Dose-dependent effects of tetramethylpyrazine on the characteristics of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for stroke therapy
This study determined the dose-dependent effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on the characteristics of ucMSCs in vitro. The effect on proliferation was determined with Cell Counting kit-8 assays. Cell migration was analyzed with Transwell assays and western blot analysis. Differentiation of ucMSCs was evaluated according to markers and the expression of relevant proteins and genes. Secretion capacity was detected by ELISA analysis. TMP protected ucMSCs against H2O2 induced-oxidative damage but had no influence on ucMSC activity at a low concentration. Furthermore, ucMSC migration was improved by TMP via the SDF-1/CXCR4 ax...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Implementation of ezTrack open-source pipeline for quantifying rat locomotor behavior: comparison to commercially available software
In this study, a free open-source behavioral tracking pipeline called ezTrack was compared to commercially available software for assessing rat locomotor behavior and time spent in regions of interest during elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) assays. ezTrack produced nearly identical results to the commercial software. Overall, these results suggest that ezTrack is a cost-effective approach to quantify some aspects of behavior in these tasks. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss in rats
This study investigated the otoprotective effects of TUDCA in cisplatin (CXP)-induced hearing-loss rats. Eight-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The CXP group received intraperitoneal injection of CXP at a dose of 5 mg/kg from day 1 to day 3. The CXP + TUDCA group received an intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg CXP and 100 mg/kg TUDCA from day 1 to day 3. The mRNA expression levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured, and the protein levels of caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) were evaluated. The CXP group...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

MMP-mediated modulation of ECM environment during axonal growth and NMJ development
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Zora Chui-Kuen Chan, Marilyn Janice Oentaryo, Chi Wai LeeAbstractMotor neurons, skeletal muscles, and perisynaptic Schwann cells interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) to form the tetrapartite synapse in the peripheral nervous system. Dynamic remodeling of ECM composition is essential to diversify its functions for distinct cellular processes during neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development. In this review, we give an overview of the proteolytic regulation of ECM proteins, particularly by secreted and membrane-type matrix metalloprot...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Increased EEG alpha peak frequency in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis during balance control in normal upright standing
The objective of this study is to assess APF of adolescents with AIS during balance control in upright standing posture using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG was recorded in 16 girls with AIS and 15 control girls in normal standing posture on a force platform. The participants stood upright for 2 minutes with eyes open and 2 minutes with eyes closed. Fast Fourier transformations of EEG data were calculated to obtain APF. Balance performances were assessed through the area of an ellipse covering the center of pressure (COP) displacement and the root mean square value of the COP velocity. Compared to the cont...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS ON THE ROLE OF HIGH-FREQUENCY (5Hz) rTMS STIMULATION ON M1 AND Pre-SMA REGIONS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Lütfü Hanoğlu, Mevhibe Saricaoglu, Güven Toprak, Nesrin Helvacı Yılmaz, Burak YuluğAbstractIt has been already shown that the motor symptoms of the Parkinson's Disease (PD) have been improved with high frequency rTMS although there is no consensus on the most suitable target brain localization for a maximal therapeutic efficacy. Here, we aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of high frequency (5Hz) rTMS stimulation on primary motor cortex (M1) and pre-supplementary (pre SMA) regions in patients with PD who were st...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Riluzole improves functional recovery after acute spinal cord injury in rats and may be associated with changes in spinal microglia/macrophages polarization
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Qichao Wu, Yan Zhang, Yanjun Zhang, Wenkai Zhang, Wenxiu Zhang, Yadong Liu, Songjie Xu, Yun Guan, Xueming ChenAbstractSpinal cord injury (SCI) triggers pronounced inflammatory responses that are accompanied by neuronal disruption and functional deficits. SCI treatment remains an unmet clinical need. Emerging evidence suggests that riluzole may exert a neuroprotective effect due to its anti-inflammatory properties. However, details of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. The polarization of microglial/macrophages has an imp...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intraperitoneal injection of ginkgolide B, a major active compound of Ginkgo biloba, dose-dependently increases the amount of wake and decreases non-rapid eye movement sleep in C57BL/6 mice
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Shohei Nishimon, Mai Yamaguchi, Hisae Muraki, Noriaki Sakai, Seiji NishinoAbstractThe terpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba extract, namely ginkgolides (A, B, and C) and bilobalide, possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. They are widely prescribed for the treatment of cerebral dysfunctions and neurological impairments. In addition, they demonstrate antagonistic action at the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A and glycine receptors, which are members of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. In the present study...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pre- and post-synaptic roles of action potential activity in synapse elimination revealed by using ectopic neuromuscular junction formation by a foreign nerve
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Giuseppe Busetto, Alberto CangianoAbstractThe formation of the neuromuscular junction (nmj) is based on molecular cascades initiated by neural agrin as well as electrical activity in the neuromuscular structures. This review focuses on the latter factor, emphasizing the multiplicity of its mechanisms in the process of synapse elimination following initial polyneuronal innervation. Pre- and post-synaptic components of activity have in fact been identified through experiments on an adult model of nmj formation: ectopic reinnervation of ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of the Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex on the Neuromuscular System
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Dina Cheryne Belhasan, Mohammed AkaabouneABSTRACTThe Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex (DGC) is a large multi-protein complex that links cytoskeleton actin to the extracellular matrix. This complex is critical in maintaining the structural integrity of muscle fibers and the stability of the neuromuscular synapse. The DGC consists of dystrophin and its utrophin homolog, as well as dystroglycans, sarcoglycans, sarcospan, syntrophins, and dystrobrevins. Deficiencies in DGC proteins result in several forms of muscular dystrophy with varying...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synaptotagmin: Mechanisms of an electrostatic switch
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Matthew R. Bowers, Noreen E. ReistAbstractSynaptic transmission relies on the fast, synchronous fusion of neurotransmitter filled vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. Synaptotagmin is the Ca2+ sensor that couples the Ca2+ influx into nerve terminals following an action potential with this fast, synchronous vesicle fusion. Over two decades of synaptotagmin research has provided many clues as to how Ca2+ binding by synaptotagmin may lead to vesicle fusion. In vitro studies of molecular binding interactions are essential for elucidati...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Addiction Neurocircuitry and Negative Affect: A role for neuroticism in understanding amygdala connectivity and alcohol use disorder
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Sarah F. Dean, Samantha J. Fede, Nancy Diazgranados, Reza MomenanAbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect neuroticism has on the relationship between alcohol use severity and amygdala connectivity. Previous studies have indicated that amygdala connectivity and negative affect play a role in the cycle of addiction, and that neuroticism, which shares similar qualities with negative affect, is also related to amygdala connectivity, but the role neuroticism plays in mediating the relationship between AUD and amygdala...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Current progress toward hearing recover
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Zhiyong Liu (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Redox regulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase does not affect pain behavior in mice
Publication date: 16 March 2020Source: Neuroscience Letters, Volume 721Author(s): Gesine Wack, Phillip Eaton, Achim Schmidtko, Wiebke Kallenborn-GerhardtAbstractSignaling mediated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been reported to play an important role in pain processing. Previous studies revealed that sEH activity is inhibited by specific binding of electrophiles to a redox-sensitive thiol (Cys521) adjacent to the catalytic center of the hydrolase. Here, we investigated if this redox-dependent modification of sEH is involved in pain processing using “redox-dead” knockin-mice (sEH-KI), in which the redox-...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex difference in the association of APOE4 with cerebral glucose metabolism in older adults reporting significant memory concern
In conclusion, the effect of APOE4 on cerebral glucose metabolism is altered by sex in individuals with SMC. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The developmental and experience-dependent expression of IGF-2 in mice visual cortex
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Yulin Luo, Zhenghai Liu, Shishi Luo, Xilang Wang, Lijuan TaoAbstractThe circuitry associated with the visual cortex is particularly sensitive to experiences during the early stages of life, which are collectively known as critical periods. Critical period of ocular dominance plasticity is regulated by both environmental and genetic factors. Previous studies demonstrated that IGF-1 significantly influenced the regulation of visual cortex synaptic plasticity. IGF-2 can reportedly regulate synapse formation, dendritic spine maturation, an...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inflammatory markers in the hippocampus after audiogenic kindling
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Júnia Lara de Deus, Mateus Ramos Amorim, Procópio Cleber Gama de Barcellos Filho, José Antonio Cortes de Oliveira, Marcelo Eduardo Batalhão, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Evelin Capellari Cárnio, Ricardo Maurício Leão, Luiz Guilherme Siqueira Branc, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira CunhaAbstractHere, we investigated the participation of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the spread of repeated audiogenic seizures from brainstem auditory structures to limbic areas, including the hippocampus. We...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Novel ELISAs to measure total and phosphorylated tau in cerebrospinal fluid
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Takeshi Kawarabayashi, Takumi Nakamura, Kazuya Miyashita, Isamu Fukamachi, Yusuke Seino, Mikio ShojiAbstractCerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total tau (t-tau) and tau protein phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p181tau) are established biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Herein, we measured t-tau and p181tau to evaluate novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using 72 CSF samples including from patients with AD with dementia (ADD) and various neurodegenerative diseases. Our assay system showed good correlations with widely u...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A novel mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury using laser-induced shock waves
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Satoshi Tomura, Soichiro Seno, Satoko Kawauchi, Hiromi Miyazaki, Shunichi Sato, Yasushi Kobayashi, Daizoh SaitohAbstractBlast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mild bTBI) has been a frequent battlefield injury in soldiers during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Understanding the pathophysiology and determining effective treatments for mild bTBI has become an international problem in the field of neurotrauma research. Contributing to this problem is a lack of an experimental model that accurately mimics the characteristics of m...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Examination of nicotine and saccharin reward in the Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rat model
This study aimed to determine if a similar increase in nicotine reward is found in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model of the spontaneous formation of insulin resistance in an inbred sub-strain of Wistar rat. Nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) was examined in Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar, and GK rats. A robust nicotine CPP was found in SD and Wistar rats, but nicotine CPP was not detected in GK rats. Locomotor activity was also evaluated in all three strains, and GK rats demonstrated significantly less activity as compared to SD and Wistar rats. To further assess reward behavior in GK rats, consumption of saccharin so...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Personality Profile of the Primary Blepharospasm (BSP): An Investigation Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
ConclusionThe findings indicated that MMPI could be a useful psychometric tool to characterize a specific pattern of the personality of BSP patients and BSP patients may have avoidant and somatization personality characteristics. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Proconvulsant effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling model of epilepsy: The role of TRPA1 channels
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Caner Günaydın, Gökhan Arslan, S. Sırrı BilgeAbstractThe transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a member of the TRP superfamily, is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and plays an important role in pain and inflammation. However, no data has been reported regarding the effects of TRPA1 on epileptic seizures. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the sub-chronic effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA), an agonist of TRPA1, in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model via electrocortico...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebral edema and liver disease: classic perspectives and contemporary hypotheses on mechanism
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Eric M. Liotta, W. Taylor KimberlyAbstractLiver disease is a growing public health concern. Hepatic encephalopathy, the syndrome of brain dysfunction secondary to liver disease, is a frequent complication of both acute and chronic liver disease and cerebral edema (CE) is a key feature. While altered ammonia metabolism is a key contributor to hepatic encephalopathy and CE in liver disease, there is a growing appreciation that additional mechanisms contribute to CE. In this review we will begin by presenting three classic perspectives th...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effect of protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor LB100 on regulating methamphetamine induced conditioned place preference in mice
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Hongyan Qian, Jing Wang, Qing Shang, Jing Xiao, Gang Chen, Baoyao Gao, Min Liang, Tao Li, Xinshe LiuAbstractProtein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine phosphatase abundant in mammalian brains. Although recent research has revealed that PP2A plays important roles in cocaine and morphine addictions, the mechanism of action of PP2A in methamphetamine (METH) addiction is unclear. LB100 is a PP2A inhibitor able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB); the role of LB100 in METH-induced conditioned place ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Development of the human accessory olivary nuclei: a morphometric and computerized 3D-reconstruction study
ConclusionThe human AO are separated into caudal and rostral parts in the fetal period. The nuclear volume and neuronal profile areas increase with age, although the rate of this increase is lower than in the PO. Natural neuronal death may occur at mid-gestation in the AO. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Heroin exposure and withdrawal differentially influence expression of NMDA receptor NR2 subunits in the prelimbic region of rat medial prefrontal cortex
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Zaiman Zhu, Hui Wang, Yuxin Jiang, Tianmiao Hua, Changzheng ZhangAbstractIt is widely reported that drug addiction involves the strengthening of specific reward circuits through N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic potentiation, and several lines of evidence strongly implicate NMDA receptor 2 (NR2) subunits in drug abuse. To explore the potential mechanism of heroin dependence, this study examined changes in the expression levels of NR2 subunits NR2A–D in the prelimbic (PL) region of the medial prefrontal ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain activity associated with the rubber foot illusion
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Nanae Matsumoto, Ryusuke Nakai, Tadashi Ino, Akira MitaniAbstractThe internal representation of the body is constantly updated by sensory information based on interactions with the environment. The internal representation of the hand can be experimentally manipulated with the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. Brain activity during the RHI provides insight into the neural mechanisms underpinning the reconstruction of the internal representation of the hand. Recently, the RHI paradigm has been employed for the lower limb, revealing th...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Processing network emojis in Chinese sentence context: An ERP study
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Mengmeng Tang, Bingfei Chen, Xiufeng Zhao, Lun ZhaoAbstractAs network emojis play an increasingly important role in modern communications, the question of how semantic processing of emojis is performed in the context arises. By comparing the N400 and P600 effects of emojis and words in contextually incongruent conditions, we investigated the neural basis of semantic processing of emojis. We found that incongruent words elicited robust N400 and P600 effects, while emojis only generated a more conspicuous and sustained N400 effect. This ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sevoflurane anesthesia-mediated oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in hippocampal neurons of old rats can be ameliorated by expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Zhe Xu, Bin QianAbstractPostoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients has been related to neurodegenerative disorders and mortality. Sevoflurane anesthesia has been implicated in both postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Given the advantages of using inhaled anesthetics like sevoflurane, it is important to understand how their usage results in neurotoxicity and subsequently devise ways to circumvent or attenuate the anesthetic-mediated induction in neurotoxicity. We have used an aged rat model to investigate...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Secretin receptor-deficient mice exhibit altered circadian rhythm in wheel-running activity
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Mizuki Sugiyama, Ichiko Nishijima, Shota Miyazaki, Takahiro J. NakamuraAbstractIn mammals, the timing of behavior and physiological activity is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. Incidentally, secretin is a peptide hormone that promotes digestive activities and regulates water reabsorption. In recent studies, exogenous administration of secretin has been reported to induce secretion of oxytocin in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus and modulate social behavior. These results indicate that secre...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 16 February 2020Source: Neuroscience Letters, Volume 720Author(s): (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Predicting future onset of depression among community dwelling adults in the Republic of Korea using a machine learning algorithm
In this study, we aimed to build a machine learning-based predictive model for future onset of depression. We used nationwide survey data to construct training and hold-out test set. The class imbalance was dealt with the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique. A tree-based ensemble method, random forest, was used to build a predictive model. Depression was defined by 9 or more on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale 11 items version. Hyperparameters were tuned throughout the 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 6,588 (6,067 of non-depression and 521 of depression) participants were included in...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural multimodal integration underlying synchronization with a co-performer in music: influences of motor expertise and visual information
This study investigated neurocognitive processes that enable such high levels of performance, specifically testing the relevance of 1) motor resonance and sharing high levels of motor expertise with the co-performer, and 2) the role of visual information in addition to auditory information. Musicians with varying levels of piano expertise (including non-pianists) performed on a single piano key with their right hand along with recordings of a pianist who performed simple melodies with the left hand, synchronizing timing and articulation. The prerecorded performances were presented as audio-only, audio-video, or audio-anima...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spinal caspase-6 contributes to remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia via regulating CCL21/CXCR3 pathway in rats
ConclusionThis study highlighted that spinal caspase-6-mediated up-regulation of CCL21/CXCR3 is vital in the pathogenesis of RIH in rats. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Two types of recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia in Roma patients in compound heterozygous state; no ethnically prevalent variant found
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Anna Uhrova Meszarosova, Pavel Seeman, Jan Jencik, Jana Drabova, Renata Cibochova, Julia Stellmachova, Dana Safka BrozkovaAbstractHereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP or SPG) is a group of rare upper motor neuron diseases. As some ethnically-specific, disease-causing homozygous variants were described in the Czech Roma population, we hypotesised that some prevalent HSP-causing variant could exist in this population. Eight Czech Roma patients were found in a large group of Czech patients with suspected HSP and were tested using gene panel...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Benzodiazepine exposure induces transcriptional down-regulation of gabaa receptor α1 subunit gene via l-type voltage-gated calcium channel activation in rat cerebrocortical neurons
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): María Florencia Foitzick, Nelsy Beatriz Medina, Lucía Candela Iglesias García, María Clara GravielleAbstractGABAA receptors are targets of different pharmacologically relevant drugs, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and anesthetics. In particular, benzodiazepines are prescribed for the treatment of anxiety, sleep disorders, and seizure disorders. Benzodiazepines potentiate GABA responses by binding to GABAA receptors, which are mainly composed of α (1-3, 5), β2, and γ2 subunits. Prolon...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anodal occipital tDCS enhances spontaneous alpha activity
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Guoya Dong, Yu Wang, Xiaogang ChenAbstractTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of brain stimulation technique that modulates neuronal excitability changes in targeted cerebral areas through a constant low current. The existing studies mainly concentrated in tDCS effects on motor cortex. The number of tDCS studies targeting visual area is sparse. And parameters of tDCS on the visual cortex are not well optimized yet. Therefore, this study explored the effect of anodal occipital tDCS in eyes-open resting state to disc...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Redox regulation of soluble epoxide hydroxylase does not affect pain behavior in mice
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Gesine Wack, Phillip Eaton, Achim Schmidtko, Wiebke Kallenborn-GerhardtAbstractSignaling mediated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been reported to play an important role in pain processing. Previous studies revealed that sEH activity is inhibited by specific binding of electrophiles to a redox-sensitive thiol (Cys521) adjacent to the catalytic center of the hydrolase. Here, we investigated if this redox-dependent modification of sEH is involved in pain processing using “redox-dead” knockin-mice (sEH-KI), in which the...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NFKF is a synthetic fragment derived from rat hemopressin that protects mice from neurodegeneration
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Andrea S. Heimann, AC Giardini, MB Sant’Anna, Nilton B. Dos Santos, Mayara C.F. Gewehr, Carolina D. Munhoz, Leandro M. Castro, Gisele Picolo, Ricardo A. Remer, Emer S. FerroAbstractPrevious studies suggested the pharmacological potential of rat hemopressin (PVNFKFLSH) and its shorter synthetic peptide NFKF, to protect from pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. Orally administered NFKF was shown to be hundred times more potent than cannabidiol in delaying the first seizure induced by pilocarpine in mice. Here, using an experimenta...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Auditory detection learning is accompanied by plasticity in the auditory evoked potential
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Matthew G. Wisniewski, Natalie J. Ball, Alexandria C. Zakrzewski, Nandini Iyer, Eric R. Thompson, Nathan SpencerAbstractAuditory detection can improve with practice. These improvements are often assumed to arise from selective attention processes, but longer-term plasticity as a result of training may also play a role. Here, listeners were trained to detect either an 861-Hz or 1058-Hz tone (counterbalanced across participants) presented in noise at SNRs varying from -10 to -24 dB. On the following day, they were tasked with dete...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Time-course of Pain Threshold after Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation of Primary Somatosensory Cortex in Pain-free Subjects
Publication date: Available online 26 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Nishant Rao, Yen-Ting Chen, Regan Ramirez, John Tran, Sheng Li, Pranav J. ParikhAbstractPrimary somatosensory cortex (S1) is involved in pain processing and thus its suppression using neuromodulatory techniques such as continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) might be a potential pain management strategy in patients with neuropathic pain. cTBS over S1 is known to elevate pain threshold in young adults. However, the time course of this after-effect is unknown. Furthermore, the effect of cTBS over S1 on pain threshold might be confounde...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal hyperexcitability and astrocyte activation in spinal dorsal horn of a dermatitis mouse model with cutaneous hypersensitivity
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Yoshihiro Inami, Daisuke Uta, Tsugunobu AndohAbstractCleaning products such as soaps, shampoos, and detergents are comprised mainly of surfactants, agents known to cause dermatitis and cutaneous hypersensitivity characterized by itching, stinging, and burning of the skin and scalp. However, the mechanisms underlying surfactant-induced cutaneous hypersensitivity remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of cutaneous hypersensitivity in mice treated with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Repeated SDS ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

JWH133 inhibits MPP+-induced inflammatory response and iron influx in astrocytes
ConclusionsThese results suggest that activation of CB2 receptor inhibit MPP+-induced inflammatory response and iron influx in astrocytes. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Serotonin induces Arcadlin in hippocampal neurons
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Hidekazu Tanaka, Toshinori Sawano, Naoko Konishi, Risako Harada, Chiaki Takeuchi, Yuki Shin, Hiroko Sugiura, Jin Nakatani, Takahiro Fujimoto, Kanato YamagataAbstractThe monoamine hypothesis does not fully explain the delayed onset of recovery after antidepressant treatment or the mechanisms of recovery after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The common mechanism that operates both in ECT and monoaminergic treatment presumably involves molecules induced in both of these conditions. A spine density modulator, Arcadlin (Acad), the rat orth...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The release of exosomes in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens brain regions of chronic constriction injury (CCI) model mice could elevate the pain sensation
ConclusionResults from our study supported the idea that the release of mPFC and NAc exosomes of CCI model has elevated the pain sensations in the subjected mice. This study will further help in designing new clinical trials, and will revolutionize the drug-induced anesthetic responses. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to Parkinson's disease: an updated meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Jinzhao Gao, Jijun Teng, Zongchao Liu, Min Cai, Anmu XieAbstractThe relationships between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, particularly ApaI, BsmI, FokI, and TaqI, and Parkinson's disease (PD) has received increasing attention in the research community. However, as the results yielded by this increased research have hitherto conflicted, we performed an updated meta-analysis of reports on the relationships between VDR polymorphisms and PD published before October 2019 that we collected from the PUBMED, EMBASE, EBSCO, China N...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in autonomic nervous function and influencing factors in a rat insular cortex electrical kindling model
In conclusion, our kindling model demonstrates the ability of insular cortex stimulation to generate epilepsy. Our model thus offers a practical tool for studies of the role of the insular cortex in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations in α-synuclein and PINK1 expression reduce neurite length and induce mitochondrial fission and Golgi fragmentation in midbrain neurons
This study provides novel evidence that α-synuclein overexpression and PINK1 deletion converge to induce significant increases in Golgi fragmentation and mitochondrial fission in midbrain neurons, that are correlated with decreases in neurite length. This highlights the need for further studies on these converging mechanisms in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute kick-boxing exercise alters effective connectivity in the brain of females with methamphetamine dependencies
This study aimed to assess acute kick-boxing related changes in effective connectivity (EC) in the brain of females with METH dependencies by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals.MethodsThe fNIRS signals were continuously recorded from the left and right prefrontal cortices (LPFC/RPFC) and left and right motor cortices (LMC/RMC) of 30 female subjects with methamphetamine dependencies (METH group) and 30 age-matched controls (control group) during resting and kick-boxing exercise (training) periods. EC was calculated in the frequency range of 0.01–0.08 Hz.ResultsIn both resting and traini...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The functional implications and modifiability of resting-state brain network complexity in older adults
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Junhong Zhou, On-Yee Lo, Mark A. Halko, Rachel Harrison, Lewis A. Lipsitz, Brad ManorAbstractThe dynamics of the resting-state activity in brain functional networks are complex, containing meaningful patterns over multiple temporal scales. Such physiologic complexity is often diminished in older adults. Here we aim to examine if the resting-state complexity within functional brain networks is sensitive to functional status in older adults and if repeated exposure to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would modulate such com...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - January 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research