Increased activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and temporal pole during tonality change in music
This study provides a new insight into the cognitive and emotional processing of music. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effectiveness of acute transcranial direct current stimulation on non-motor and motor symptoms in Parkinson´s disease
ConclusionThe results confirm that improvements on cognitive tests are possible after a single session of DLPFC stimulation. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Menthol-induced facilitation of cerebrocortical excitatory propagation induced by air puff stimulation of the nasal cavity in the rat: An optical imaging study
In this study, we assessed neural responses to an air puff stimulation (100 ms) to the nasal cavity in the absence or presence of l-menthol using an optical imaging technique with a voltage-sensitive dye in the primary cortex (S1) of urethane-anesthetized rats. A weak air puff application (15 psi) without l-menthol induced neural excitation in a part of the contralateral S1. The air puff stimulation with l-menthol significantly increased the optical signal intensity, expanded the activated area, and shortened the latency, compared to those in the absence of l-menthol. These results suggest that activation of ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The testosterone metabolite 3α-androstanediol inhibits oxidative stress-induced ERK phosphorylation and neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells through an MKP3/DUSP6-dependent mechanism
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ari Loren Mendell, Neil James MacLuskyAbstractTestosterone exerts neuroprotective effects on the brain, but the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted appear to be different in males and females. While in females they involve local conversion to estradiol, in males they may be androgen receptor-dependent, or mediated through metabolism to neurosteroids such as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α-diol), which acts through different mechanisms than testosterone itself. Recently, we demonstrated that 3α-diol...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Human olfactory stem cells: As a promising source of dopaminergic neuron-like cells for treatment of Parkinson's disease
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Rafieh Alizadeh, Seyed Kamran Kamrava, Zohreh Bagher, Mohammad Farhadi, Masoumeh Falah, Fatemeh Moradi, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Maryam Soleimani, Ahmadreza Kamyab, Ali KomeiliAbstractThe production of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from stem cells holds a great promise for future clinical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) derived from the adult human olfactory mucosa can be easily isolated and expanded in culture while maintaining their imme...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcranial static magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex alters sequential implicit motor learning
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Ippei Nojima, Tatsunori Watanabe, Tomoya Gyoda, Hisato Sugata, Takashi Ikeda, Tatsuya MimaAbstractTranscranial static magnetic stimulation (tSMS) is a recently introduced noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can modulate brain excitability. Here, we investigated a hypothesis that motor learning would be altered by tSMS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1). For motor task, we chose a serial reaction time task consisting of sequential trials and random trials in which the visual cue doesn’t play out a repeating pattern...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Levetiracetam combined with ACEA, highly selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist changes neurogenesis in mouse brain
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Mirosław Zagaja, Agnieszka Haratym-Maj, Aleksandra Szewczyk, Radoslaw Rola, Maciej Maj, Jarogniew J. Łuszczki, Marta Andres-MachAbstractThe aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of second generation antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV) with arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) on proliferating neural precursor cells in mouse brain. Additionally, we established the relationship between treatment with ACEA in combination with LEV and hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse brain. All experiments were performed on male CB57/BL mice...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gray matter volumes of insular subregions are not correlated with smoking cessation outcomes but negatively correlated with nicotine dependence severity in chronic smokers
This study, therefore, aimed to (1) further explore the association between the cortical structural integrity of insular subregions prior to the target quit date and the treatment outcomes of smoking cessation therapy; and (2) further evaluate how the cortical structural integrity of insular subregions are related to smoking behaviors. In the present study, a total of 83 smokers and 41 nonsmokers were enrolled and high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from all participants. After a 12-week smoking cessation treatment, 28 smokers succeeded in quitting smoking, 46 failed, and 9 were unable to be ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Recurrent inhibition in the cerebral cortex
This study aims to uncover a local recurrent inhibitory cortical action that could modify the sensory information. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visibility Graph Analysis of Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Persistent Developmental Stuttering
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Marjan Mozaffarilegha, Hojjat AdeliAbstractIn this research, the concept of fractality based on nonlinear science and chaos theory is explored to study and evaluate the complexity of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (s-ABR) time series in order to capture its intrinsic multiscale dynamics. The visibility graph of the s-ABR series is proposed as a quantitative method to differentiate subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) from the normal group. Differential complexities between normal and PDS subjects is quant...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bradykinin interleukin-1β synergistically increase the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, through the RNA-binding protein HuR in rat dorsal root ganglion cells
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Masatoshi Ohnishi, Ryota Yukawa, Marina Akagi, Yoshihito Ohsugi, Atsuko InoueAbstractSynergistic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and bradykinin (BK) in peri-sensory neurons results in the production of prostanoids, which affects sensory neuronal activity and responsiveness and causes hyperalgesia. To evaluate the effects of pro-inflammatory mediators on COX-2 expression, cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells were treated with IL-1β and BK, which caused persistent increased COX-2 e...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Downregulation of EDTP in glial cells suppresses polyglutamine protein aggregates and extends lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Chengfeng Xiao, Shuang QiuAbstractDrosophila egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase (EDTP) is a lipid phosphatase essential for oogenesis and muscle function. Loss-of-EDTP is lethal at early developmental stages. Hypomorphic mutation of EDTP causes impaired muscle performance and shortened lifespan. Mutation of MTMR14, a mammalian homolog to EDTP, is associated with muscle fatigue in rodents and a rare genetic disease called centronuclear myopathy in humans. Despite the deleterious consequences, downregulation of MTMR14 promotes autophagy. I...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fenamates inhibit human sodium channel Nav1.7 and Nav1.8
In this study, fenamates, including mefenamic acid, flufenamic acid and tolfenamic acid, were examined by whole-cell patch clamp techniques on the sodium channels hNav1.7 and hNav1.8, which are closely associated with pain. The results showed that the mefenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid inhibited the peak currents of hNav1.7 and hNav1.8 in CHO cells stably expressing hNav1.7 and hNav1.8. However, much lighter inhibition effects of hNav1.8 were registered in the experimental system. Furthermore, the mefenamic acid, flufenamic acid and tolfenamic acid significantly affected the inactivation processes of hNav...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Turning down the heat: down-regulation of sarcolipin in a hibernating mammal
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): S. Ryan Oliver, Kyle J. Anderson, Moriah M. Hunstiger, Matthew T. AndrewsAbstractHibernation in mammals is a whole-body phenotype that involves profound reductions in oxygen consumption, metabolic reactions, core body temperature, neural activity and heart rate. An important aspect of mammalian hibernation is the ability to reverse this state of hypothermic torpor by rewarming and subsequent arousal. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle shivering have been characterized as the predominant driving forces for thermogenesis duri...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Local application of MDL28170-loaded PCL film improves functional recovery by preserving survival of motor neurons after traumatic spinal cord injury
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Dongling Shi, Teng He, Weijian Tang, Heyangzi Li, Chao Wang, Mingzhi Zheng, Jue Hu, Xinghui Song, Yuemin Ding, Ying-ying Chen, Yueliang Shen, Hongfeng Jin, Lin-lin WangABSTRACTNeuronal death and organization degeneration can happen inordinately after spinal cord injury (SCI), which lead to nerve dysfunction. We aimed to determine whether local application of a cell permeable calpain I inhibitor (MDL28170) can promote SCI recovery by increasing neuronal cell viability. MDL28170-loaded polycaprolactone (PCL) film was fabricated. Scanning...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effect of Pyrroloquinoline quinone and Resveratrol on the Survival and Regeneration of Cerebellar Granular Neurons
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Nagwan Shanan, Alireza GhasemiGharagoz, Reham Abdel-Kader, Hans-Georg BreitingerAbstractThe inability of central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be attributed to apoptotic cell death, inhibitory extrinsic environment and the limited ability of neurons to regenerate. Thus, fostering the intrinsic regenerative potential and minimizing neuronal cell death could be a promising therapeutic approach.Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was previously reported for its neuroprotective and regenerative po...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Review of Diffusion MRI Studies in Chronic White Matter Diseases
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Rajikha Raja, Gary Rosenberg, Arvind CaprihanAbstractDiffusion MRI studies characterizing the changes in white matter (WM) due to vascular cognitive impairment, which includes all forms of small vessel disease are reviewed. We reviewed the usefulness of diffusion methods in discriminating the affected WM regions and its relation to cognitive impairment. These studies were categorized based on the diffusion MRI techniques used. The most common method was the diffusion tensor imaging, whereas other methods included diffusion weighted ima...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Novel Supportive Assessment for Comprehensive Aggression using EEG and ECG
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Seung Yeong Im, Jinju Jeong, Gwonhyu Jin, Jiwoo Yeom, Janghwan Jekal, Sang-im Lee, Jung Ah Cho, Sukkyoo Lee, Youngmi Lee, Dae-Hwan Kim, Mijeong Bae, Jinhwa Heo, Cheil Moon, Chang-Hun LeeAbstractAggression is a complex, ubiquitous phenomenon that impacts behavioral traits and psychological health. Assessing aggression is challenging because aggression constitutes multiple subtraits, such as anger, reactive aggression, and overt aggression. Conventional methods of assessing aggression are susceptible to bias because they mainly rely upon...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Low-intensity electrical stimulation and adipose derived stem cells transplantation on the time-domain analysis-based electromyographic signals in dogs with SCI
ConclusionSome dogs recovered motor activity, expressed by the EMGRMS, in all groups, in pre vs. post (30 or 60 days) comparisons. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Muscular effort increases hand-blink reflex magnitude
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): RJ Bufacchi, S Ponticelli, G Novembre, M Kilintari, Y Guo, GD IannettiAbstractDefensive motor responses elicited by sudden environmental stimuli are finely modulated by their behavioural relevance to maximise the organism’s survival. One such response, the blink reflex evoked by intense stimulation of the median nerve (Hand-Blink Reflex; HBR), has been extensively used to derive fine-grained maps of defensive peripersonal space. However, as other subcortical reflexes, the HBR is also modulated by lower-level factors that do not b...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The involvement of iron responsive element (-) divalent metal transporter 1-mediated the spinal iron overload via CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway in neuropathic pain in rats
ConclusionOur findings demonstrated the contribution of spinal abnormal iron accumulation in regulating CXCL10 pathway in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prediction of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis and progression of autoimmune encephalitis
In this study, we measured the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a novel potential biomarker of inflammatory status in other inflammatory diseases, in AIE patients and evaluated NLR as a biomarker for monitoring AIE progression.MethodsThe study participants consisted of 34 newly diagnosed AIE patients and 35 ages and sex-matched healthy controls. Demographic and clinical assessment data were reviewed and abstracted retrospectively. NLR levels were calculated from the peripheral blood tests. The relationship between mRS (the modified Ranking Scale) score and NLR levels, total white blood cells, absolute neutrophil count...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bipolar Disorder and 1513A>C P2RX7 polymorphism frequency
In conclusion, our results suggest that P2 × 7R might play a role in the pathophysiology of BD and add new information regarding this receptor as a potential biomarker for the prediction and diagnosis of the disorder. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and noxious sensory detection in sickle cell disease
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Katelyn E. Sadler, Cheryl L. StuckyAbstractPain is the leading cause for hospitalization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). While the characteristics of SCD pain can vary widely between patients and between phases of the disease (e.g. vasoocclusive crisis pain vs. chronic pain), similar neuronal mechanisms likely underlie the various aspects of nociceptive processing. In the peripheral nervous system, small unmyelinated C fibers and lightly-myelinated Aδ fibers detect and transmit noxious stimuli. Both classes of neuron...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - December 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Orofacial operant behaviors and electrophysiological properties of trigeminal ganglion neurons following masseter muscle inflammation in rats
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Viacheslav Viatchenko-Karpinski, Ferhat Erol, Jennifer Ling, William Reed, Jianguo G. GuAbstractOrofacial muscle pain is a significant clinical problem because it affects eating, speaking, and other orofacial functions in patients. However, mechanisms underlying orofacial muscle pain are not fully understood. In the present study we induced orofacial muscle pain by injecting Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into masseter muscle of rats and assessed pain by the orofacial operant test. In comparison with the control group, CFA-inj...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Definitions of nociception, pain, and chronic pain with implications regarding science and society
This article goes over the standard definitions and their nuanced modifications recently proposed. Then, evidence and interpretation pitfalls are expounded, concluding with a plea to keep terminology precise, at least in scientific reporting. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The multiple challenges of neuropathic pain
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Didier Bouhassira, Nadine AttalAbstractOver the last three decades, the number of research studies devoted to neuropathic pain has increased dramatically. This expansion of knowledge has generated a number of challenges, mostly relating to revisions of the definition of neuropathic pain, its diagnosis, the development of new analgesics based on mechanisms investigated in animals, and the development of optimal therapeutic approaches in clinical trials. This review focuses on these multiple challenges and proposes some topics for refle...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain systems at the intersection of chronic pain and self-regulation
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Marianne C. Reddan, Tor D. WagerAbstractChronic pain is a multidimensional experience with cognitive, affective, and somatosensory components that can be modified by expectations and learning. Individual differences in cognitive and affective processing, as well as contextual aspects of the pain experience, render chronic pain an inherently personal experience. Such individual differences are supported by the heterogeneity of brain representations within and across chronic pain pathologies. In this review, we discuss the complexity of...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of musical experience on neural sound encoding performance
In this study, 64-channel single trial auditory brain oscillations (STABO) have been firstly analyzed by using complexity metrics to observe the effect of musical experience on brain functions. Experimental data was recorded from eyes-opened volunteers during listening the musical chords by piano. Complexity estimation methods were compared to each other for classification of groups (professional musicians and non-musicians) by using both classifiers (Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB)) and statistical tests (one-way ANOVA) with respect to electrode locations. Permutation Entropy (PermEn) is found to be the best metric (p
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pre- and postoperative predictors of phantom limb pain
We report that acute and chronic pain long before but not on the day before the amputation and subacute pain postamputation significantly predicted up to half of the variance in the incidence and severity of PLP, RLP and PLS 12 months postamputation. Moreover, the severity of these painful sensations at 12 months postamputation was partially predicted by preamputation scores of depression and anxiety. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that chronic pain and non-painful sensations following limb amputation are strongly related to longstanding preoperative chronic pain and to subacute postoperative pain as well as to ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

What does a pain ‘biomarker’ mean and can a machine be taught to measure pain?
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Joshua Levitt, Carl Y. SaabAbstractArtificial intelligence allows machines to predict human faculties such as image and voice recognition. Can machines be taught to measure pain? We argue that the two fundamental requirements for a device with ‘pain biomarker’ capabilities are hardware and software. We discuss the merits and limitations of electroencephalography (EEG) as the hardware component of a putative embodiment of the device, and advances in the application of machine learning approaches to EEG for predicting pain. ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Targeting inflammatory components in neuropathic pain: The analgesic effect of thymulin related peptide
This report focuses on how targeting inflammatory mediators may result in novel therapeutic approaches to neuropathic pain management. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Peripheral and central viewpoints of chronic pain, and translational implications
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): A. Vania Apkarian, Diane ReckziegelAbstractThis overview covers advances in mechanisms of chronic pain and their consequent clinical opportunities. Our research field is fractured into two separate camps: “peripheralists” and “centralists”. While the strong position of the first group is the contention that mechanisms of chronic pain can be understood within the limits of afferent inputs and spinal cord circuitry, the second group insists that the rest of the brain plays a critical role. Here we attempt to conj...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cortico-limbic pain mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Jeremy M. Thompson, Volker NeugebauerAbstractPain has a strong emotional component and is defined by its unpleasantness. Chronic pain represents a complex disorder with anxio-depressive symptoms and cognitive deficits. Underlying mechanisms are still not well understood but an important role for interactions between prefrontal cortical areas and subcortical limbic structures has emerged. Evidence from preclinical studies in the rodent brain suggests that neuroplastic changes in prefrontal (anterior cingulate, prelimbic and infralimbic...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reduced ΔFosB expression in the rat nucleus accumbens has causal role in the neuropathic pain phenotype
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Sarah L. Pollema-Mays, Maria Virginia Centeno, Zheng Chang, A Vania Apakarian, Marco MartinaAbstractThe neuropathic pain phenotype is the consequence of functional and morphological reorganization of the PNS and CNS. This reorganization includes DRGs and the spinal cord, and extends to multiple supraspinal areas including the limbic and reward systems. Several recent papers show that acute manipulation of cortical and subcortical brain areas causally correlates with the cognitive, emotional and sensory components of neuropathic pain, ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The posterior insular-opercular cortex: an access to the brain networks of thermosensory and nociceptive processes?
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): R. Peyron, C. FauchonAbstractIn spite of systematic investigations, the existence of a specific cortex that could encode for the intensities of somatosensory stimuli, including within nociceptive ranges, is still a matter of debate. The present consensus is that pain is expressed in a distributed network made of thalamus, SII, insula, ACC, and, less consistently, SI. Here we argument that there must be an entrance to this network. The common denominator to every functional imaging study is that the subjects can distinguish between nox...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Animal models of congenital hypoalgesia: untapped potential for assessing pain-related plasticity
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Clara Monteiro, Helder Cardoso-Cruz, Vasco GalhardoAbstractOver the last 20 years a large number of transgenic mouse models have been produced showing different degrees of congenital hypoalgesia; some of these models mimic known human conditions while others seemingly have no human counterpart. However, very little significant contributions to our understanding of pain neurobiology were obtained from this multitude of animal models; in most cases the study of these animals was limited to the characterization of its pain perception wit...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long-term cortical synaptic changes contribute to chronic pain and emotional disorders
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Min ZhuoAbstractIncreasing evidence consistently indicates that cortical mechanisms play important roles in chronic pain and its emotional disorders. Central synapses, especially excitatory synapses, are undergoing long-term memory-like plastic changes after peripheral injury. These changes not only occur at the single synaptic level, but also take place at cortical and subcortical circuits. Consequently, neuronal responses to peripheral sensory stimuli, or even to sensory inputs triggered by normal physiological signals such as touch...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dopaminergic modulation of pain signals in the medial prefrontal cortex: challenges and perspectives
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Shuo Huang, Stephanie L. Borgland, Gerald W. ZamponiAbstractChronic pain is a massive socieoeconomic burden and is often refractory to treatment. To devise novel therapeutic interventions, it is important to understand in detail the processing of pain signals in the brain. Recent studies have revealed shared features between the brain’s reward and pain systems. Dopamine (DA) is a key neuromodulator in the mesocorticolimbic system that has been implicated not only in motivated behaviours, reinforcement learning and reward process...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prolactin prevents the kainic acid-induced neuronal loss in the rat hippocampus by inducing prolactin receptor and putatively increasing the VGLUT1 overexpression
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): A. Ortiz-Pérez, O. Limón-Morales, J.C. Rojas-Castañeda, M. Cerbón, O. PicazoAbstractNeuroprotective effects of short prolactin (PRL) pre-treatment against kainic acid (KA)-induced damage include neuron loss avoidance in all hippocampal regions and attenuation of seizures. Recent evidence points PRL receptor (PRL-R) as mediator of such neuroprotective effects and seizures as regulators of neuronal marker transcript expression in the hippocampus. Here, we investigated if a daily PRL dose of 100 μg or vehic...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Emotions can alter kinesthetic acuity
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Léonard Samain-Aupic, Rochelle Ackerley, Jean-Marc Aimonetti, Edith Ribot-CiscarAbstractKinesthesia, the perception of our own body movements, relies on the integration of proprioceptive information arising mostly from muscle spindles, which are sensory receptors in skeletal muscles. We recently showed that emotions alter the proprioceptive messages from such muscle afferents, making them more sensitive to muscle lengthening when participants were listening sad music. Presently, we investigated whether these changes in proprioc...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparison of ex vivo and in vitro Actions of Gabapentin in Superficial Dorsal Horn and the Role of Extra-spinal Sites of Drug Action
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Sascha R.A. Alles, Peter A. SmithAbstractAlthough gabapentin (GBP) is a first-line treatment in the management of neuropathic pain, its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We have previously shown, in rats made neuropathic following sciatic chronic constriction injury, that IP injection of 100 mg/kg GBP decreases overall excitability of spinal cord slices obtained ex vivo. Excitability was assessed using confocal imaging to monitor the amplitude of K+- induced increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+. This decrease in excitabi...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Apelin-13 ameliorates chronic water-immersion restraint stress-induced memory performance deficit through upregulation of BDNF in rats
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Pei Shen, Qiang Yue, Wan Fu, Shao-Wen Tian, Yong YouAbstractA large number of studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus has important influences on stress response and memory. The abundant expressions of apelin and its receptor APJ in the hippocampus may imply potential involvement of apelin/APJ signaling in modulating stress-related memory performance deficit. In our previous study, apelin-13 ameliorates memory performance deficit in acute stressed rats. Here, we further examined whether apelin-13 can ameliorate memory performan...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Active listening to tinnitus and its relation to resting state EEG activity
In conclusion, the absence of EEG power changes between conditions may be in support of a chronic and invariant state of altered MEEG signatures in tinnitus. Further studies are needed to better elucidate MEEG resting state paradigms in tinnitus. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Environmental enrichment improves long-term memory impairment and aberrant synaptic plasticity by BDNF / TrkB signaling in nerve-injured mice
In conclusion, EE improved the pain threshold reduction, long-term memory and synaptic plasticity deficits in nerve-injured mice; BDNF / Trk B signaling may contribute to the relief of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity deficits induced by EE in nerve-injured mice. (Source: Neuroscience Letters)
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A novel virtual plus-maze for studying electrophysiological correlates of spatial reorientation
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Agoston Torok, Andrea Kóbor, Ferenc Honbolygó, Travis BakerAbstractQuick reorientation is an essential part of successful navigation. Despite growing attention to this ability, little is known about how reorientation happens in humans. To this aim, we recorded EEG from 34 participants. Participants were navigating a simple virtual reality plus-maze where at the beginning of each trial they were randomly teleported to either the North or the South alley. Results show that the teleportation event caused a quick reorientati...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glutamate receptors and white matter stroke
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Robert Fern, Carlos MatuteAbstractWhite matter (WM) damage during ischemia occurs at multiple sites including myelin, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and axons. A major driver of WM demise is excitoxicity as a consequence of excessive glutamate release by vesicular and non-vesicular mechanisms from axons and glial cells. This results in over-activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors profusely expressed by all cell compartments in WM. Thus, blocking excitotoxicity in WM with selective antagonists of those receptors has a potential ther...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synaptic ATPases system of rat frontal cerebral cortex during aging
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Federica Ferrari, Paola Viscardi, Antonella Gorini, Roberto Federico VillaAbstractEnergy metabolism is fundamental to maintain Central Nervous System homeostasis because of high requirement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), that is necessary to sustain neuronal events. During aging, changes in brain bioenergetics may influence the recovery of cerebral tissue in coping with pathophysiological conditions and pharmacological treatments. For this reason, we have previously studied enzyme catalytic activities related to energy-yielding syst...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activation of peripheral group III metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits pain transmission by decreasing neuronal excitability in the CFA-inflamed knee joint
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Eui Ho Park, Seung Won Lee, Sun Wook Moon, Hye Rim Suh, Yang In Kim, Hee Chul HanAbstractPeripheral group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) function to modulate pain signaling in inflammatory states. Here, we established in vivo experimental settings, including dynamic weight bearing test and in vivo single nerve recording, to elucidate how the group III mGluRs contribute to inhibiting pain transmission at the peripheral sensory nerve terminal in inflammatory states (1 and 3 days) elicited by Complete Freund’s Adjuva...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dose-dependent neurorestorative effects of amantadine after cortical impact injury
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Adaora A. Okigbo, Michael S. Helkowski, Brittany J. Royes, Isabel H. Bleimeister, Tracey R. Lam, Gina C. Bao, Jeffrey P. Cheng, Corina O. Bondi, Anthony E. KlineAbstractNumerous pharmacotherapies have been evaluated after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). While amantadine (AMT) has shown potential for clinical efficacy, the few studies on its effectiveness have been mixed. It is possible that suboptimal dosing, due to the evaluation of only one dose, may be causing the discrepancies in outcomes. Hence, the goal of the current...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - November 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research