Clozapine administered repeatedly following pretreatment with ketamine enhances dopamine D2 receptors in the dopamine mesolimbic pathway in mice brain
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Marta Szlachta, Maciej Kuśmider, Joanna Solich, Magdalena Kolasa, Paulina Pabian, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Agata Faron-GóreckaAbstractThe mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of clozapine (CLZ) in the treatment of schizophrenia still remains far from clear. In the present work we studied the effect of CLZ on the dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the mouse brain. CLZ was administered after ketamine (KET) in a paradigm strictly matching the one used in KET-induced attentional set-shifting task (ASST). It has been shown previ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Numb deficiency causes impaired trafficking of mGlu5 in neurons and autistic-like behaviors
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Na Wang, Dan-dan Wang, Ying ShenAbstractProtein Numb localizes to clathrin-coated vesicles and participates in the trafficking of trans-membrane receptors. We previously reported that Numb deficiency in cerebellar Purkinje cells impairs synaptic expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1) and motor coordination. However, the functions of Numb in other brain regions have not been investigated. Here, we show that Numb regulates the membrane expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) and is critical to social behavior...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preserved individual differences in functional connectivity patterns under dexmedetomidine-induced sedation
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Haiyang Liu, Minyu Jian, Shu Liu, Ang Li, Shaowu Li, Jinghan Fang, Fa liang, Bing Liu, Ruquan HanAbstractFunctional connectivity patterns of the human brain show unique inherent or intrinsic characteristics at rest and when performing a task, similar to a fingerprint. However, whether this unique functional organization is preserved during sedation currently remains unknown. Here, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 20 subjects in each of three resting states: wakefulness, sedation, and recovery. We f...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Protective effect of gastrodin against methamphetamine-induced autophagy in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells via the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway
This study investigates whether METH induces autophagy in the human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, then examines the neuroprotective effects of gastrodin against autophagy in METH-treated SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of METH on the protein expressions of autophagy-related genes (LC3B and Beclin-1) were evaluated with and without gastrodin. The presence of autophagosomes in the METH-induced treatment with and without gastrodin is revealed through transmission electron microscopy. Pharmacological intervention was employed to study the role of the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in the gastrodin-mediated neuroprotecti...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deaf Adolescents have bigger responses for Somatosensory and Visual Stimulations
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Çağdaş Güdücü, İpek Ergönül, Adile Öniz, Ahmet Ömer İkiz, Murat ÖzgörenAbstractThe functions of the sensory systems on disabled people have been one of the most investigated topics in brain research. In these studies, mostly visual stimuli had been employed while investigating the deaf participants. Limited number of electrophysiological studies revealed better visual sensory processing in deaf participants. On the other hand, studies deploying tactile stimuli especially used either e...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Remote effects on corticospinal excitability during motor execution and motor imagery
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Fuka Shironouchi, Chiaki Ohtaka, Nobuaki Mizuguchi, Kouki Kato, Ryusuke Kakigi, Hiroki NakataAbstractWe investigated the remote effect on corticospinal excitability of resting left and right hand muscles during motor execution and motor imagery when performing left or right foot plantar flexion. Fifteen right-handed subjects performed two conditions with three tasks: Condition (Motor Execution (ME) vs. Motor Imagery (MI)): Task (Control, Ipsilateral, and Contralateral). From the left and right first dorsal interosseous, motor evoked potent...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chrysin protects against behavioral, cognitive and neurochemical alterations in a 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson's disease
In conclusion, chrysin improved several behavioral, cognitive and neurochemical parameters in a relevant preclinical model of PD in aged mice. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glucocerebrosidase regulators SCARB2 and TFEB are up-regulated in Lewy body disease brain
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Laia Pérez-Roca, Patricia Prada-Dacasa, Cristina Segú-Vergés, Ana Gámez-Valero, María A. Serrano-Muñoz, Cristina Santos, Katrin BeyerMutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GCase) gene (GBA) and GCase deficiency are major risk factors for Lewy body diseases. Decreased GCase activity enhances alpha-synuclein aggregation and disease development. Lysosomal integral membrane protein type 2, encoded by SCARB2, binds GCase targeting it to lysosomes and transcription factor EB (Tfeb) regulates lysosomal prot...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Waiting Impulsivity During Reward Seeking Increases Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Lee Peyton, Alfredo Oliveros, Chang Hoon Cho, Phillip Starski, Daniel Lindberg, Mi-Hyeon Jang, Doo-Sup ChoiAbstractImpulsivity is defined as a predisposition toward rapid, unplanned reactions in response to internal or external stimuli, often yielding negative consequences. Accordingly, impulsivity is considered a significant risk factor for developing addictive behaviors. The hippocampus is involved in regulating behavioral adaptability and learned behaviors. Consequently, abnormal hippocampal function has been demonstrated to contribute ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CB1R MEDIATES OLEAMIDE’S REWARD WHILE 5HT2cR MEDIATES AVERSION IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS SHELL OF RATS
In this study, we have pursued to assess oleamide’s potential role in reward and aversion mechanisms. To reach this goal we infused oleamide, either 1 µg into the nucleus accumbens shell (NAccS) and evaluated its effects on conditioned place preference (CCP) or 10 µg, to evaluate conditioned place aversion (CPA). Extinction and reinstatement were also evaluated in both cases. We sought to determine if CPP occurs via cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and CPA via serontoninergic 2c receptor (5HT2cR). Results revealed that 1 µg of oleamide administered bilaterally into the NAccS induce...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exploring effects of single-session anodal tDCS over the inferior frontal gyrus on responses to food cues and food cravings among highly disinhibited restrained eaters: A preliminary study
Publication date: Available online 20 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Shuaiyu Chen, Todd Jackson, Debo Dong, Xuemeng Zhang, Hong ChenAbstractAccording to the hedonic-inhibitory model, overeating occurs when active inhibitory capacities mediated by the prefrontal areas are overridden by hedonic-eating motivation mediated by the mesolimbic reward system. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) has a crucial role in inhibiting hedonic-cues response yet transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies have emphasized the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), to the neglect of other executive network regions inc...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exercise enhances the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus accompanied by epigenetic alterations in senescence-accelerated mice prone 8
The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of an exercise regimen over a long period on the expression of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and p75, and the activity of HATs and HDACs in the degenerative hippocampus. We used senescence-accelerated mice (SAM), and specifically, 3-month-old SAM resistant 1 (SAMR1) and SAM prone 8 (SAMP8) strains. Mice were distributed into four groups based on accelerated senescence and exercise status. Mice in the exercise groups exercised on a treadmill for 45 min a day, 3 days a week, for 6 months. Exercise significantly increased BDNF expression and decre...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evidence for a Unique Association Between Fronto-Cortical Glycine Levels and Recent Heavy Drinking in Treatment Naïve Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): James J. Prisciandaro, Joseph P. Schacht, Andrew P. Prescot, Helena M. Brenner, Perry F. Renshaw, Truman R. Brown, Raymond F. AntonAbstractAlthough the neurotransmitters/modulators glutamate and, more recently, glycine have been implicated in the development and maintenance of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) in preclinical research, human proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies have focused solely on the measurement of glutamate. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine the relative associations of brain glutamate and ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ameliorating effects of berberine on MK-801-induced cognitive and motor impairments in a neonatal rat model of schizophrenia
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Samaneh Ghotbi Ravandi, Mohammad Shabani, Hamideh Bashiri, Monavvar Saeedi Goraghani, Mehdi Khodamoradi, Masoumeh NozariAbstractNeonatal administration of MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist) results in schizophrenia-like behaviors in rodents. Berberine (BBR) is a herbal alkaloid, which shows many neuroprotective properties in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was designed to clarify whether systemic administration of BBR improves motor and cognitive disturbances induced by MK-801 treatment. Male Wistar rat pups were treated with ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNAs interact with mRNAs: a new perspective on the mechanism of premature brain injury
This study investigates differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs as well as their interactions in the premature brain. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were used to induce inflammation in premature rodent models. Brain histology was observed via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and CD68 immunostaining. Arraystar microarry was designed for the profiling of differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in 4 LPS induced premature brains (L group), 4 full-term control brains (C group) and 3 premature brains were not induced by LPS (P group). Bioinformatic analysis was applied to reveal the functions and co-expression relationship o...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional alteration of ribbon synapses in inner hair cells by noise exposure causing hidden hearing loss
In conclusion, our results suggest temporary and persistent alterations of ribbon synapse functions in IHCs contribute to the hidden hearing loss. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Does cerebellar non-invasive brain stimulation affect corticospinal excitability in healthy individuals? A systematic review of literature and meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Shabnam Behrangrad, Maryam Zoghi, Dawson Kidgell, Shapour JaberzadehAbstractNumerous studies have indicated that non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) of the cerebellum could modulate corticospinal excitability (CSE) in young healthy individuals. However, there is no systematic review and meta-analysis that clarifies the effects of cerebellar NIBS on CSE. The aim of this study was to provide a meta-analytic summary of the effects of cerebellar NIBS on CSE. Seven search engines were used to identify any trial evaluating CSE before and after...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GBA RNAi but not catalytic inhibition of glucocerebrosidase with Conduritol-β-epoxide increases levels of total α-synuclein in SH-SY5Y cells
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Mark Zurbruegg, Man-Ying Chan, Per SvenningssonAbstractMutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene are a common genetic risk factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. The reasons why glucocerebrosidase mutations cause an increased life-time risk of developing Parkinson’s disease are not fully understood. Here, we aimed to verify whether glucocerebrosidase activity has an effect on total α-synuclein levels. We use SH-SY5Y and primary cortical cells and expose them to either Conduritol-β-epoxide or siRNA targeting GBA 1....
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alpha-synuclein gene polymorphism affects risk of dementia in Han Chinese with Parkinson's disease
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Jinhua Zheng, Qiuling Zang, Fengyun Hu, Hongen Wei, Jianjun Ma, Yanming XuAbstractBackgroundSingle-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNCA gene encoding alpha-synuclein have been shown to affect the PD phenotype. However, whether such polymorphisms can influence risk of dementia in PD remains unclear.ObjectivesTo investigate possible associations between SNCA gene polymorphisms and dementia in patients with PD.Materials and MethodsA consecutive series of 291 PD patients with dementia (n = 45, 15.5%) or without it (n&thins...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Investigation of the novel mTOR inhibitor AZD2014 in neuronal ischemia
ConclusionAZD2014 was detrimental to neurons that underwent ischemia. AZD2014 appeared to reduce hamartin, a known neuroprotective mediator, thereby preventing any beneficial effects of mTOR inhibition. Further characterization of the role of individual mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2) and their upstream and downstream regulators are necessary to reveal whether these pathways are neuroprotective targets for stroke. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Utilization of the Allen Gene Expression Atlas to gain further insight into glucocorticoid physiology in the adult mouse brain
In this study, we combined different computational tools to extract, process and visualize the gene expression data of 25 genes across 96 regions of the adult C57Bl/6 J mouse brain, implicated in glucocorticoid neurodynamics. These data derive from the anatomic gene expression atlas of the adult mouse brain of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, captured via the in situ hybridization technique. A careful interrogation of the datasets referring to these 25 genes of interest, based on a targeted, prior knowledge-driven approach, revealed useful pieces of information on spatial differences in the glucocorticoid-sens...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

BDNF and serum S100B levels according the spectrum of structural pathology in chronic pain patients
This study supports the hypothesis that BDNF and S100B neuromodulators present different serum levels according to the background disease associated to the chronic pain. These have the potential to be studied as markers of active disease or treatment evolution. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Protective effects of TRPV1 inhibition against sevoflurane-induced cell death
In this study, we assessed the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in mediating sevoflurane activation and whether the TRPV1 antagonist could prevent anesthesia-induced cell death. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of TRPV1 was increased after sevoflurane treatment, and pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist SB366791 could attenuate the effect of sevoflurane on TRPV1 expression. Moreover, the inhibition of TRPV1 could prevent sevoflurane-induced cell death. The findings of this study provide novel insights into the treatment of general anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity and even cogniti...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibition of DHCR24 Increases the Cisplatin-Induced Damage to Cochlear Hair Cells In Vitro
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ke-yong Tian, Hui-Min Chang, Jie Wang, Mei-hao Qi, Wei-long Wang, Yang Qiu, Kun Liang, Fu-quan Chen, Ding-jun Zha, Jian-hua QiuAbstractHearing loss is a common sensory disorder that affects more than 360 million people worldwide, and is primarily caused by the loss of hair cells (HCs). Ototoxic drugs, viral infections, genetic predisposition, aging or noise all damage HCs. 3β-hydroxysteroid-Δ24 reductase (DHCR24), one enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, is involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and neuroprotecti...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effect of Imperceptible Gaussian Tendon Vibration on the Hoffmann Reflex
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Matthew S. Tenan, Andrew J. Tweedell, Courtney A. Haynes, Antony D. PassaroAbstractImperceptible vibratory Gaussian noise stimulation to the periphery is frequently being applied to humans to enhance motor performance. It is commonly theorized that this stimulation creates a Stochastic Resonance-like effect across both sensory and motor systems, but this idea has no empirical support. In contrast, there is substantial work showing that tendon vibration can be both excitatory and inhibitory on the lower motor neuron output. In this work, we...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Galanin plays a role in antinociception via binding to galanin receptors in the nucleus accumbens of rats with neuropathic pain
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ying Zhang, Yi Gao, Chong-Yang Li, Wei Dong, Meng-Nan Li, Ya-Nan Liu, Yan Dong, Shi-Lian XuAbstractGalanin and galanin receptors (GalRs) play important roles in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information. Our previous research has shown that the expression of GalR1 is upregulated and that GalR1 activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats with neuropathic pain has an antinociceptive effect. However, the antinociceptive role of NAc galanin in neuralgia remains unclear. The present study aimed to explore the antinocicept...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Assessment of risk factor variants of LRRK2, MAPT, SNCA and TCEANC2 genes in Hungarian sporadic Parkinson’s disease patients
ConclusionThe frequencies of different gene variants show great differences in populations. Assessment of the frequency of variants of PD related genes variants is important in order to uncover the pathomechanisms underlying the disease, and to identify potential therapeutic targets. This is the first comprehensive study focusing on these genetic variants in the population of East-Central European region. Our results extend the knowledge on the world wide occurrence of these polymorphisms by demonstrating the occurrence of specific alleles and absence of others in Hungarian PD patients. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Purinergic receptor expression and function in rat vagal sensory neurons innervating the stomach
In this study, we confirmed the presence of P2 × 3 and P2Y1 receptors and characterized P2X and P2Y responses in gastric-innervating NG neurons. Application of ATP evoked large inward currents and cytosolic Ca2+ increases in gastric-innervating NG neurons. Despite the expression of P2Y1 receptors, ADP elicited only minor modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Considering the sensitivity of NG neurons to comorbidities associated with disease or neural injury, purinergic modulation of gastric NG neurons in disease- or injury-states is worthy of further investigation. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dopamine β Hydroxylase (DBH) is a potential modifier gene associated with Parkinson's disease in Eastern India
ConclusionThese data suggest thatDBH might influence the susceptibility of PD. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Targeting mitochondria to protect axons in progressive MS
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Graham Campbell, Simon Licht-Mayer, Don MahadAbstractInflammatory demyelinating processes target the neuron, particularly axons and synapses, in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a gathering body of evidence indicating molecular changes which converge on mitochondria within neurons in progressive forms of MS. The most reproducible changes are the increase in mitochondrial content within demyelinated axons and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiency in neurons, which compromises the capacity to generate ATP. The resulting lack of...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multiple tracking and machine learning reveal dopamine modulation for area-restricted foraging behaviors via velocity change in Caenorhabditis elegans
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Keita Ashida, Taiki Kato, Kohji Hotta, Kotaro OkaAbstractFood exploration is an essential survival behavior in organisms. To find food efficiently, many organisms use a foraging strategy called area-restricted search (ARS) wherein individuals first turn more frequently, restricting their search to one area, then turn less frequently, moving along a straight path to widen the search area. Previous research suggests that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows ARS behavior by changing turn frequency, and that dopamine is a crucial determin...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

DNAJC13 p.Asn855Ser, implicated in familial parkinsonism, alters membrane dynamics of Sorting Nexin 1
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Jordan Follett, Jesse D. Fox, Emil K. Gustavsson, Chelsie Kadgien, Lise N. Munsie, Li Ping Cao, Igor Tatarnikov, Austen J. Milnerwood, Matthew J. FarrerAbstractDNAJC13 (RME-8) is a core co-chaperone that facilitates membrane recycling and cargo sorting of endocytosed proteins. DNAJ/Hsp40 (heat shock protein 40) proteins are highly conserved throughout evolution and mediate the folding of nascent proteins, and the unfolding, refolding or degradation of misfolded proteins, while assisting in associated-membrane translocation. DNAJC13 is one ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Regional homogeneity analysis of major Parkinson’s disease subtypes based on functional magnetic resonance imaging
ConclusionsIn the present study, ReHo values increased in the TD PD subtype group of patients, indicating a compensatory performance of slow progressive cognitive decline when compared to the PIGD PD subtype group. Two subtypes of PD manifest ReHo changes in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and in several areas of the cerebral cortex, areas that are likely to correlate with non-motor symptoms, such as cognition and emotions. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ketamine-induced attenuation of reactive oxygen species in zebrafish is prevented by acetyl l-carnitine in vivo
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Bonnie Robinson, Qiang Gu, Syed F. Ali, Melanie Dumas, Jyotshna KanungoAbstractKetamine, an anesthetic, is a non-competitive antagonist of the calcium-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. High concentrations of ketamine have been implicated in cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Often, these toxicities are thought to be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, findings to the contrary showing ketamine reducing ROS in mammalian cells and neurons in vitro, are emerging. Here, we determined the effects of ketamine on ROS le...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Morphological and functional evaluation of the effect of novel pyrimidine derivatives on regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ivan S. Raginov, Vladislav I. Egorov, Lenar R. Valiullin, Daichi Watanabe, Konstantin V. Balakin, Yurii I MurinovAbstractTwo novel pyrimidine derivatives, RG2 and RG6, were studied using a rat’s model of peripheral nerve injury. Toe-spreading reflex and skin sensitivity to pinch in the foot were monitored to follow recovery of motor and sensory functions in the treated animals. The remyelation rate in the distal segment of the damaged nerve was also studied using morphological analysis of cross-sections of the nerve stained with methy...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intravascular Injections of Adenoassociated Viral Vector Serotypes rh10 and PHP.B Transduce Murine Sciatic Nerve Axons
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Hans E. Anderson, Kristin L. Schaller, John H. Caldwell, Richard F. WeirAbstractAdenoassociated viral vectors provide a safe and robust method for expression of transgenes in nondividing cells such as neurons. Intravenous injections of these vectors provide a means of transducing motoneurons of peripheral nerves. Previous research has demonstrated that serotypes 1, rh10 and PHP.B can transduce motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord, but has not quantified expression in the peripheral nerve axon. Axonal labeling is crucial for optogenet...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Predicting the Non-Survival Outcome of Large Hemispheric Infarction Patients via Quantitative Electroencephalography: Superiority to Visual Electroencephalography and the Glasgow Coma Scale
ConclusionsAmong QEEG indices, theta power is valuable in predicting non-survival outcome in participants and is superior to visual EEG and GCS. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Letrozole induces worse hippocampal synaptic and dendritic changes and spatial memory impairment than ovariectomy in adult female mice
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Mengying Liu, Fangzhou Xing, Chen Bian, Yangang Zhao, Jikai Zhao, Yan Liu, Jiqiang ZhangAbstractEstrogens (E2) derived from ovaries and/or local de novo synthesis in the hippocampus profoundly regulate hippocampal structure and function, but the importance of local E2 versus ovarian E2 on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory has not been well elucidated. The present study used ovariectomy (OVX) and intraperitoneal injection of an E2 synthase inhibitor, letrozole (LET), in adult female mice to investigate changes in hippocampal...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

μ-Opioid receptor in the CA1 involves in tramadol and morphine cross state-dependent memory
Publication date: 13 July 2019Source: Neuroscience Letters, Volume 705Author(s): Saba Niknamfar, Setareh Nouri Zadeh-Tehrani, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Ardeshir Akbarabadi, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Mohammad-Reza ZarrindastAbstractIn the present study, the effect of tramadol – an opioid painkiller drug with abuse potential- on amnesia and state-dependent memory and its interaction with the opioidergic system was investigated in male Wistar rats. Intra CA-1 administration of tramadol (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/rat) before training, dose-dependently decreased the learning ability in passive avoidance task. Amnesia indu...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interferon downstream signaling is activated early in pre-symptomatic Niemann-Pick disease type C
In this study, we utilized a genome-wide transcriptome analysis to identify the key pathways involved in early NPC. Our results showed that an atypical pattern of interferon downstream signaling that involves both IFN-γ- and IFN-α-responsive genes is activated in pre-symptomatic Npc1-/- cerebella. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes highlighted microglial activation, anti-viral response, and T-lymphocyte activation and chemotaxis pathways. Multiplex protein analysis confirmed that a potent IFN-γ-responsive cytokine, IP-10/CXCL10 was significantly upregulated in the pre-symptomatic st...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

No effect of cathodal tDCS of the posterior parietal cortex on parafoveal preprocessing of words
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Lorenzo Vignali, Stefan Hawelka, Florian Hutzler, Fabio RichlanAbstractThe present study investigated the functional role of the posterior parietal cortex during the processing of parafoveally presented letter strings. To this end, we simultaneously presented two letter strings (word or pseudoword) – one foveally and one parafoveally – and asked the participants to indicate the presence of a word (i.e., lexical decision flanker task). We applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the posterior parietal ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

“Zinc homeostasis and zinc signaling in white matter development and injury”
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Christopher ElittAbstractZinc in an essential dietary micronutrient that is abundant in the brain with diverse roles in development, injury and neurological diseases. With new imaging tools and chelators selectively targetingzinc, the field of zinc biology is rapidly expanding. The importance ofzinc homeostasis is now well recognized in neurodegeneration but there isemerging data that zinc may be equally important in white matterdisorders. This review provides an overview on zinc biology, includingdiscussion of clinical disorders of zinc de...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Measurement of serum cystatin C: A valuable tool for evaluating dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Xiaoyu Dong, Dongming Zheng, Jianfei NaoAbstractAlthough cystatin C (Cys C) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whether it can be used as a tool for evaluating dyskinesia is unknown. In the present study, the association of Cys C with dyskinesia in PD patients was investigated. Fasting serum Cys C levels were measured from 120 PD patients and 156 healthy controls. Demographic information was collected for all patients. In addition, levodopa (L-dopa)-equivalent dose, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Ratin...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Using spatial frequency scales for processing own-race and other-race faces: an ERP analysis
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Qizhi Yao, Lun ZhaoAbstractIn the present study we examined the influence of spatial filtering on the N170 elicited by own-race and other-race faces, a relatively early face-selective ERP difference associated with face detection. It was found that BB (broad band) faces elicited larger N170 than did LSF (low spatial frequency) faces and the latter larger than HSF (high spatial frequency) condition. Faces’ races significantly modulated the N170 amplitudes, showing larger N170 for other-race than own-race faces for both BB and HSF co...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Competitive ability during mate competition relates to unique patterns of dopamine-related gene expression in the social decision-making network of male zebra finches
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Stephanie L. Eswine, Jill K. Pontinen, Sarah A. HeimovicsAbstractAggressive interactions usually reveal individual differences in the competitive ability of contest participants. Individuals with higher competitive ability often gain priority access to resources such as food, territory, and/or mates. Individuals with lower competitive ability usually have reduced access to these resources and limited mating opportunities. Despite the importance of contest performance to the reproductive success of individuals, the neuroendocrine factors ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spinal and afferent PKC signaling mechanisms that mediate chronic pain in sickle cell disease
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ying He, Zaijie Jim WangAbstractPain is the most characteristic feature of sickle cell disease (SCD). Patients with SCD live with unpredictable, recurrent episodes of acute painful crisis, as well as chronic unremitting pain throughout their lifetime. While most of the research and medical efforts have focused on treating vaso-occlusion crisis and acute pain, chronic pain remains a significant challenge faced by patients and physicians. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies has suggested the presence of a neuropathic component ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

µ-opioid receptor in the CA1 involves in tramadol and morphine cross state-dependent memory
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Saba Niknamfar, Setareh Nouri Zadeh-Tehrani, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Ardeshir Akbarabadi, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Mohammad-Reza ZarrindastAbstractIn the present study, the effect of tramadol – an opioid painkiller drug with abuse potential- on amnesia and state-dependent memory and its interaction with the opioidergic system was investigated in male Wistar rats. Intra CA-1 administration of tramadol (0.5, 1, and 2 µg/rat) before training, dose-dependently decreased the learning ability in passive avoidance task. Amn...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of frontopolar cortex in the individual differences in conflict adaptation
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Lee Yunji, Kim ChobokAbstractIt is well known that performance on a trial is flexibly modulated by preceding trial congruency in tasks that require cognitive control, such as the Stroop task, referred to as the conflict adaptation effect (CAE). The CAE indicates that conflict on the preceding trial leads to enhanced cognitive control, leading to more efficient regulation of current conflict. The present study aimed to identify neural mechanisms implicated in individual differences in CAEs. The participants performed a version of the color-w...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Histamine Alters Environmental Place Preference in Planaria
Publication date: Available online 1 May 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Kara Adams, Tom ByrneAbstractAlthough histamine functions as a punisher in vertebrate models, its potential aversive effects in invertebrates has gone largely unexamined. We investigated if planaria would develop conditioned place aversions to histamine. In the absence of any training, planaria readily move away from a light source. However, planaria will develop conditioned place preferences for lighted areas if those areas are paired with many of the same psychoactive drugs that produce conditioned place preferences in vertebrates. We con...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of orexin-glutamate co-administration on spontaneous discharge rate of locus coeruleus neurons in morphine-dependent rats
In conclusion, it seems that development of morphine dependence promotes adaptations in locus coeruleus neurons that potentiate the orexin-glutamate interaction. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research