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Gender-bias in the sensory representation of infant cry
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): S. Devaraju Dhatri, G. Nike Gnanateja, U. Ajith Kumar, Sandeep Maruthy The auditory neural pathway in females appears to be more sensitive to the cry of an infant (De Pisapia et al., 2013; Messina et al., 2016). Cortical responses in females have shown a distinct advantage compared to males in the auditory processing of infant cry. Such gender-bias in the cortical responses might emanate either at higher levels of processing such as cognitive and emotional processing or at the lower level representation of stimulus features. We assessed for ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

They all do it, will you? Event-related potential evidence of herding behavior in online peer-to-peer lending
Publication date: 10 August 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 681 Author(s): Haihong Yu, MengHan Dan, Qingguo Ma, Jia Jin As herding is a typical characteristic of human behavior, many researchers have found the existence of herding behavior in online peer-to-peer lending through empirical surveys. However, the underlying neural basis of this phenomenon is still unclear. In the current study, we studied the neural activities of herding at decision-making stage and feedback stage using event-related potentials (ERPs). Our results showed that at decision-making stage, larger error related negativity (ERN) amplitude w...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cortical thickness and gyrification patterns in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Marco Mcsweeney, Markus Reuber, Nigel Hoggard, Liat Levita Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are often viewed as manifestations of altered motor and sensory function resulting from psychological responses to adverse experiences. Yet many patients and non-expert healthcare professionals find it difficult to understand how severe disturbances in normal neurological functioning can solely result from underlying psychological mechanisms to the exclusion of other physical causes. Perhaps importantly, recent advances using neuroimaging tec...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

MicroRNA-7 facilitates the degradation of alpha-synuclein and its aggregates by promoting autophagy
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Doo Chul Choi, Myungsik Yoo, Savan Kabaria, Eunsung Junn Alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn) is an important protein in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD) as it accumulates as fibrillar inclusions in affected brain regions including dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Elevated levels of α-Syn seem to be crucial in mediating its toxicity. Thus, detailed information regarding the regulatory mechanism of α-Syn expression in several layers such as transcription, post-transcription and post-translation is needed in order t...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insertion of proteolipid protein into mitochondria but not DM20 regulates metabolism of cells
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Mallika Somayajulu, Denise A. Bessert, Maik Hüttemann, Jasloveleen Sohi, John Kamholz, Robert P. Skoff Proteolipid protein (PLP), besides its adhesive role in myelin, has been postulated to have multiple cellular functions. One well-documented function of PLP is regulation of oligodendrocyte (Olg) apoptosis. In contrast, DM20, an alternatively spliced product of the PLP1/Plp1 gene, has been proposed to have functions that are unique from PLP but these functions have never been elucidated. Here, we compare metabolism of PLP and DM20, and...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ebselen protects mitochondrial function and oxidative stress while inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after acute spinal cord injury
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Zhi-Qiang Jia, San-Qiang Li, Wei-Qiang Qiao, Wen-Zhong Xu, Jian-Wu Xing, Jian-Tao Liu, Hui Song, Zhong-Yang Gao, Bing-Wen Xing, Xi-Jing He Ebselen is a fat-soluble small molecule and organic selenium compound that regulates the activity of glutathione peroxidase to alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ebselen on mitochondrial oxidative stress response, mitochondrial apotosis, and motor behaviors after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that e...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Extrafoveally applied flashing light affects contrast thresholds of achromatic and S-cone isolating, but not L-M cone modulated stimuli
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): A. Őze, A. Puszta, P. Buzás, P. Kóbor, G. Braunitzer, A. Nagy Flashing light stimulation is often used to investigate the visual system. However, the magnitude of the effect of this stimulus on the various subcortical pathways is not well investigated. The signals of conscious vision are conveyed by the magnocellular, parvocellular and koniocellular pathways. Parvocellular and koniocellular pathways (or more precisely, the L-M opponent and S-cone isolating channels) can be accessed by isoluminant red-green (L-M) and S-cone iso...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Low and high gamma auditory steady-states in response to 440  Hz carrier chirp-modulated tones show no signs of attentional modulation
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Evaldas Pipinis, Aleksandras Voicikas, Inga Griskova-Bulanova Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are increasingly used as a neurodiagnostical tool and in neurotechnological applications where it is important to test responses at different frequencies. We aimed to evaluate EEG responses to a low-frequency carrier (440 Hz) tone modulated with 500 ms chirps at 1–120 Hz and to test the ability of stimulation to highlight the low and high gamma band activity. Increasing and decreasing modulation rates were applied. Subjective ple...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multidimensional brain activity dictated by winner-take-all mechanisms
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Arturo Tozzi, James F. Peters A novel demon-based architecture is introduced to elucidate brain functions such as pattern recognition during human perception and mental interpretation of visual scenes. Starting from the topological concepts of invariance and persistence, we introduce a Selfridge pandemonium variant of brain activity that takes into account a novel feature, namely, demons that recognize short straight-line segments, curved lines and scene shapes, such as shape interior, density and texture. Low-level representations of object...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of Trpv1 and Trpv4 in surgical incision-induced tissue swelling and Fos-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of mice
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Yasuhito Motojima, Haruki Nishimura, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Kazuaki Nishimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Reiko Saito, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Takanori Matsuura, Hitoshi Suzuki, Makoto Kawasaki, Hideo Ohnishi, Akinori Sakai, Yoichi Ueta Pain management remains a major concern regarding the treatment of postoperative patients. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are considered to be new therapeutic targets for pain control. We investigated whether the genes Trpv1 and Trpv4 are involved in hind paw swelling caused after sur...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of long-term rapamycin treatment on glial scar formation after cryogenic traumatic brain injury in mice
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Yan-Ying Fan, Fang Nan, Bao-Lu Guo, Yan Liao, Ming-Sheng Zhang, Jie Guo, Bao-Long Niu, Yue-Qin Liang, Cai-Hong Yang, Yi Zhang, Xuan-Ping Zhang, Xue-Fen Pang Glial scar impedes axon regeneration and functional recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although it has been shown that rapamycin (a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin) can reduce astrocyte reactivation in the early stage of TBI, its effect on glial scar formation has not been characterized in TBI and other acute brain injury models. To test this, ICR mice r...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine promotes the recovery of neurogenesis in aged mouse with postoperative cognitive dysfunction
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Wen-Xiang Wang, Qiong Wu, Si-Si Liang, Xue-Kang Zhang, Qian Hu, Qiu-Hong Chen, Hai-Jin Huang, Lin Xu, Fo-Quan Lou Recently, growing evidence has demonstrated Dexmedetomidine (Dex) a promising intervene preventing postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) following surgery, which is associated with neuroinflammation leading to neuronal apoptosis and deregulated neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested the anti-inflammation and anti-neuroapoptosis action of Dex. Therefore we hypothesize the promoting neurogenesis of Dex linked to stimulating BDNF...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of systemic cholinergic antagonism on reinforcer devaluation in macaques
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Hannah F. Waguespack, Ludise Málková, Patrick A. Forcelli, Janita Turchi The capacity to adjust actions based on new information is a vital cognitive function. An animal’s ability to adapt behavioral responses according to changes in reward value can be measured using a reinforcer devaluation task, wherein the desirability of a given object is reduced by decreasing the value of the associated food reinforcement. Elements of the neural circuits serving this ability have been studied in both rodents and nonhuman primates. S...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Loss of neuronal CD200 contributed to microglial activation after acute cerebral ischemia in mice
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Yang Yang, Xiang-jian Zhang, Cong Zhang, Rong Chen, Li Li, Junna He, Yanzhao Xie, Yanxia Chen CD200 has been proved to play a role in immuno-inflammatory reaction. However, little information is available on CD200 in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. We investigated the association between neuronal death and expression of CD200, and explored the relationship between CD200 and microglia in cerebral ischemic mice. Firstly, localization of CD200 expression in the normal brain tissue was detected by immunofluorescent assay. Then, focal cereb...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Removal of area CA3 from hippocampal slices induces postsynaptic plasticity at Schaffer collateral synapses that normalizes CA1 pyramidal cell discharge
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Theodore C. Dumas, Michael R. Uttaro, Carolina Barriga, Tiffany Brinkley, Maryam Halavi, Susan N. Wright, Michele Ferrante, Rebekah C. Evans, Sarah L. Hawes, Erin M. Sanders Neural networks that undergo acute insults display remarkable reorganization. This injury related plasticity is thought to permit recovery of function in the face of damage that cannot be reversed. Previously, an increase in the transmission strength at Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was observed after long-term activity reduction in organotypic hippo...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces changes on the expression and activity of neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11) in the brain of rats
This study aimed to evaluate the expression and activity of NEP in cognitive-related brain structures of rats submitted to CIH. Western blot, qRT-PCR and enzyme activity assay, demonstrated that a six-week intermittent hypoxia increased NEP expression and activity, selectively in temporal cortex, but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The increase in NEP activity and expression was reverted followed by two weeks recovery in normoxia. These data show that CIH protocol increases the expression and activity of NEP selectively in the temporal cortex. Additional mechanisms must be investigated to elucidate the effects o...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

DOR agonist (SNC-80) exhibits anti-parkinsonian effect via downregulating UPR/oxidative stress signals and inflammatory response in vivo
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Erfath Thanjeem Begum M, Dwaipayan Sen The pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease exhibit imperative roles in unfolded protein response stress-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in general. Although, delta opioid receptor (DOR), has been found to represent anti-parkinsonian effect at behavioral level, its underlying mechanism remains elusive till date. In the present study the role of DOR agonist, SNC-80 and the consorted molecular mechanisms, which translates to behavioral recuperation, has been delineated. In order to mimic PD...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multiple system atrophy and CAG repeat length: A genetic screening of polyglutamine disease genes in Italian patients
This study supports the utility of polyQ genetic testing in the differential diagnosis of MSA, and may suggest a possible role of SCA1 repeat length as risk factor for MSA-C. SCA1 and SCA2 genetic screening is recommended in MSA Italian patients. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Influence of foot position and vision on dynamic postural strategies during the “grand plié” ballet movement (squatting) in young and adult ballet dancers
Conclusion The effect of foot position was greatest with EO. The parallel position was less stable. The YD were more unstable in the parallel position, particularly with EC. For both groups, the lack of vision increased instability. These results show the importance of integrating balance training in a variety of foot positions and visual conditions, particularly during the initial stages of training to prevent injury. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TDP-43 interacts with mitochondrial proteins critical for mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Stephani A. Davis, Sheed Itaman, Christopher M. Khalid-Janney, Justin A. Sherard, James A. Dowell, Nigel J. Cairns, Michael A. Gitcho Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) functions as a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein and is the major pathological protein in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND). TDP-43 pathology may also be present as a comorbidity in approximately 20–50% of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease cases. In a mouse model of...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An alarm pheromone reduces ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens shell responsivity
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Ana G. Gutiérrez-García, Carlos M. Contreras, Mauricio Saldivar-Lara 2-Heptanone (methyl n-amyl ketone) is a ketone that produces alarm reactions in insects (e.g., bees and ants). As an olfactory stimulus, 2-heptanone produces anxiety reactions in the short term and despair in the long term in rodent models. Among the anatomical connections of the olfactory system that integrate behavioral responses, connections between the amygdala and nucleus accumbens are important, which in turn form a circuit with the ventral tegmental are...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors contribute to Fos expression increase in the spinal cord through antidromic electrical stimulation of sensory nerves
Publication date: 21 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 678 Author(s): Jia-Heng Li, Pei-Yao He, Dan-Ni Fan, Dilinapa Alemujiang, Fu-Quan Huo, Yan Zhao, Dong-Yuan Cao Previous studies have shown that peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors are involved in the increase in sensitivity of a cutaneous branch of spinal dorsal ramus (CBDR) through antidromic electrical stimulation (ADES) of another CBDR in the adjacent segment. CBDR in the thoracic segments run parallel to each other and no synaptic contact at the periphery is reported. The present study investigated whether the increased sensitivity of peripheral s...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Feeding the developing brain: Juvenile rats fed diet rich in prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions exhibit reduced anxiety-related behavior and modified gene expression in emotion circuits
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Agnieszka Mika, Michelle Gaffney, Rachel Roller, Abigail Hills, Courtney A. Bouchet, Kristina A. Hulen, Robert S. Thompson, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M. Berg, Monika Fleshner Early life nutrition is critical for brain development. Dietary prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions support brain development by increasing plasticity and altering activity in brain regions important for cognition and emotion regulation, perhaps through the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Here we examined the impact of a diet containing prebiotics, lactoferrin, and milk ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Kir 4.1 inward rectifier potassium channel is upregulated in astrocytes in a murine multiple sclerosis model
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Francisco Mercado, Angélica Almanza, Nazario Rubio, Enrique Soto Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a high prevalence degenerative disease characterized at the cellular level by glial and neuronal cell death. The causes of cell death during the disease course are not fully understood. In this work we demonstrate that in a MS model induced by Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection, the inward rectifier (Kir) 4.1 potassium channel subunit is overexpressed in astrocytes. In voltage clamp experiments the inward current de...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cortical modulation of brainstem circuits is abnormal in cervical dystonia
Discussion Enhancement of hand-evoked BR is a normal phenomenon that provides evidence for top-down modulation of its neural circuitry. In cervical dystonia, the normal modulation is lost which suggests abnormal modulatory effect of higher-order centers upon brainstem circuits. The pattern of alteration also differs if there is no sensory trick. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The glutamate clearance function of adipose stromal cells-derived astrocytes
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Zanzan Cheng, Ya Ou, Lili Zhang, Pingshu Zhang, Xiaodong Yuan, Wei Peng, Shujuan Wang, Xuhong Zhu, Liping Zhang, Yan Meng ADSCs-derived astrocytes qualify the morphology, ultrastructure and membrane electrical potential, which are all unique to astrocytes. But whether they have the glutamate clearance function like mature astrocytes is under exploration. ADSCs were extracted, cultured and induced into astrocytes for 48 h, 7d, 14d and 21d in vitro. Inverted phase contrast microscope was used to observe the morphology of the cells in each gr...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visually fixating or tracking another person decreases balance control in young and older females walking in a real-world scenario
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Neil M. Thomas, Tim Donovan, Susan Dewhurst, Theodoros M. Bampouras Balance control during overground walking was assessed in 10 young (23.6 ± 3.4) and 10 older (71.0 ± 5.5 years) healthy females during free gaze, and when fixating or tracking another person in an everyday use waiting room. Balance control was characterised by medial/lateral sacrum acceleration dispersion, and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with eye tracking equipment. The results showed decreased balance control when fixating a stationar...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electroencephalogram oscillations support the involvement of task-unrelated thoughts in the mechanism of boredom: A pilot study
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Eri Miyauchi, Masahiro Kawasaki Boredom is a universal experience; however, the neural mechanisms underlying the phenomenon remain unclear. Previous research suggests that boredom is related to attentional failure and derives a possible explanation for the cognitive processes of boredom as a product of appraisals made about task-unrelated thoughts. There are little published data regarding proposed processes from neuroscientific perspectives. Therefore, the authors aimed to examine whether cognitive processes of boredom with task-unrelated t...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2) deficiency causes abnormal synapse development in hippocampal mossy fiber terminals
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Yo Shinoda, Tetsushi Sadakata, Takumi Akagi, Yuriko Sakamaki, Tsutomu Hashikawa, Yoshitake Sano, Teiichi Furuichi Hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) project from dentate gyrus granule cells onto the CA2–CA3 region. MF-mediated synaptic transmission plays an important role in hippocampal learning and memory. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MF synaptic development and subsequent functional organization are not fully understood. We previously reported that calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2, also known as...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - May 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of electrical stimulation of the rat vestibular labyrinth on c-Fos expression in the hippocampus
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Martin Hitier, Go Sato, Yan-Feng Zhang, Stephane Besnard, Paul F. Smith Several studies have demonstrated that electrical activation of the peripheral vestibular system can evoke field potential, multi-unit neuronal activity and acetylcholine release in the hippocampus (HPC). However, no study to date has employed the immediate early gene protein, c-Fos, to investigate the distribution of activation of cells in the HPC following electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. We found that vestibular stimulation increased the number of anim...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alzheimer ’s disease susceptibility genes modify the risk of Parkinson disease and Parkinson’s disease-associated cognitive impairment
In this study, we analyzed 16 CE-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in twelve genes in a Chinese cohort of 450 PD cases and 449 controls. Among our 298 cases clinically evaluated for CI, 113 cases did not show CI signs (PD-NC), 86 cases had mildly cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and 99 cases had dementia (PD-D). We found that the APOE ε4 allele is associated with a higher risk for PD-D. Gene-gene interaction analysis revealed that three significant gene–gene interactions, including BDNF and CLU, APOE and CR1, and DYRK1A and CD2AP increase the risk for PD. Because these SNPs are known genetic risk...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The relationship between interleukin-6 and functional connectivity in methamphetamine users
We examined the relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and corticolimbic and striatolimbic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Thirty adults diagnosed with MA dependence and 20 control subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and gave a blood sample for determination of plasma IL-6 levels. Seed-based RSFC analyses were performed to examine the interactive effect of group and IL-6 on ventral striatal and prefrontal connectivity. Within the MA group, IL-6 levels were positively related to striatolimbic RSFC but negatively related to corticostriatal RSFC. Our findings w...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

24-h sleep deprivation impairs early attentional modulation of neural processing: An event-related brain potential study
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Eve Wiggins, Malayka Mottarella, Kendra Good, Seth Eggleston, Courtney Stevens Prior research indicates sleep deprivation negatively impacts selective attention, although less is known about the neural bases of these effects. The present study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine whether the effects of total sleep deprivation could be traced to the earliest stages of sensory processing influenced by selective attention. Participants were randomly assigned either to a regular sleep or 24-h total sleep deprivation condition. F...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rapamycin relieves anxious emotion and synaptic plasticity deficits induced by hindlimb unloading in mice
This study examined whether increasing autophagy could improve cognitive deficits in hindlimb unloaded (HU) mice, which was used as an animal model of synaptic plasticity impairment. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: control, HU and HU + rapamycin groups. Hindlimb unloading treatment was used to establish the animal model for 2 weeks. Rapamycin was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day along with hindlimb unloading procedure. The open field test and the elevated plus maze test showed that rapamycin considerably prevented the level of anxiety and increased exploratory behaviour...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of wrist position on reciprocal inhibition and cutaneous reflex amplitudes in forearm muscles
This study reveals that effect of limb position is nerve-specific in cutaneous reflexes and not significant on reciprocal inhibition in the arm. This has implications for measurement and study design in those who have mobility and motor activation challenges (e.g. neurotrauma) that affect hand function. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relevance of the hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress response in a mouse model of chronic kidney disease
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Yasuhiro Kosuge, Nobuhiro Osada, Akiko Shimomura, Hiroko Miyagishi, Taira Wada, Kumiko Ishige, Shigeki Shimba, Yoshihisa Ito It has been shown that the incidence of cognitive impairment increases with the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A previous study has demonstrated that hippocampal oxidative stress contributes to cognitive dysfunction in CKD model mice. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is thought to contribute significantly to neuronal dysfunction, but its role in the hippocampal dysfunction seen in CKD still remains unclear....
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PINK1 p.K520RfsX3 mutation identified in a Chinese family with early-onset Parkinson ’s disease
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Peng Wang, Yi Guo, Chengyuan Song, Yiming Liu, Hao Deng Parkinson’s disease (PD) features selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta accompanied by the accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies. PTEN induced putative kinase 1 gene (PINK1) mutations are the second most common genetic cause of autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD). A single nucleotide deletion in PINK1 exon 8 (c.1557delG) was identified in a consanguineous Chinese family with EOPD. The homoz...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The mTOR cell signaling pathway is crucial to the long-term protective effects of ischemic postconditioning against stroke
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Peng Wang, Rong Xie, Michelle Cheng, Robert Sapolsky, Xunming Ji, Heng Zhao Ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) protects against stroke, but few have studied the pathophysiological mechanisms of its long-term protective effects. Here, we investigated whether the mTOR pathway is involved in the long-term protective effects of IPostC. Stroke was induced in rats by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo) combined with 30 min of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion, and IPostC was induced after the CCA release. Injury size and...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of a histamine H4 receptor antagonist on cisplatin-induced anorexia in mice
In this study, we investigated the involvement of the H4 receptor in the development of chemotherapy-induced anorexia in mice. Cisplatin-induced anorexia occurred within 24 h of its administration and continued for 3 days. The early phase (day 1), but not the delayed phase (days 2 and 3), of anorexia was inhibited by the daily injection of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (granisetron). However, a corticosteroid (dexamethasone) or selective H4 receptor antagonist (JNJ7777120) abolished the delayed phases of anorexia. Cisplatin significantly increased TNF-α mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and spleen, and the period...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression patterns and role of PTEN in rat peripheral nerve development and injury
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Hui Chen, Jianping Xiang, Junxia Wu, Bo He, Tao Lin, Qingtang Zhu, Xiaolin Liu, Canbin Zheng Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Proteomics based identification of differential plasma proteins and changes in white matter integrity as markers in early detection of mild cognitive impaired subjects at high risk of Alzheimer ’s disease
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Abhai Kumar, Smita Singh, Ashish Verma, Vijay Nath Mishra Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage of cognitive decline and dementia. The absence of specific diagnostic test for identification of MCI and AD. The current study aims to find proteomics based change in plasma proteins and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based white matter changes in MCI for early detection of prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Fifty cases of mild cognitive impairment and age matched control between (55–75 yrs) were screened on basis of Mini...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Blockade of α2-adrenergic or metabotropic glutamate receptors induces glutamate release in the locus coeruleus to activate descending inhibition in rats with chronic neuropathic hypersensitivity
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Ken-ichiro Hayashida, Masafumi Kimuram, James C. Eisenach Locus coeruleus (LC)-spinal noradrenergic projections are important to endogenous analgesic mechanisms and can be activated by local glutamate signaling in the LC. The current study examined the local glutamatergic, GABAergic, and noradrenergic influences on glutamate release in the LC and noradrenergic descending inhibition in rats 6 weeks after spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Intra-LC injection of the α2 adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan or the group 2 metabotropic glutamate recept...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Geniposide improves repeated restraint stress-induced depression-like behavior in mice by ameliorating neuronal apoptosis via regulating GLP-1R/AKT signaling pathway
In conclusion, GP exerted promising antidepressant-like effects in RRS mice, and the antidepressant-like action of GP might be closely relevant to GLP-1R/AKT signaling. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rewarding and reinforcing effects of 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine and AH-7921 in rodents
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Hye Jin Cha, Seo Young Jeon, Hwa Jin Jang, Jisoon Shin, Young-Hoon Kim, Soo Kyung Suh New psychoactive substances (NPSs), i.e., newly designed substances with chemical residues that are slightly different from those of known psychoactive substances, have been emerging since the late 2000s, and social problems related to the use of these substances are increasing globally. Two such NPSs are 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOC), a psychedelic substance that is structurally related to amphetamine, and AH-7921, an opioid analgesic that is used...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Microencapsulated Schwann cell transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptors overexpression in a sciatic nerve injury rat model with neuropathic pain
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Ya-ling Zhang, Yi-guo Liu, De-jian Chen, Bao-lin Yang, Tao-tao Liu, Jia-juan Li, Xiu-qi Wang, Hao-tian (Rose) Li, Zeng-xu Liu Transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) can promote axonal regeneration and formation of the myelin sheath, reduce inflammation, and promote repair to the damaged nerve. Our previous studies have shown that transplantation of free or micro-encapsulated olfactory ensheathing cells can relieve neuropathic pain. There are no related reports regarding whether the transplantation of micro-encapsulated SCs can alleviate neuro...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synaptic organization and division of labor in the exceptionally polymorphic ant Pheidole rhea
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Darcy G. Gordon, James F.A. Traniello Social insect polyphenisms provide models to examine the neural basis of division of labor and anatomy of the invertebrate social brain. Worker size-related behavior is hypothesized to enhance task performance, raising questions concerning the integration of morphology, behavior, and cellular neuroarchitecture, and how variation in sensory inputs and cognitive demands of behaviorally differentiated workers is reflected in higher-order processing ability. We used the highly polymorphic ant Pheidole rhea, w...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long term Westernized diet leads to region-specific changes in brain signaling mechanisms
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Stine Normann Hansen, David Højland Ipsen, Anne Marie Schou-Pedersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg Western diets, high in fat and energy, are associated with cognitive deficits in humans and animal models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This includes whether diet-induced dyslipidemia per se negatively impacts brain signaling. Here we investigate the effects of dyslipidemia induced by two high fat diets with or without high sucrose on hippocampal and frontal cortical oxidative stress, brain-derived n...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Regular aerobic exercise correlates with reduced anxiety and incresed levels of irisin in brain and white adipose tissue
In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation between anxiety like behavior and irisin levels following regular voluntary aerobic exercise in male mice. We’ve have shown that anxiety levels decreased in exercised mice, while irisin levels increased in the brain, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, kidney, and pancreas tissues. No significant difference of irisin levels in the liver, muscle and serum were detected in the exercise group, when compared to controls. In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between brain irisin levels and activity in middle area of open field test and in the op...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase blocks alcohol-mediated cell death and calcium disruption in cerebellar granule neurons
Publication date: 29 May 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 676 Author(s): Dimitrios E. Kouzoukas, Ramesh C. Bhalla, Nicholas J. Pantazis Alcohol during brain development leads to the widespread neuronal death observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In comparison, the mature brain is less vulnerable to alcohol. Studies into maturation-acquired alcohol resistance uncovered a protective mechanism that reduces alcohol-induced neuronal death through nitric oxide-cGMP-cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (NO-cGMP-cGK) signaling. However, the downstream processes underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear....
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NS6740, an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor silent agonist, disrupts hippocampal synaptic plasticity
Publication date: 11 June 2018 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 677 Author(s): Roger L. Papke, Can Peng, Ashok Kumar, Clare Stokes Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus was previously shown to be enhanced by nicotine, an effect dependent on both homomeric α7 and heteromeric α2β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In our experiments, bath-applied nicotine produced no significant enhancement of LTP. The α7 nAChR silent agonist NS6740, a weak activator of α7 nAChR ion channels but an effective modulator of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, decreased LTP and, additi...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research