Hydromorphone protects CA1 neurons by activating mTOR pathway
In this study, we detected whether HM plays protective effect in IR injury mouse model, further followed by the mechanism exploration. Preconditioning with hydromorphone was performed for continuous 4 days at the doe of 2 mg/kg before IR injury induction. Intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin (Rapa) was administrated to examine the role of mTOR in IR injury. The mRNA expression level was detected by RT-PCR, and protein expression level was detected by western blot. Latency time and apoptosis of hippocampal CA1 neurons were detected 72 h after IR injury induction. Preconditioning with hydromorphone significan...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pharmacogenomics of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ramón CacabelosAbstractNeurodegenerative disorders (NDDs)(Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease) represent major problems of health in developed countries, with important psychosocial burden for families and high cost for the society. NDDs share some common pathogenic mechanisms such as age-related decline, multiple genetic defects distributed across the genome, deposits of abnormal proteins in the brain, and diverse environmental risk factors. Patients with NDDs currently receive polypharmacy with a high risk f...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dorsal premotor cortex is related to recognition of verbal and visual descriptions of actions in the first-person perspective
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Hiroshi Shibata, Kenji OgawaAbstractThis fMRI study examined whether the perspective difference of a verbally and visually descripted action stimulus (i.e., sentence and picture) modulates activity in the motor-related area. The participants were presented with a sentence (e.g., “I grasp an apple” or “You grasp an apple”) or a picture (e.g., a picture of grasping an apple in which a right hand appears from the bottom or from the top) as the experimental task. A full factorial analysis of variance model with st...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

D-fenfluramine and lorcaserin inhibit the binge-like feeding induced by µ-opioid receptor stimulation of the nucleus accumbens in the rat
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Sarah A. Blumenthal, Wayne E. PratAbstractMultiple laboratories have shown that the stimulation of µ-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) powerfully increases intake of palatable and high-fat diets. Separate studies have demonstrated that serotonin agonists advance satiety processes, and several serotonin-targeting agents have been prescribed to promote weight loss. However, it is unknown if serotonin signaling can modulate the increased feeding elicited by activation of NAcc µ-opioid receptors. These experime...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

4D imaging identifies dynamic migration and the fate of gbx2-expressing cells in the brain primordium of zebrafish
In this study, to examine the cellular dynamics around the MHB region, we performed confocal time-lapse imaging in zebrafish embryos to track cell populations in the neural tube via 4D analysis. We used a transgenic line wherein enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression is driven by the gastrulation brain homeobox 2 (gbx2) enhancer, which is involved in MHB maintenance. 4D time-lapse imaging of 5–20 h revealed a novel pattern in cell migration: a dynamic ventrocaudally directed migration from the MHB region toward the hindbrain. Furthermore, in the hindbrain region, these EGFP-positive cells altered...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Impairment in exploratory behavior is associated with arc gene overexpression in the dorsolateral striatum of rats with nigral injection of L-buthionine sulfoximine
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): M.L. Díaz-Hung, J.L. Ruiz-Fuentes, A. Díaz-García, R. León-Martínez, E. Alberti-Amador, N. Pavón-Fuentes, L. Blanco-LezcanoAbstractThe aims of the present work were to evaluate the exploratory activity in Sprague-Dawley rats, as well as to analyze the nigral and striatal mRNA expression of the plasticity-related genes bdnf and arc after L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) injection into substantia nigra compacta. Lesioned rats traveled less distance in open field but did not show a decline in the ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Proteasome limits plasticity-related signaling to the nucleus in the hippocampus
In this study, we examined the effect of proteasome inhibition on signaling to the nucleus during late-phase long-term potentiation. When a subthreshold L-LTP induction protocol was used, proteasome inhibition led to a significant increase in phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in the nucleus. Inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase G all blocked the proteasome-inhibition-mediated increase in nuclear pCREB after subthreshold stimulation. These results lay the groundwork for understanding a novel role for the proteasome in l...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute morphine administration alters the power of local field potentials in mesolimbic pathway of freely moving rats: Involvement of dopamine receptors
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): S. Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, Mohammad Hossein Mohamadi M.A.H, Mohammad Reza Raoufy, Hossein Azizi, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad Reza ZarrindastAbstractIncreasing number of evidence support the role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mediating the opiate effects as the two critical components of brain reward pathway. It is believed that VTA to NAC dopaminergic projections mediate the reinforcing effects induced by opioid drugs. Although numerous studies have investigated mechanisms of reward processing in the...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association between serum malondialdehyde levels and depression during early methamphetamine withdrawal
In this study, our purpose was to explore the association between serum MDA levels and depression during METH withdrawal. 179 METH-dependent patients were recruited in this study and 144 (80.4%) finished the assessment. We measured serum MDA at 532 nm spectrophotometrically at admission. The short form of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) was used to evaluate depression symptoms. Patients were identified to have depression symptoms with the BDI score ≥ 8. As a result, 89 (61.8%) of the remaining 144 METH-dependent patients were identified to have depression symptoms. Patients with depression symptoms showed ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of low- and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on long-latency auditory evoked potentials
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Clément Nathou, Emmanuelle Duprey, Gregory Simon, Annick Razafimandimby, Elise Leroux, Sonia Dollfus, Olivier EtardAbstractLong-latency auditory event potentials (LLAEPs) involving local and global auditory processes have been investigated to examine the impact of low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the cortical excitability of the temporal cortex. We hypothesized that both stimulation frequencies have the same modulation effect, in accordance with clinical data sho...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Involvement of angiotensin-(1-7) in the neuroprotection of captopril against focal cerebral ischemia
In this study, we evaluate this hypothesis using a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. We revealed that brain ACE2 activity and Ang-(1-7) levels were significantly elevated following captopril treatment in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. More importantly, we showed that the neuroprotection provided by captopril was partially reversed by A-779, an antagonist for Ang-(1-7) receptor MAS1, indicating that Ang-(1-7) was involved in the neuroprotection of captopril. These findings have uncovered new mechanisms by which captopril protects against focal cerebral ischemia and further suggest that captopril may have practical c...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A cross-educational approach on skill-related movement technique performance: Central neuronal motor behaviour preceding the short badminton backhand serve
Publication date: 1 November 2018Source: Neuroscience Letters, Volume 686Author(s): Christopher Skrzeba, Tobias VogtAbstractTraining in a particular sport not only leads to a higher accuracy in movement, it also creates neuronal modulations in different areas of the brain. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been on the rise to detect these neuronal modulations to address applied research approaches in sports-specific setups with focus on movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) especially the readiness potential (RP). While many studies considered the RP in laboratory settings using button pressing, there is little resear...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intracerebellar microinjection of histaminergic compounds on locomotor and exploratory behaviors in mice
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Evelyn M. Guilherme, Bruna Silva-Marques, Carlos Eduardo M. Fernandes, Thiago L. Russo, Rosana Mattioli, Anna GianlorencoAbstractThe neural histaminergic system innervates the cerebellum, with a high density of fibers in the vermis and flocculus. The cerebellum participates in motor functions, but the role of the histaminergic system in this function is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracerebellar histamine injections and H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonist injections (chlorpheniramine, ranitidine, and ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prox1 mRNA expression in the medial cortex of the turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans)
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Yasuro Atoji, Sonjoy SarkarAbstractThe medial cortex of the cerebrum in reptiles is thought to be homologous to the mammalian dentate gyrus, based on cytoarchitectures, fiber connections, and neurochemical profiles. To support this hypothesis, we examined the mRNA expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1), a glutamatergic gene marker, and Prox1, a selective gene marker for granule cells of the dentate gyrus, in the turtle medial cortex (zone 2). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of b...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fatigue-induced decline in low-frequency common input to bilateral and unilateral plantar flexors during quiet standing
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Ippei NojimaAbstractPlantar flexor muscles play a crucial role in maintaining balance during quiet standing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of their fatigue on common input to these muscles, using a coherence analysis. Thirteen healthy young male adults stood quietly before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a heel raise exercise. Center of pressure (COP) displacement and electromyograms (EMGs) from the bilateral medial gastrocnemius and ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spinal Mechanisms of Pudendal Nerve Stimulation-Induced Inhibition of Bladder Hypersensitivity in Rats
This study suggests that inhibitory effects of bPNS may include serotonergic, GABA-B-ergic and glycinergic mechanisms suggesting the potential for interaction of the neuromodulatory effect with concommitant drug therapies. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Central action of CART induces neuronal activation in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus of diet-induced obese and lean mice
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Deborah de Paula Romeu, Luciene Maria Ribeiro, Vagner Roberto AntunesAbstractThe cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a peptide commonly studied in the feeding behavior, but it exerts an important role in the autonomic and cardiovascular control as well. It is known that exogenous administration of CART in the central nervous system can elicit increase in blood pressure of both conscious and anesthetized rodents, but little is known whether these central effects might differ between lean and obese animals. We have ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

First gender, then attractiveness: Indications of gender-specific attractiveness processing via ERP onsets
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Claus-Christian Carbon, Stella J. Faerber, M. Dorothee Augustin, Bernhard Mitterer, Florian HutzlerAbstractWe followed an ERP-based approach to gain knowledge on the dependence and temporal order of two essential processes of face perception: attractiveness and gender. By combining a dual-choice task with a go/nogo-paradigm focusing on the LRP and N200-effect, we could estimate the processing times and onsets of both types of face processing. The analyses of the LRP revealed that gender aspects were processed much earlier than attrac...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Memantine attenuated alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behaviors through down-regulating NR1-CaMKII-ERK signaling pathway
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ji Yuanyuan, Zhu Junyan, DeJi Cuola, Cui Jingjing, Shi Yuhui, Xu dan, Dang Wei, Zhu YongshengAbstractAlcohol abuse and anxiety disorders often occur concurrently, but their underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) have recently received attention from those interested in the neurobiology of anxiety. A chronic alcohol exposure rat model (28 consecutive days of 20% alcohol intake and 6 h of withdrawal) was established. Here, we investigated the NMDAR1 (NR1), Ca2+/calmodulin-depen...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Peucedani Japonici Radix ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation by regulating microglial responses
In this study, we investigated the effects of Peucedani Japonici Radix (PJR), a medicinal herb traditionally used in East Asia to treat neuroinflammation both in vitro and in vivo. First, we examined the effects of PJR on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. The results showed that PJR suppressed the LPS-induced increase of several inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We also revealed that PJR inhibited the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Agomelatine on Electrocorticogram Activity on Pencillin-Induced Epilepsy Model of Rats
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): M.S. Ethemoglu, S. Kutlu, F.B. Seker, C.S. Erdogan, C.A. Bingol, B. YilmazAbstractAgomelatine is a new antidepressant drug acting as an antagonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2C (5-HTR2C) and agonist of melatonergic receptors 1 and 2 (MT1 and MT2). Because of this dual action, it is an atypical antidepressant. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic anticonvulsant effects of agomelatine on penicillin-induced epilepsy model. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats divided into four groups and were administered with tap water...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neprilysin degrades murine Amyloid-β (Aβ) more efficiently than human Aβ: Further implication for species-specific amyloid accumulation
In this study, we identified differences in NEP-mediated catabolism of murine and human forms of Aβ, using recombinant human NEP, membrane-bound NEP from cells overexpressing the murine peptidase or from human organ preparations with high NEP activity, and purified soluble bovine NEP. NEP degraded murine Aβ (mAβ) faster than human Aβ (hAβ). These findings were observed with full-length Aβ containing 40 or 42 amino acids (Aβ1−40 and Aβ1−42) and a truncated form (Aβ4–15), which (i) contains one of the main NEP cleavage sites for Aβ (between positions 9 and 1...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Central neuronal motor behaviour preceding the short badminton backhand serve: A cross-educational approach on skill-related movement technique performance
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Christopher Skrzeba, Tobias VogtAbstractTraining in a particular sport not only leads to a higher accuracy in movement, it also creates neuronal modulations in different areas of the brain. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been on the rise to detect these neuronal modulations to address applied research approaches in sports-specific setups with focus on movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) especially the readiness potential (RP). While many studies considered the RP in laboratory settings using button pressing, there is little ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Co-activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors induced attenuation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the rat visual cortex
In this study, we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to test the role of 5-HT receptors in mediating the AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the rat visual cortex. We found that the AMPA receptor-mediated component of mEPSCs could be inhibited by exogenously applied 5-HT. 5-HT significantly reduced the glutamatergic mEPSC amplitude and increased the inter-event interval of glutamatergic mEPSCs. Bath application of 5-CT or 8-OH-DPAT (the 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor agonist) mimicked 5-HT in its effect on mEPSCs. Additionally, a selective antagonis...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A gain-of-function study of amelioration of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures by endogenous prostaglandin D2
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Mahesh K. Kaushik, Kosuke Aritake, Yoan Cherasse, Rahul Sharma, Yoshihiro UradeAbstractWe previously showed that knockout mice of hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (H-PGDS) produce less PGD2 to exacerbate pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Here, we adopted a gain-of-function strategy and used transgenic mice that over-express human H-PGDS enzyme, to elucidate the role of overproduction of endogenous PGD2 in PTZ-induced seizures. H-PGDS-transgenic mice showed the elevated level of a urinary metabolite of PGD2, tetrano...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dynamic expression of p75NTR and Lingo-1 during development of mouse retinofugal pathway
In this study, we examined whether the co-receptors of NgR, low-affinity neurotrophic receptor (p75NTR) and Lingo-1, are localized on axons in the mouse optic pathway. In the retina, p75NTR and Lingo-1 were observed on neuroepithelial cells at E13 and later on the retinal ganglion cells at E14 and E15. At the optic disc, p75NTR was observed on the retinal axons, whereas Lingo-1 was found on glial processes surrounding the axon fascicles. Both p75NTR and Lingo-1 were found on axons in the optic stalk, optic chiasm and optic tract. Furthermore, a transient expression of Lingo-1 was observed on the SSEA-1 positive chiasmatic ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Possible involvement of the peripheral Mu-opioid system in antinociception induced by bergamot essential oil to allodynia after peripheral nerve injury
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Takaaki Komatsu, Soh Katsuyama, Yasuhito Uezono, Chikai Sakurada, Minoru Tsuzuki, Kengo Hamamura, Giacinto Bagetta, Shinobu Sakurada, Tsukasa SakuradaAbstractThe essential oil of bergamot (BEO) is one of the most common essential oils and is most familiar to the general public. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of intraplantar (i.pl.) BEO on neuropathic allodynia induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) in mice and the opioid receptor subtypes involved in the antiallodynic effects of BEO. Our findings showe...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations of static functional connectivity and dynamic functional connectivity in motor execution regions after stroke
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Jing Chen, Dalong Sun, Yonghui Shi, Wei Jin, Yanbin Wang, Qian Xi, Chuancheng RenAbstractThe aims of this study were to examine both static functional connectivity (FC) and dynamic FC alterations in motor execution regions after stroke and to investigate whether the altered static or dynamic FC was associated with the clinical behaviors in stroke patients. Seventy-six stroke patients and 55 healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Static FC and dynamic FC maps were computed based on the seeds of six core regions in motor execution networ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chasing the zone: Reduced beta power predicts baseball batting performance
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Anthony Pluta, Chad C. Williams, Gordon Binsted, Kent G. Hecker, Olave E. KrigolsonAbstractMental state prior to sports skill execution is related to subsequent performance. For example, relationships between pre-performance electroencephalogram (EEG) power and subsequent movement outcomes in golf putting, pistol shooting, and basketball free throw shooting have been previously reported. With that said, the existing body of research examining the pre-performance EEG – performance relationship has been focused on the execution of...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fast changes of NMDA and AMPA receptor activity under acute hyperammonemia in vitro
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Artem M. Kosenkov, Sergei G. Gaidin, Alexander I. Sergeev, Ilia Y. Teplov, Valery P. ZinchenkoAbstractIt was established in experiments on cell cultures of neurons and astrocytes that ammonium ions at concentrations of 4 - 8 mM cause hyperexcitation of the neuronal network, as a result of which there is a disturbance of calcium homeostasis, which can lead to the death of neurons. In the present study, we investigated the effect of toxic doses of ammonium (8 mM NH4Cl) on the activity of NMDA and AMPA receptors and the rol...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Feedback-related negativity reflects omission of monetary gains: evidence from ERP gambling study
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Zachary Yaple, Anna Shestakova, Vasily KlucharevAbstractFeedback processing is an important aspect of learning. In the human brain, feedback processing is often examined by measuring an event-related potential, the feedback-related negativity component. Typically, the feedback-related negativity component is investigated by directly comparing gain with loss feedback randomized across trials; however, this method does not control for confounds associated with unexpected feedback. For this study we used a blocked designed gambling task ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebral White Matter Disease and Microbleeds in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Impact on Recanalization Therapies. A Review of the Literature
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): J. Fladt, C. Kronlage, G.M. De MarchisAbstractCerebral white matter disease (WMD) and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are frequently seen on brain imaging acquired for acute ischemic stroke.Given the raising use of recanalization therapies - both intravenous and endovascular - the interest on the impact of WMD and CMB on the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage and on functional outcome is growing. In this review, we will discuss the relevance of WMD and CMBs among patients with an acute ischemic stroke, focusing on the implications for recan...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parkinson’s disease does not alter automatic visual-motor coupling in postural control
This study examined the coupling between visual information and body sway in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared with healthy controls. Postural control performance was compared between 14 patients with PD (age: 69.6 ± 8.8 years - stages 1 to 3 of the Hoehn and Yahr scale) and 14 healthy control participants (age: 68.6 ± 3.0 years). Participants stood upright in a moving room that remained motionless or continuously oscillated in the anterior-posterior direction. Ten trials were performed in the following conditions: no movement of the room (1 trial) and with the room moving at frequ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prefrontal cortex dysfunction during verbal fluency task after atypicalantipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia:a near-infrared spectroscopy imaging study
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Xiaoyu Luo, Yu Qi, Hesheng Wang, Yijun Wang, Tingyu He, Bei Rong, Zhongchun Liu, Yuan Zhou, Gaohua wang, Huiling WangAbstractA number of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies in schizophrenia have shown that there is a significant dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in patients with schizophrenia, but it remains unclear how atypical antipsychotics affect the function of the PFC. To investigate the changes in brain activation patterns in schizophrenia who accepted antipsychotic treatment, we used NIRS to measure the hemodyna...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations in mRNA expression of glutamate receptor subunits and excitatory amino acid transporters following pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Olga E. Zubareva, Anna A. Kovalenko, Sergey V. Kalemenev, Alexander P. Schwarz, Vladimir B. Karyakin, Aleksey V. ZaitsevAbstractTemporal lobe epilepsy is the most prevalent form of complex partial seizure, and it is frequently triggered by an initial brain-damaging insult. The prevention of epileptogenesis after a primary event could be a key innovative approach to epilepsy treatment. Therefore, it is critical to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of this process in detail. Multiple mechanisms are involved in epileptogenesis, includ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NGF and BDNF expression in mouse DRG after spared nerve injury
We examined nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the DRGs of SNI model mice. NGF and BDNF levels increased in the injured L3 DRG, while NGF decreased in the intact L5 DRG. These data offer a new point of view on the role of these neurotrophins in neuropathic pain induced by peripheral nerve injury.Graphical abstract (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TLR4 signaling pathway mediates the LPS/ischemia-induced expression of monocytechemotactic protein-induced protein 1 in microglia
In conclusion, we firstly demonstrate that TLR4 signaling pathway, not TLR2 or RAGE, predominantly mediates the LPS/ischemia-induced expression of MCPIP1 in microglia. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of water immersion on sensitivity and plantar skin properties
This study aimed to examine whether detrimental effects, such as skin softening, already exist after short-term water exposure. Furthermore, we investigated whether cutaneous sensation is altered by short-term water exposure. Thirty healthy subjects participated in this study (23.1 ± 2.5yrs, 173.7 ± 8.5 cm, 67.5 ± 9.8 kg). First, vibration perception thresholds (VPTs; 200 Hz), the skin´s elasticity (logarithmic decrement), and the skin´s mechanical deformation resistance properties (durometer readings) were measured at the plant...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Eye movement and postural sway in dyslexic children during sitting and standing
In this study, we investigated the eye movement and postural control performance in dyslexic children while reading text and performing Landolt reading when sitting and standing. Fifteen dyslexic and 15 non-dyslexic children were asked to sit in a chair while the eye movements were recorded, and were then asked to stand on an unstable platform while eye movements and postural sway were recorded simultaneously at the time of Landolt reading and text reading. Eye movements were recorded binocularly by Mobile EyeBrain Tracker (MobileT2®, SuriCog) and center of pressure excursions were recorded by Multitest Equilibre (by F...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Promotion of differentiation in developing mouse cerebellar granule cells by a cell adhesion molecule BT-IgSF
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Kasumi Higashine, Kei Hashimoto, Emi Tsujimoto, Yuko Oishi, Yokichi Hayashi, Yasunori MiyamotoABSTRACTBrain- and testis-specific immunoglobulin superfamily (BT-IgSF), one of the immunoglobulin superfamily proteins, is a cell adhesion molecule, expressed in the developing cerebellum. We hypothesized that BT-IgSF might have some function in the development of cerebellum, although the physiological roles of BT-IgSF in the cerebellum remain unclear. To investigate the role of BT-IgSF in the development of mouse cerebellum, we first determin...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Amyloid Precursor Protein binds to β-catenin and modulates its cellular distribution
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ningyu Zhang, Callum Parr, Amy M. Birch, Marc H. Goldfinger, Magdalena SastreAbstractAccumulating evidence has shown that the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the formation of amyloid-β are associated with the canonical Wnt/ β-catenin signalling pathway. It was recently published that the drosophila homologue of APP is a conserved modulator of Wnt PCP signalling, suggesting a potential regulation of this pathway by APP. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interaction of APP with the cano...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Day/night melatonin content in cerebral palsy
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Janaina S. Santos, Celia M. Giacheti, Lilian S. Dornelas, Nathani C. Silva, Ana L.D.M. Souza, Leila M. Guissoni Campos, Luciana PinatoABSTRACTChanges in the sleep-wake cycle are frequent and may impair quality of life in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). To investigate if a lack of a day/night variation of melatonin content could be related with sleep disorders (SD), the SD were evaluated with a Sleep Questionnaire and the melatonin content using ELISA in 33 individuals with CP and 24 controls. The indicative of SD were present in...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Increased serum FGF2 levels in first-episode, drug-free patients with schizophrenia
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Xue-Song Li, Huan-Tong Wu, Yun Yu, Guang-Yang Chen, Xiao-Yan Qin, Guang-En Zheng, Wen Deng, Yong ChengAbstractPreclinical and clinical studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, the roles of other neurotrophic factors in SCZ remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood levels of FGF2 and ADNP in first-episode, drug-free SCZ patients compared with healthy control subjects. 20 SCZ patients, and 20 age and sex matched...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - August 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Young and older adults adapt automatic postural responses equivalently to repetitive perturbations but are unable to use predictive cueing to optimize recovery of balance stability
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Daniel Boari Coelho, Marina Brito Silva, Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Alessandra Rezende Martinelli, Thais da Silva Baptista, Renato Teodoro Ramos, Luis Augusto TeixeiraAbstractProcessing of contextual cues has been proposed to modulate the generation of automatic postural responses to unanticipated balance perturbations. In this investigation, we compared young and older individuals in responses to sudden rotations of the support base inducing either planti- or dorsiflexion of the ankles. Assessment was made in conditions resulting...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - August 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Voluntary Wheel Running on Neuroactive Steroid Levels in Murine Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Katherine Mifflin, Glen B. Baker, Bradley J. KerrAbstractIncreasing evidence from both clinical and animal research has implicated changes in neuroactive steroids (rapid acting steroids that act as allosteric modulators at NMDA and/or GABA-A receptors) in multiple sclerosis. These changes have been linked to clinical differences in disease severity, prevention of disease development, as well as the disease state (relapsing vs progressive) in patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous research has also linked changes in neuroactive stero...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - August 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sexual experience reduces neuronal activity in the central part of the medial preoptic nucleus in male rats during sexual behavior
In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of sexual experience on the neuronal activity of the MPNc and CALB-SDN. Sexual behavior in sexually inexperienced males that had no experience of ejaculation, and experienced males that had ejaculated once was observed. After they displayed sexual behavior, the brains were sampled, and immunohistochemical analysis of c-Fos, a neuronal activity marker, in the MPNc and CALB-SDN was performed. The numbers of c-Fos-immunopositive cells with or without calbindin-D28K-immunoreactivity increased significantly in the MPNc and CALB-SDN following ejaculation in both sexually inexperie...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - August 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Feedback delay impaired reinforcement learning: principal components analysis of Reward Positivity
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Hang Yin, Yu Wang, Xukai Zhang, Peng LiAbstractAn immediate feedback after action facilitated reinforcement learning in dynamically varying environments. With several seconds delay, a series of event-related potential (ERP) studies have recently conducted to explore how delayed feedback influences learning processes and corresponding brain activities by measuring the Reward Positivity and N170 component. However, it remains unclear how does our brain process a feedback that is delayed longer and interrupted by other trials. In the prese...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - August 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Soluble TREM2 changes during the clinical course of Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Dan Liu, Bing Cao, Yujia Zhao, Huanhuan Huang, Roger S. McIntyre, Joshua D. Rosenblat, Hui ZhouAbstractSoluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) is a potential and novel biomarker of neuroinflammation implicated in the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, previous studies evaluating levels of sTREM2 in different clinical stages of AD have yielded inconsistent results. To clarify the dynamic change of sTREM2 in AD progression, we conducted a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort stu...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - August 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Parkinson’s disease gene, DJ-1, regulates astrogliosis through STAT3
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Dong-Joo Choi, Jae-Kyung Kwon, Eun-Hye JoeAbstractIn the injured brain, astrocytes become activated and increase GFAP expression; a phenomenon termed as astrogliosis. Previously, we have reported that DJ-1, a Parkinson’s disease gene, positively regulates astrogliosis in the injured brain. Moreover, STAT3 is known to play a key role in the regulation of astrogliosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether DJ-1 regulates astrogliosis, via STAT3 activation. The results of this study reveal that DJ-1 is a positive regulato...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - August 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of combined brief etomidate anesthesia and postnatal stress on amygdala expression of Cl− cotransporters and corticotropin-releasing hormone and alcohol intake in adult rats
Publication date: 15 October 2018Source: Neuroscience Letters, Volume 685Author(s): Jiaojiao Yang, Lingsha Ju, Chunyao Yang, Jinhu Xue, Barry Setlow, Timothy E. Morey, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Christoph N. Seubert, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Anatoly E. MartynyukAbstractEarly life stressors, including general anesthesia, can have adverse effects on adult neural and behavioral outcomes, such as disruptions in inhibitory signaling, stress responsivity and increased risk of psychiatric disorders. Here we used a rat model to determine the effects of combined exposure to etomidate (ET) neonatal anesthesia and maternal separation on adult...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - August 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research