drug use and addiction, in rodents and non-human primates. Potential clinically-relevant effects of lorcaserin have also been reported in models of pain and s...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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