Diagnostic model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder based on interregional morphological connectivity
This study aimed to identify children with ADHD utilizing a novel interregional morphological connectivity model and discover the discriminative patterns in patients. Therefore, novel interregional morphological patterns rather than regional patterns were extracted via surface-based analysis. The interregional morphological features were trained and tested using a hybrid machine learning method, which was implemented using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) method to produce the optimized discriminative model and discriminative patterns. The inclusion of interregional morphological connectivity significantly improv...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Little evidence for a chronotolerance effect for impulse noise exposure in the C57BL/6J mouse
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ryan T. Harrison, Eric C. BielefeldAbstractNoise-induced hearing loss affects a large number of adults and children worldwide, and continues to be a major public health problem. The cochlea is an organ that maintains delicate metabolic homeostasis and precise mechanical architecture. Disruption of either can cause temporary or permanent injury. Impulse noises, which are short-duration, high-level bursts of sound caused by explosions, such as gunfire, can injure the cochlea through combinations of mechanical and metabolic injury. Susceptib...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Assessing visual modulation along the human subcortical auditory pathway
Publication date: 15 October 2018Source: Neuroscience Letters, Volume 685Author(s): Laura Caron-Desrochers, Marc Schönwiesner, Kristin Focke, Alexandre LehmannAbstractExperience of the world is inherently multisensory. It has been suggested that audiovisual modulation occurs as early as subcortical auditory stages. However, this was based on the frequency-following response, a measure recently found to be significantly generated from cortical sources. It therefore remains unclear whether subcortical auditory processing can indeed be modulated by visual information. We aimed to trace visual modulation along the auditor...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interpersonal visual interaction induces local and global stabilisation of rhythmic coordination
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Kohei Miyata, Manuel Varlet, Akito Miura, Kazutoshi Kudo, Peter E. KellerAbstractPerceptual coupling between people can lead to the spontaneous synchronisation of their rhythmic movements. In the current study, we hypothesised that the sight of a co-actor generates anchoring (local stabilisation around specific spatiotemporal points within movement cycles), and that such anchoring supports the occurrence and stability of spontaneous interpersonal synchronisation (global stabilisation across cycles). To test these hypotheses, we re-examine...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The cerebellum in health and disease
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Christopher M. Gomez (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Astroglial signalling in health and disease
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Alexei Verkhratsky, Robert ZorecAbstractAstrocytes, the neural homeostatic cells, play a key role in the information processing in the central nervous system. They express multiple receptors which respond to a number of chemical messengers and get excited as evidenced by an increase in second messengers in short and delayed time domains. Astrocytes secrete numerous neuroactive agents and mount various homeostatic responses. These signal integrating functions are key factors of neuropathology (better termed astroneuropathology): they provi...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Connexin hemichannels and cochlear function
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Vytas K. VerselisAbstractConnexins play vital roles in hearing, including promoting cochlear development and sustaining auditory function in the mature cochlea. Mutations in connexins expressed in the cochlear epithelium, Cx26 and Cx30, cause sensorineural deafness and in the case of Cx26, is one of the most common causes of non-syndromic, hereditary deafness. Connexins function as gap junction channels and as hemichannels, which mediate intercellular and transmembrane signaling, respectively. Both channel configurations can play imp...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

New tools for understanding coping and resilience
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Michael V. Baratta, Steven F. MaierAbstractIn humans, many of the factors determining vulnerability and resilience to the impact of an adverse event revolve around coping factors. This mini-review focuses on the neural mechanisms by which coping reduces the impact of adverse events, as studied in an animal model, and discusses some of the challenges of linking neural circuit activity with stressor outcome. We highlight several approaches for probing circuit function with cell-type and pathway-specificity that overcome some of the lim...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation of the rLPFC shifts normative judgments in voluntary cooperation
In this study, we used a linear asymmetric public good game to investigate the role of normative judgment in voluntary cooperation with tDCS on rLPFC. Participants were engaged in anonymous social interactions and made decisions with real financial consequences after being randomly assigned to receive either anodal, cathodal, or sham stimulation of 15 min. Results suggest that compared with the sham group, anodal/cathodal tDCS influenced the behavior and normative judgment of participants in opposite directions. These outcomes provide a neural evidence for the rLPFC mechanism on normative judgment in voluntary coopera...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Labelled animal toxins as selective molecular markers of ion channels: Applications in neurobiology and beyond
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Alexey I. Kuzmenkov, Alexander A. VassilevskiAbstractAnimal toxins are traditional and indispensible molecular tools that find application in different fields of biochemistry, neurobiology and pharmacology. These compounds possess several outstanding properties such as high affinity and selectivity with respect to particular molecular targets, most importantly ion channels and neuroreceptors, and stability. In addition to using toxins per se, a wide variety of labelled modifications have been obtained including radioactive and fluores...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dispelling myths about connexins, pannexins and P2X7 in hypoxic-ischemic central nervous system
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Pedro Henrique Moreira de Freitas, Natiele Carla da Silva Ferreira, Jairo Guedes Fioravante-Rezende, Laura de Menezes Santos, Luiz Anastacio Alves, Renato RozentalAbstractIn membrane physiology, as in other fields, myths or speculations may be repeated so often and so widely that they are perceived as facts. To some extent, this has occurred with regard to gap junctions, hemichannels, pannexin channels and P2X7 (ionotropic receptors), especially concerning the interpretation of the individual role of these channels in hypoxic-ischemic...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The central extended amygdala in fear and anxiety: Closing the gap between mechanistic and neuroimaging research
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Andrew S. Fox, Alexander J. ShackmanAbstractAnxiety disorders impose a staggering burden on public health, underscoring the need to develop a deeper understanding of the distributed neural circuits underlying extreme fear and anxiety. Recent work highlights the importance of the central extended amygdala, including the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and neighboring bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). Anatomical data indicate that the Ce and BST form a tightly interconnected unit, where different kinds of threat-relevant i...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

α-Conotoxins to explore the molecular, physiological and pathophysiological functions of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Julien Giribaldi, Sébastien DutertreAbstractThe vast diversity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine subunits expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in non-neuronal tissues, constitutes a formidable challenge for researchers and clinicians to decipher the role of particular subtypes, including complex subunit associations, in physiological and pathophysiological functions. Many natural products target the nAChRs, but there is no richer source of nicotinic ligands than the venom of predatory gastropods ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Development of the emotional brain
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): B.J. Casey, Aaron S. Heller, Dylan G. Gee, Alexandra O. CohenAbstractIn this article, we highlight the importance of dynamic reorganization of neural circuitry during adolescence, as it relates to the development of emotion reactivity and regulation. We offer a neurobiological account of hierarchical, circuit-based changes that coincide with emotional development during this time. Recent imaging studies suggest that the development of the emotional brain involves a cascade of changes in limbic and cognitive control circuitry. These cha...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Systems consolidation revisited, but not revised: The promise and limits of optogenetics in the study of memory
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Oliver Hardt, Lynn NadelAbstractEpisodic memories (in humans) and event-like memories (in non-human animals) require the hippocampus for some time after acquisition, but at remote points seem to depend more on cortical areas instead. Systems consolidation refers to the process that promotes this reorganization of memory. Various theoretical frameworks accounting for this process have been proposed, but clear evidence favoring one or another of these positions has been lacking. Addressing this issue, a recent study deployed some of the ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of person perception: A social-visual interface
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Jeffrey A. Brooks, Jonathan B. FreemanAbstractThe visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual p...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The potential effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on language functioning: Combining neuromodulation and behavioral intervention in aphasia
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Paola MarangoloAbstractAphasia is a highly disabling language disorder usually caused by a left stroke brain damage. Even if traditional language therapies have been proved to induce an adequate clinical recovery, a large percentage of patients are left with chronic deficits at 6 months post-stroke. Therefore, new strategies to common speech therapies are urgently needed in order to maximize the recovery from aphasia. The recent application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to language rehabilitation has already provid...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Variability in non-invasive brain stimulation studies: Reasons and results
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Andrea Guerra, Virginia López-Alonso, Binith Cheeran, Antonio SuppaAbstractNon-invasive brain stimulation techniques (NIBS), such as Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS), Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), are widely used to probe plasticity in the human motor cortex (M1). Although TBS, PAS and tDCS differ in terms of physiological mechanisms responsible for experimentally-induced cortical plasticity, they all share the ability to elicit long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Solutions for managing variability in non-invasive brain stimulation studies
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Andrea Guerra, Virginia López-Alonso, Binith Cheeran, Antonio SuppaAbstractIn the last three decades, a number of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) protocols, capable of assessing and modulating plasticity in the human motor cortex (M1), have been described. For almost as long, NIBS has delivered the tantalising prospect of non-invasive neuromodulation as a therapeutic intervention for neurorehabilitation, psychiatry, chronic pain and other disease states. Apart from modest effects in depression, this early promise has not ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The signaling role for chloride in the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Corinne S. Wilson, Alexander A. MonginAbstractIt is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl−) fluxes via the inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl− fluxes and intracellular Cl− to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl− in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities a...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal and clock genes expression in striatum: a comparative study in three different protocols for the development of morphine dependence
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Kaninika Roy, Pramita Bhattacharyya, Ishani DebAbstractThe present study has been designed to do a comparative study on the morphine treatment protocols for the development of morphine dependence. We have selected three different previously reported chronic morphine treatment protocols where mice were treated with different doses of morphine for different time intervals of varied number of days to develop morphine dependence. At first, animals were divided into four groups: control or saline treated and three morphine treated groups. Then...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identification of altered microRNAs in serum of a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Srinivasulu Chigurupati, James Raymick, Bonnie Robinson, Elvis Cuevas, Joseph Hanig, Sumit SarkarAbstractParkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, whose hallmark is the loss of dopamine terminals in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). PD is usually diagnosed after the appearance of motor symptoms, when about 70% of neurons in the SNpc have already been lost. Because of that, it is important to search for new methods that aid in the early diagnosis of PD. In recent...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis—A new target in stroke?
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Milos Pekny, Ulrika Wilhelmsson, Turgut Tatlisumak, Marcela PeknaAbstractStroke is an acute insult to the central nervous system (CNS) that triggers a sequence of responses in the acute, subacute as well as later stages, with prominent involvement of astrocytes. Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis in the acute stage of stroke limit the tissue damage and contribute to the restoration of homeostasis. Astrocytes also control many aspects of neural plasticity that is the basis for functional recovery. Here, we discuss the concept of int...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural substrates of emotional interference: A quantitative EEG study
Publication date: 15 October 2018Source: Neuroscience Letters, Volume 685Author(s): T. Batabyal, S.P. Muthukrishnan, R. Sharma, P. Tayade, S. KaurAbstractEmotional stimuli are known to capture attention and disrupt the executive functioning. However, the dynamic interplay of neural substrates of emotion and executive attentional network is widely unexplored. The present study attempts to elucidate the areas implicated during emotional interference condition.Fifteen right handed individuals [24.64 ± 2.63 years] performed two emotional interference tasks – Face Word Interference and Word Face Interference. S...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of concurrent blockade of OX2 and CB1 receptors in the ventral tegmental area on nicotine-induced place preference in rats
In this study, the role of orexin-2 (OX2) and cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptors and their potential interaction within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on nicotine-induced place preference, was examined in male rats. A 5-day conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used. Nicotine (0.5 mg/kg; s.c.) induced a significant CPP, without any effect on the locomotor activity during the testing phase. TCS-OX2-29 (0.4, 0.8 and 4 µg/rat), as a selective OX2 receptor antagonist and AM251 (0.2, 1 and 2 µg/rat), as a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, individually or simultaneously were microinjected bi...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Childhood trauma and emotion regulation: The moderator role of BDNF Val66Met
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Mirela I. Bîlc, Romana Vulturar, Adina Chiș, Mădălina Buciuman, Daria Nuţu, Ioana Bunea, Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, Andrei C. MiuAbstractEmotion regulation difficulties have been involved in multiple forms of psychopathology and may represent an important focus for current efforts to understand the biological mechanisms underlying transdiagnostic symptoms. The present study investigated a gene-environment interaction (G × E) in reappraisal, a form of emotion regulation that has been extensively linked ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of oligodendrocyte-neurovascular unit in white matter repair
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Gen Hamanaka, Ryo Ohtomo, Hajime Takase, Josephine Lok, Ken AraiAbstractWhite matter damage caused by neurodegenerative diseases is almost incurable at present and an effective treatment has been waited for a long time. Etiology of the white matter damage is attributed to the collapse of axon-myelin complex and the breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB), which result in disruption of the white matter function. While the white matter dysfunction cannot be repaired by itself, some compensative responses may occur after the damage. Oligodend...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deconstructing arousal into wakeful, autonomic and affective varieties
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ajay B. Satpute, Philip A. Kragel, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Tor D. Wager, Marta BianciardiAbstractArousal plays a central role in a wide variety of phenomena, including wakefulness, autonomic function, affect and emotion. Despite its importance, it remains unclear as to how the neural mechanisms for arousal are organized across them. In this article, we review neuroscience findings for three of the most common origins of arousal: wakeful arousal, autonomic arousal, and affective arousal. Our review makes two overarching points. First, res...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Metabolic signaling in the brain and the role of astrocytes in control of glutamate and GABA neurotransmission
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Arne SchousboeAbstractNeurotransmission mediated by the two amino acids glutamate and GABA is based on recycling of the two signaling molecules between the presynaptic nerve endings and the surrounding astrocytes. During the recycling process, a fraction of the transmitter pool is lost since both transmitters undergo oxidative metabolism. This loss must be replenished by de novo synthesis which involves the action of pyruvate carboxylase, aminotransferases, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase. Among these enzymes, pyruvate...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

How do memory systems detect and respond to novelty?
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Alex Kafkas, Daniela MontaldiAbstractThe efficiency of the memory system lies not only in its readiness to detect and retrieve old stimuli but also in its ability to detect and integrate novel information. In this review, we discuss recent evidence suggesting that the neural substrates sensitive to detecting familiarity and novelty are not entirely overlapping. Instead, these partially distinct familiarity and novelty signals are integrated to support recognition memory decisions. We propose here that the mediodorsal thalamus is critic...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ion channel dysfunction in cerebellar ataxia
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): David D. Bushart, Vikram G. ShakkottaiAbstractCerebellar ataxias constitute a heterogeneous group of disorders that result in impaired speech, uncoordinated limb movements, and impaired balance, often ultimately resulting in wheelchair confinement. Motor dysfunction in ataxia can be attributed to dysfunction and degeneration of neurons in the cerebellum and its associated pathways. Recent work has suggested the importance of cerebellar neuronal dysfunction resulting from mutations in specific ion-channels that regulate membrane excitab...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deregulation of synaptic plasticity in autism
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): C. HanselAbstractA puzzling observation in the study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mouse models has been the deregulation of long-term synaptic depression (LTD), a form of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity, across brain areas and across syndromic and non-syndromic forms of autism. This review attempts to approach this phenomenon from a largely, but not exclusively, cerebellar perspective. Three potential consequences of LTD deregulation are discussed that are relevant for ASD phenotypes: resulting impairment of proper dev...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Why do so many genetic insults lead to Purkinje Cell degeneration and spinocerebellar ataxia?
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Miaozhen Huang, Dineke S. VerbeekAbstractThe genetically heterozygous spinocerebellar ataxias are all characterized by cerebellar atrophy and pervasive Purkinje Cell degeneration. Up to date, more than 35 functionally diverse spinocerebellar ataxia genes have been identified. The main question that remains yet unsolved is why do some many genetic insults lead to Purkinje Cell degeneration and spinocerebellar ataxia? To address this question it is important to identify intrinsic pathways important for Purkinje Cell function and survival...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Toxins as tools: Fingerprinting neuronal pharmacology
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Mathilde R. Israel, Michael Morgan, Bryan Tay, Jennifer R. DeuisAbstractToxins have been used as tools for decades to study the structure and function of neuronal ion channels and receptors. The biological origin of these toxins varies from single cell organisms, including bacteria and algae, to complex multicellular organisms, including a wide variety of plants and venomous animals. Toxins are a structurally and functionally diverse group of compounds that often modulate neuronal function by interacting with an ion channel or receptor...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insights from molecular dynamics simulations to exploit new trends for the development of improved opioid drugs
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Marta FilizolaAbstractHaving accidental deaths from opioid overdoses almost quadrupled over the past fifteen years, there is a strong need to develop new, non-addictive medications for chronic pain to stop one of the deadliest epidemics in American history. Given their potentially fewer on-target overdosing risks and other adverse effects compared to classical opioid drugs, attention has recently shifted to opioid allosteric modulators and G protein-biased opioid agonists as likely drug candidates to prevent and/or reverse opioid over...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Protocols of non-invasive brain stimulation for neuroplasticity induction
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Weijia He, Po-Yu Fong, Thomas Wai Hong Leung, Ying-Zu HuangAbstractTranscranial non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely applied in basic research and clinical intervention in the past few decades. It modulates cortical excitability through varies combinations of current form, stimulation position, strength, frequency, duration and intervals. In this review, protocols of different types of NIBS and their aftereffect are introduced. Moreover, evidences in physiology, pharmacology and behavior response are provided to suppo...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activation and Desensitization of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors by Selectively Triggering Pre-existing Motions
We describe the newly emerging mechanisms of activation, allosteric signaling and desensitization, as mainly a selective triggering of pre-existing soft motions, as deduced from computational models and analyses that leverage structural data on intact AMPA and NMDA receptors in different states.Graphical abstract (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Computational methods to examine conformational changes and ligand-binding properties: Examples in neurobiology
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Marc A. Dämgen, Philip C. BigginAbstractMany proteins that are central to key aspects of neurobiology undergo conformational changes as part of their function, usually in response to a stimulus. Often, these proteins are embedded within a membrane, which creates particular experimental challenges to surmount. This has resulted in computational methods providing a valuable complementary tool for some time now, especially in the development of working models at atomic resolution. Indeed, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are now rout...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Selectivity of probes for PET imaging of dopamine D3 receptors
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Robert K. Doot, Jacob G. Dubroff, Kyle J. Labban, Robert H. MachAbstractDopamine D3 receptors have key roles in behavioral reward, addiction, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia, and there is interest in studying their role in these disorders using PET. However, current PET radiotracers for studying D3 receptors in humans all bind to both D2 and D3 due to similarities between the two receptors. Selective D2 and D3 radioligands would aid investigation of the differences between D2 and D3 circuitry in the central nervous system. Wh...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PET radioligands for the dopamine D1-receptor: Application in psychiatric disorders
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Simon CervenkaAbstractThe dopamine (DA) system is considered to be centrally involved in the pathophysiology of several major psychiatric disorders. Using positron emission tomography (PET), aberrations in dopamine D2/D3-receptors (D2-R) levels and uptake of the DA precursor FDOPA have been shown for schizophrenia, substance abuse and depression. Radioligands for the dopamine D1-receptor (D1-R) have been available for more than three decades, however this receptor subtype has received much less attention in psychiatry research. Here, stud...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Axonal autophagy: Mini-review for autophagy in the CNS
Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Andrea K.H. Stavoe, Erika L.F. HolzbaurAbstractNeurons are long-lived and highly polarized cells that depend on autophagy to maintain cellular homeostasis. The robust, constitutive biogenesis of autophagosomes in the distal axon occurs via a conserved pathway that is required to maintain functional synapses and prevent axon degeneration. Autophagosomes are formed de novo at the axon terminal in a stepwise assembly process, engulfing mitochondrial fragments, aggregated proteins, and bulk cytosol in what appears to be a nonselective uptake...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multiple pathways for mitophagy: A neurodegenerative conundrum for Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Charleen T. ChuAbstractIt has been nearly a decade since the first landmark studies implicating familial recessive Parkinson’s disease genes in the regulation of selective mitochondrial autophagy. The PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin (encoded by the PARK2 gene) act together to mark depolarized mitochondria for degradation. There is now an extensive body of literature detailing key mediators and steps in this pathway, based mostly on work in transformed cell lines. However, the degree to which PINK1-tr...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Autophagy as a common pathway in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Dao K.H. Nguyen, Ravi Thombre, Jiou WangAbstractAge-dependent neurodegenerative diseases are associated with a decline in protein quality control systems including autophagy. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron degenerative disease of complex etiology with increasing connections to other neurodegenerative conditions such as frontotemporal dementia. Among the diverse genetic causes for ALS, a striking feature is the common connection to autophagy and its associated pathways. There is a recurring theme of protein misfoldin...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal lysosomes
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Shawn M. FergusonAbstractLysosomes support diverse cellular functions by acting as sites of macromolecule degradation and nutrient recycling. The degradative abilities of lysosomes are conferred by a lumen that is characterized by an acidic pH and which contains numerous hydrolases that support the breakdown of major cellular macromolecules to yield cellular building blocks (amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars, lipids and metals) that are transported into the cytoplasm for their re-use. In addition to these important hydrolytic and recycli...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deregulation of autophagy and vesicle trafficking in Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Patricia Sheehan, Zhenyu YueAbstractParkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized pathologically by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein in the Lewy bodies. While the pathogenic mechanisms of PD are poorly understood, many lines of evidence point to a role of altered autophagy and membrane trafficking in the development of the disease. Emerging studies show that connections between the deregulation of autophagy and sy...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enhanced sampling of glutamate receptor ligand-binding domains
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Albert Y. LauAbstractThe majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). These membrane-bound protein assemblies consist of modular domains that can be genetically isolated and expressed, which has resulted in a plethora of crystal structures of individual domains in different conformations bound to different ligands. These structures have presented opportunities for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. To examine the free energies that govern molec...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Autophagy in mammalian neurodevelopment and implications for childhood neurological disorders
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Derek Marsh, Joanna M. DragichAbstractHere we explore the neurodevelopmental aspects of macroautophagy (henceforth known as autophagy), the process by which cells remove and remodel their structure in a regulated and spatially restricted manner. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway in which cytosolic substances, such as protein complexes, lipids, and organelles, are engulfed by an autophagic vesicle. Degradation occurs once an autophagosome fuses with a lysosome, allowing the macromolecular cargo sequestered within the autophagic vesicle to ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: It's complicated
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Antonella Di Pizio, Yaron Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, John E. Hayes, Masha Y. NivAbstract“Bitter” and “sweet” are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25-m...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oligomerization and cooperativity in GPCRs from the perspective of the angiotensin AT1 and dopamine D2 receptors
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Serdar Durdagi, Ismail Erol, Ramin Ekhteiari Salmas, Busecan Aksoydan, Isik KantarciogluAbstractG Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) can form homo- and heterodimers or constitute higher oligomeric clusters with other heptahelical GPCRs. In this article, multiscale molecular modeling approaches as well as experimental techniques which are used to study oligomerization of GPCRs are reviewed. In particular, the effect of dimerization/oligomerization to the ligand binding affinity of individual protomers and also on the efficacy of the oligom...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A complicated complex: Ion channels, voltage sensing, cell membranes and peptide inhibitors
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Alan H. Zhang, Gagan Sharma, Eivind A.B. Undheim, Xinying Jia, Mehdi MobliAbstractVoltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) are specialised ion channels that have a voltage dependent mode of action, where ion conduction, or gating, is controlled by a voltage-sensing mechanism. VGICs are critical for electrical signalling and are therefore important pharmacological targets. Among these, voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) have attracted particular attention as potential analgesic targets. NaVs, however, comprise several structurally similar sub...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research