Treatment of urinary tract infections in the era of antimicrobial resistance and new antimicrobial agents.

Treatment of urinary tract infections in the era of antimicrobial resistance and new antimicrobial agents. Postgrad Med. 2019 Oct 14;: Authors: Bader MS, Loeb M, Leto D, Brooks AA Abstract Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic- resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited treatment options. Knowledge of the common uropathogens in addition to local susceptibility patterns is essential in determining appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy of UTIs. The recommended first-line empiric antibiotic therapy for acute uncomplicated bacterial cystitis in otherwise healthy adult nonpregnant females is a 5-day course of nitrofurantion, a 3-g single dose of fosfomycin tromethamine, or a 5-day course of pevmecillinam. High rates of resistance for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin preclude their use as empiric treatment of UTIs in several communities, particularly if patients who were recently exposed to them or in patients who are at risk of infections with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)- producing Enterobacteriales. Second line options include oral cephalosporines such as cephalexin or cefixime, fluoroquinolones and β-lactams, such as amoxicillin-clavulanate. Current treatment options for UTIs due to AmpC- β -lactamase-producing Enterobacteriales include nitrofurantion, fosfomycin, pevmecillinam, fluoroquinolones, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems. Treatment oral options for UT...
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research

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Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods, Volume 167Author(s): Shuai Zhi, Jonas Szelewicki, Kim Ziebell, Brendon Parsons, Linda Chui
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract The study investigated the efficacy of two GRAS-status phytochemicals, mega-resveratrol (RV) and naringenin (NG) to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) in apple cider. A five-strain mixture of EHEC (∼7 log CFU/ml) was inoculated into cider, followed by the addition of RV (8.7 mM and 13.0 mM) or NG (7.3 mM and 11.0 mM). The cider samples were stored at 4 °C for 14 days and EHEC was enumerated on days 0,1,5,7 and 14. The deleterious effects of RV and NG on EHEC cells were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and RT-qPCR was done to determine the effect of phytochemicals...
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
This study investigated the effect of drying on membrane lipid oxidation and stx expression in E. coli. Lipid peroxidation was probed with C11-BODIPY581/591; and stx expression was assayed by quantification of GFP in E. coli O104:H4 Δstx2a:gfp:ampr. Treatment of E. coli with H2O2 oxidized the probe; probe oxidation was also observed after drying and rehydration. Lipid oxidation and the lethality of drying were reduced when cells were dried with trehalose under anaerobic condition; in addition, viability and probe oxidation differed between E. coli AW1.7 and E. coli AW1.7Δcfa. Desiccation tolerance thus relates ...
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica are foodborne pathogens with major public health concern in the U.S. These pathogens utilize several virulence factors to initiate infections in humans. The antimicrobial effect of seven glucosinolate hydrolysis compounds against Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 was investigated by the disc diffusion assay. Among the tested compounds, benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT), which exerted the highest antimicrobial activity, was evaluated for its anti-virulence properties against these pathogens. The effect of BIT on motility of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 and Shiga to...
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
Plant variety and soil type influence Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain C227/11ϕcu adherence to and internalization into the roots of lettuce plants. Food Microbiol. 2020 Apr;86:103316 Authors: Eissenberger K, Drissner D, Walsh F, Weiss A, Schmidt H Abstract Human disease outbreaks caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli are increasingly associated with the consumption of contaminated fresh produce. Internalization of enteroaggregative/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EAEC/EHEC) strains into plant tissues may present a serious threat to public health. In the current study, the ability of the fluorescing Shiga ...
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
, Magnani M Abstract The effects of the incorporation of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO; 0.07 μL/g) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO; 2.65 μL/g) in combination in Minas Frescal cheese on the counts of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were evaluated during refrigerated storage (7 ± 0.5 °C). The terpenes of OVEO and ROEO, survival of the probiotic strain during in vitro digestion, as well as the physicochemical and sensory aspects were also monitored in Minas Frescal cheese. All terpenes decreased in cheese when the storage tim...
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
In this study, 10 chicken carcasses were randomly sampled from before and after scalding, before and after immersion chilling, and after air chilling each through a modern commercial processing line, along with the contents of 10 caeca. The sampled processing line effectively reduced the bacterial counts by > 4.6 Log10 CFU/ml for each of Total Viable Counts, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter. However, the metagenomics results suggested that Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus and unclassified Lachnospiraceae persisted at all sampling stages. Pseudomonas, Paeniglutamicibacter, Chryseobacterium and Pseudarthrobacter comp...
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
We examined 252 rectal swabs obtained from 134 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 97 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 21 fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-eastern Poland. The samples were enriched in modified buffered peptone water. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were conducted to determine the virulence profile of stx1, stx2 and eae or aggR genes, to identify the subtypes of stx1 and stx2 genes, and to perform O and H serotyping. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were detected in the rectal swabs collected from 1/134 roe deer (0.75%) and 4/97 red deer (4.1%), and they were not detected in fallow deer (Dama dama). The remaining E....
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Food Microbiol Source Type: research
In this study, we demonstrate that in macrophages exposed to Escherichia coli, the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)-associated inflammasome plays a role in pH modulation through the activated caspase-1-mediated inhibition of NADPH oxidase. While there was no difference in early-phase bacterial engulfment between Txnip knockout (KO) macrophages and wild-type (WT) macrophages, Txnip KO macrophages were less efficient at destroying intracellular bacteria in the late phase, and their phagosomes failed to undergo appropriate acidification. These phenomena were associated with reactive oxygen species production and were r...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Opsonins are soluble, extracellular proteins, released by activated immune cells, and when bound to a target cell, can induce phagocytes to phagocytose the target cell. There are three known classes of opsonin: antibodies, complement factors and secreted pattern recognition receptors, but these have limited access to the brain. We identify here two novel opsonins of bacteria, calreticulin, and galectin-3 (both lectins that can bind lipopolysaccharide), which were released by microglia (brain-resident macrophages) when activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Calreticulin and galectin-3 both bound to Escherichia coli, and...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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